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Full text of "Biographical annals of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; containing biographical and genealogical sketches of prominent and representative citizens and many of the early settlers"

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Cornell  University  Library 
F  157L2  B61 

Bioaraphical  annals  of., .Lgnfi^.fA^r.ifijPttf'*''' 


3  1924  028  852  998 


The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 







Biographical  and  Genealogical  Sketches  of  Prominent 

AND  Representative  Citizens  and  Many 

OF  THE  Early  Settlers 



J.  H.  beers   &  CO. 


|\-  tii;i^7 


HE  importance  of  placing  in  book  form  biographical  history  of  represen- 
tative citizens — both  for  its  immediate  worth  and  for  its  value  to  coming 
generations — is  admitted  by  all  thinking  people;  and  within  the  past  decade 
there  has  been  a  growing  interest  in  this  commendable  means  of  perpetuating 
biography  and  family  genealogy. 

That  the  public  is  entitled  to  the  privileges  afforded  by  a  work  of  this 
nature  needs  no  assertion  at  our  hands;  for  one  of  our  greatest  Americans  has 
said  that  the  history  of  any  country  resolves  itself  into  the  biographies  of  its  stout,  earnest  and 
representative  citizens.  This  medium,  then,  serves  more  than  a  single  purpose;  while  it  perpetu- 
ates biography  and  family  genealogy,  it  records  history,  much  of  which  would  be  preserved  in  no 
other  way. 

The  Biographical  Annals  of  Lancaster  county  had  its  inception  in  the  mind  of  John  F. 
Meginness,  a  citizen  of  that  county,  now  deceased,  widely  known  throughout  the  State  as  an  his- 
torical writer,  who,  as  manager  for  the  firm  of  John  F.  Meginness  &  Co.,  commenced  the  work 
now  completed. 

In  presenting  this  work  to  its  patrons,  the  publishers  have  to  acknowledge,  with  gratitude, 
the  encouragement  and  support  their  enterprise  has  received,  and  the  willing  assistance  rendered 
in  enabling  them  to  surmount  the  many  unforeseen  obstacles  to  be  met  with  in  the  production  of  a 
work  of  this  character.  In  nearly  every  instance  the  material  composing  the  sketches  was  gathered 
from  those  immediately  interested,  and  then  submitted  in  type-written  form  for  correction  and  re- 
vision. The  volume,  which  is  one  of  generous  amplitude,  is  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  public  with 
the  belief  that  it  will  be  found  a  valuable  addition  to  the  library,  as  well  as  an  invaluable  contribu- 
tion to  the  historical  literature  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania. 




Acheson   Family 7S3 

Acheson,  T.  B 753 

Adams,  Frederick   1315 

Agnew,  David  H 5 

Agnew  Family   5 

Aherne,  William    974 

Aikin,  Joseph   1036 

Albright,  Frederick  A 191 

Albright,  Mrs.  Sarah 191 

Albright,  Walter  F 1375 

Alexander,  Guy  L.,  M.  D 876 

Alexander,  John  A 1 165 

Alexander,  Samuel   574 

Ambler,  Joseph  P 505 

Ambler,  L.   R 1203 

Ament,  Eli  1420 

Ament  Family 1420 

Ament,  Henry  H 817 

Ammon,  Alonzo  D 1170 

Ammon,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 461 

Ammon,  John  1047 

Ammon,  Peter  G 444 

Ammon,  Samuel  461 

Anderson,  John  W 1379 

Ankrimi  Family 983 

Ankrim,  J.   Martin 983 

Appel,  Rev.  Dr.  Theodore 22 

Appel,  Theodore  B.,  M.  D 23 

Appleton,  John   B 1177 

Appleton,  Mrs.  Miary  S 11 77 

Armor,  Smith,  M.  D 71 

Armstrong,  John  W 855 

Armstrong,  Williami  C 647 

Arndt,  Henry   1340 

Arnold  Family   622 

Arnold,  Gideon  W 628 

Arnold,  Mrs.  Gideon  W 629 

Arnold,  I.  Clinton 622 

Arnold,  Ira  W 629 

Arnold,  Walter  J 629 

Atlee,  John  L.,  M.  D 166 

Atlee,   William  A i  i 

Aument,  Aldus  301 

Aument,  George  274 

Aument,  H.  H 274 

Aument,  Jacob   , 301 

Auverter,  Isaac  L 1308 

Bachman,  Abraham 531 

Bachman,-  Christian  332 

Bachman,  Ellis   333 

Bachman  Families  ....332,  743,  1471 

Bachman,  Miss  Harriet 456 

Bachman,  Jay   743 

Bachman,  John  B 1471 


Bachman,  John  M 791 

Bachman,  John  W S3i 

Bachman,   Lewis    945 

Bachman,  Morris  333 

Bachman,  Miss  Reibecca 456 

Bachman,  Samuel   456 

Baer,  Chrisitian  R iS3 

Baer,  John  152 

Baer,  Mlartin  H 1031 

Baer,  Mrs.  Mary  L 153 

Baer,  Reuben  A 152 

Baer,  Squire  S.  C 1096 

Bahn,  Adam 1269 

Bailey,  John  H 1095 

Baily,  EHsha  W.,  M.  D 7S 

Bair  Family 1017,  1091 

Bair,  George  W 534 

Bair,  Henry  R 1091 

Bair,  Howard  M 1166 

Bair,  Jacob  A 1183 

Bair,  John  B 1017 

Bair,  John  J 805 

Baker,  Amos  220 

Baker,  Andrew  0 78 

Baker  Families  496,  681 

Baker,  George  F 681 

Baker,  Jos:eph  W 1196 

Baker,  Miss  Louise 681 

Baker,  Thomas  496 

Balmier  Family  1418 

Balmer,  Israel  P I4S4 

Balmer,  John  F 1418 

Balmer,  Oliver  C 833 

Balthaser,  John  F 903 

Banzhof,  John 849 

Bard  Families 344.  961 

Bard,   George    1420 

Bard,  Samuel,  Jr.., 961 

Bard,  U.   G 344 

Bard,  Wayne  1043 

Bare,  Adam  310 

Bare,   Milton   L isoi 

Bare,  Samuel  G 414 

Bare,  Wayne  309 

Barefoot,  William  M 1254 

Barnett,   Benjamin  F 934 

Barnett,  Joseph  536 

Barnholt.   William   S 846 

Barr,  Benjamin  749 

Barr,  Beniamin  M 716 

Barr,  B.  Frank i337 

Barr  Family 7i6 

Barr,  Martin   I57 

Barr,  Susanna  M 716 

Bartch,  Amos   1249 


Bartch,  Mrs.  Mary  E 1250 

Bartholomew,  David  H 913 

Barton,  Benjamin  S 135 

Barton   Family   968 

Barton,  Henry 840 

Barton,  Miss  Lizzie  1 840 

Barton,  Matthias   187 

Barton,  Ralph  A 1243 

Barton,  William  H 968 

Bassler,  Christian  G 571 

Bates,  W.  Edgar,  M.  D 1340 

Batten,  Hiram  L 537 

Bauer,  Eugene ^S 

Bauer,  Mrs.  Judith 688 

Baughman  Family 662 

Baughman,  Hervey  662 

Baumgardner  Family  386 

Baumgardner,  Henry  K 386 

Baumgardner,  John  H 168 

Baumgardner,  Mrs.  Mary  S. . . .     923 

Bausman  Family 56 

Bausman,  Jacob  S6 

Bausman,  John  W.  B 58 

Beamesderfer,  John 1302 

Bear,  Albert  R 1002 

Bear,  Elias  463  ■ 

Bear,  William  G 1368 

Beard,   Samuel  J 483 

Beates  Family  752 

Beates,  Frederick  A 662 

Beates,  Harry  S 7S2 

Beck,  Peter  R 1376 

Becker  Family   1000 

Becker,  John  F 660 

Becker,  Levi   855 

Becker,  Michael  1000 

Beckler,  Henry  B 1511 

Beiler,  Joseph  H 551 

Bell,  Henry  D 1282 

Bell,  William  J 826 

Bender  Families   557,  1035 

Bender,  Franklin   1413 

Bender,  John    (Manheim) 1035 

Bender,  John  (Upper  Leacock)     975 

Bender,  John  W 975 

Bender,  Kinzer,  Jr 965 

Bender,  William  K 557 

Bender,  W.  K •.   1349 

Benkert,  George  623 

Bennett  Family  1239 

Bennett,  Harry  A logS 

Bennett,  John  T 1283 

Bennett,  Joseph  M 1239 

Bergman,  Andrew  316 

Besore,  David  F 430 




Besore,  Henry  J 1155 

Best,  James  B 422 

Best,  John 420 

Betz,   Mrs.   Catherine 87 

Betz,  Jacob,  Jr pog 

Betz,  Jacob,  Sr 87,  909 

Betz,  Philip  88 

Beyer  Family   776 

Beyer,  Josiah  776 

Bicknell,  Walter  F 490 

Bingeman,  S.  H 1000 

Binkley,  Abraham  E 1108 

Binkley,  David  E 1077 

Binkley  Families  911,  1324 

Binkley,  Henry 1290 

Binkley,  Henry  F 911 

Binkley,  Capt.  John  L 1323 

Binnesderfer,    S.   L 1372 

Bireley  Family   831 

Bireley,  George  W 831 

Bitner,  Abraham   585 

Bitner,  Mrs.  Amelia  0 1031 

Bitner,  David  P 1031 

Bitner,  John  R 584 

Bitzer,  Martin  R 403 

Bitzer,  R.  R i486 

Black,  Hon.  James 1323 

Black,  J.  Joseph 1297 

Blank,  David   S 893 

Blank  Family 894 

Blank,  John  S 877 

Bleacher,  Benjamin  F 1044 

Bleacher,  Mrs.  Ellen  E 1044 

Bletz,  John  H 764 

Bletz,  Mrs.  Naomi 764 

Blickenderfer,  Henry   720 

Blickenderfer,  Richard 720 

Blough,  Hon.  Henry  K.,  M.  D.     736 

Boardman,  Arthur I3S0 

Bolster,  George 1238 

Bolton  Family 976 

Bolton,  Wiilmer  '  P 976 

_  Bomberger  Family 105 1 

'Bomberger,  Henry 1 193 

Bomberger,  Henry  H 1051 

Bomberger,  Jacob  H 488 

Bomberger,  Philip  L 1 194 

Book.  Daniel  1483 

Book,  Flam  G 984 

Book  Family  1483 

Book.  John  G 414 

Bookman,  Harry  R 993 

Bookman,  William  H 993 

Books,  Franklin   1035 

Bowers,  Michael  F 905 

Bowman,  Amos  829 

Bowman  Family 317 

Bowman,  Franklin  317 

Bowman,  Isaac  M' 1443 

Bowman,  John  M ' 7S3 

Bowman,    Right    Rev.    Samuel, 

D.  D 24 

Boyd,  Hon.  C.  G 143 

Boyd,  Henry  C 231 

Boyd,  Samuel  H 830 

Boyd,  Samuel  H.  (1862) 1300 

Brackbill,  Mrs.  Anna '.     874 

Brackbill,  Benjamin  0 874 

Brackbill,  Christian  E loog 

Brackbill,  Rev.  Christian  M. .. .     276 

Brackbill,  Elias  E 366 

Brackbill  Families  . .'. 276,  365 

Brackbill,  Henry  P 365 


Brackbill,  Levi  H 1445 

Bradley,  John  S ' 1046 

Brandt,  David  414 

Brandt,  David  H 64a 

Brandt  Family 1068 

Brandt,   Frederick   H....^ 1311 

Brandt,   Harriet 414 

Brandt,  John   1261 

Brandt,  Mrs.   Margaret 1261 

Brandt,  Mrs.  Maria  E 1069 

Brandt,  Mrs.  Mary  P 640 

Brandt,  Samuel  L 1068 

Brecht,  Michael   1334 

Breed,   Rev.   Walter  R.,   B.   S., 

B.  D 1217 

Breinig,   Jacob    1237 

Breneraan,  Mrs.  Anna  M.  (West 

Hempfield)  678 

Breneman,  Anna  M.  (Lan- 
caster)           68 

Breneman,  Major  B.  Frank 388 

Breneman,  Benjamin  K 1473 

Breneman,  Elmer  M 910 

Breneman  Families 388,  1473 

Breneman,  George  L 1371 

Breneman,  Dr.  Henry  F 1014 

Breneman,  Henry  M.  1 678 

Breneman,  Capt.  Henry  N 68 

Breneman,  Henry  P 639 

Breneman,  Henry  R 1397 

Breneman,  Jacob  K 1474 

Breneman,  John  L.  (Mt.  Joy) . .   1409 

Breneman,  Joseph  K 723 

Brenholtz  Family 907 

Brenholtz,  Walter  S.,  M.  D 907 

Brenneman,  Franklin   315 

Brenneman,  John  L 1389 

Bressler,  George  B 830 

Brimmer,  John  A 1080 

Brinton,  Charles  C 637 

Brinton  Families  719,  1173 

Brinton,  James   1272 

Brinton,  Joshua   622 

Brinton,  Lewis 313 

Brinton,  Mrs.  Lydia  T 1272 

Brinton,  Mrs.  Mary  B 313 

Brinton,  Mrs.  Susan  M 1391 

Brinton,   Mrs.    Susanna 719 

Brinton,  William    7jg 

Brinton,  William  P 1391 

Brinton.    William    P.    (Christi- 
ana)   .  .. 1172 

Brinton,  William  R.,  Esq 1391 

Brison,  Jacob  L 875 

Brobst,  James  C,  M.  D 158 

Broome.  John  C 773 

Brosius,  Jesse   357 

Brosius,  Hon.  Miarriott,  LL.  D.       16 

Brosius,  Hon.  William  H 145 

Brown,   Alvin    539 

Brown,  Alfred  M 207 

Broiwn,  Arthur  320 

Brown,   Benjamin  W 321 

Brown.  Mrs.  Clara  H 773 

Brown,  Davis  A 501 

Brown,  Edwin  H 772 

Brown,  Elmer  E 321 

Brown  Families 68,  320,  1478 

Brown,  Frank  1478 

Brown,  George  320 

Brown,  George  H 321 

Brown,  George  H.  (Little  Brit- 
ain)          980 

Brown,  George  W 1294 

Brown,  Hiram  F 320 

Brown,  Jacob  J 1142 

Brown,  Jacob  K 71 

Brown,  John  H 1142 

Brown,  Josiah  284 

Brown,  Levi  K 70 

Brown,  Mrs.  Margaret  C 1142 

Brown,  Mrs.  Mary  A : 284 

Brown,   Slater  F 504 

Brown,  Thomas  J 320 

Brown,  Walter  G 321 

Brubaker  Families. ..  .352,  1064,  1133 

Brubaker,  Frank  S 1064 

Brubaker)  Henry  S 475 

Brubaker,  Jacob  B 737 

Brubaker,  Bishop  Jacob  N 354 

Brubaker,  J.   Frank 1049 

Brubaker,  John  D 85 

Brubaker,  Joseph  E 434 

Brubaker,  Joseph   S 1178 

Brubaker,  Mrs.  Marianna 659 

Brubaker,  Martin  K 1114 

Brubaker,  Martin  N 1427 

Brubaker,  Nathaniel  K 1133 

Brubaker,  Oliver  B 1458 

Brubaker,   Philip    351 

Brubaker,  Roland  S 559 

Brubaker,  Rolandus 11 12 

Brubaker,  Samuel   1431 

Brubaker,  William  B 737 

Bruce,  Amos  F 1021 

Bruner,  Alfred  C 1188 

Bruner  Family   1188 

Bruner,  Jacob  M 1371 

Bruner,   Owen  F 1370 

Bryson,  L.  M.,  M.  D 238 

Bryson,   William   M 1221 

Buch,  Henry  B 782 

Buch,  J.  Frank 1350 

Buch,  Jonathan  B 1313 

Buch,  Mrs.  Mary  A 1313 

Buchanan,  James  430 

Bucher  Family  1032 

Biicher,  Frederick  576 

Bucher,  Frederick  C,  M.  D 577 

Bucher,  Rev.   George 1032 

Buckius,   Charles   433 

Buckwalter,  George  L 726 

Buckwalter,  Isaac   (West  Lam- 
peter)      780 

Buckwalter,  Isaac loio 

Buckwalter,  John 780 

Buckwalter,  Silas  R 1218 

Buehrle,  Robert  K 440 

Bunn,  William'  H 641 

Bunting,   Walter  S 535 

Burger,  Prof.  Chris 1505 

Burger,  Henry   359 

Burger,  John  A 588 

Burger,  Rev.   S.   Clement 1319 

Burkholder,  Abraham  W 954 

Burkholder,  Amos  E 900 

Burkholder,  Ezra  1003 

Burkholder,  Ezra  H 1003 

Burkholder  Family  \     095 

Burkholder,  John  R ..'.     803 

Burkholder,  Joseph  ' .'  1050 

Burkholder.  Weidler  B 995 

Burrowes,  Thomas  H.,  LL.  D. .     104 

Burt,  Arthur   272 

Burt  Family 272 

Burt,   Nathaniel 272 




Bush,  Philip  S 189 

Bushong,  S.  E 1515 

Butz,  John  1321 

Byers,  Benjamin  F 742 

Byers  Family 742 

Byers,  Jacob  J 607 

Byers,  John  607 

Cain,  James  M 1214 

Cairnes,  Rev.  William  G 1506 

Caldwell,  William  J 895 

Cameron  Family 3 

Cameron,  Gen.   Simon 3 

Cameron,  Maj.  Simon  B 3 

Campbell  Family  907 

Campbell,  Samuel   907 

Cannon,  John  A 914 

Cannon,  Mrs.  John  A 914 

Carmany,  Jacob  S 1522 

Carpenter,   Christian   G 1113 

Carpenter      (or     Zimmerman), 

Emanuel    163 

Carpenter  Families  186,  522 

Carpenter,  Henry 186 

Carpenter,  Samuel  L 522 

Carpenter,  WilUam  S 1184  ' 

Carrigan,  Enos  429 

Carrigan,  Joseph   1102 

Carter,  John  H 1072 

Cassel,  Abram  N 312 

Cassel,  Abraham  H 330 

Cassel,  George  L.,  M.  D 1132 

Cassel,  Hon.  H.  Burd 3J2 

Cas6el,  Jacob 330 

Causse,  John  B 216 

Champneys,  Judge  Benjamin...  13 

Charles,  Amos   1014 

Charles,  Andrew 304 

Charles,  Mrs.  Anna  L 85 

Charles,  Barbara  A 1006 

Charles,  Christian  F 246 

Charles,  David  H 283 

Charles  Families  282,  1006 

Charles,  Miss  Harriet 304 

Charles,  Henry  H 892 

Charles,  Jacob 483 

Charles,  John  A 84 

Charles,  John  F 706 

Charles,  John  F.  (1857) 417 

Charles,  Joseph 416 

Charles,  Levi  F 1482 

Charles,  Willis  B 1474 

Chartiere,  Martin 78 

Christ,  Michael  K 924 

Christ,  Norman  M 924 

Clair,   Stephen  S 199 

Clark  Family  997 

Oark,  Franklin 179 

Clark,  John   319 

Coble,  Mrs.  Anna  A 710 

Coble,  Christian  H 709 

Cochran  Family  160 

Cochran,  Harry  B 162 

Cbchran,  John  J 1343 

Cochran,  Thomas  B 160 

Collier,   Cloyd  R 795 

Collins   Family   959 

Collins,    James    P 232 

Collins,   Judge  Orestes 13 

Collins,    Ross    C 992 

Collins,    Thomas    992 

Collins,  Thomas   S 9S9 

Conley,  Thomas  E 1307 

Connelly   Family    917 


Connelly,    Samuel    S 917 

Conner,   Henry   1449 

Conrad,  John    598 

Cook,    Clifford    1059 

Cooney,   J.    M 1427 

Cooper,   Calvin 636 

Cooper,  Joseph   P , I140 

Cooper,    Rufus   K 967 

Cornelius,  William   1318 

Corrigan,   John   H 1260 

Cox,  Walter  J 1460 

Craig,  Alexander,  M.  D 133 

Craig,  Alexander  R.,  M.  D 134 

Cramer,   Owen    1159 

Cramer,   Rev.   W.   Stuart 1220 

Crane,   George    947 

Crane,  Col.  Robert 361 

Crawford,  John   1260 

Crawford,  Rev.  John  A 856 

Crawford,    Oliver    1260 

Crist   Family   1190 

Crist,   William   E 1190 

Crouse  Family   ; 1347 

Crouse,  William  M 1347 

Crumbaugh,  Rev.  John  S 15 12 

Cully,   George   G 977 

Cully,  Thomas   300 

Cutler  Family  996 

Cutler,   Irwin    : 996 

Dague,  William 601 

Dambach,   David  H 1472 

Dambach   Family   974 

Dambach,  Henry  H 1422 

Dare   Family 75 

Davis,  Eli  W 999 

Daivis   Family   757 

Davis,   Hill   E 569 

Davis,  Jenkins 1519 

Davis,  Reese  H 757 

Davis,  S.   T.,  M.  D 1388 

Deen,  David  L 328 

Deen   Family  328 

DeHaven,   Abraham   A 1248 

DeHaven,  Mrs.   Clara  E 1414 

DeHaven,  Edward  P 97° 

DeHaven  Families  Iii,  1248 

Deichler,  Albert  Mi. 1230 

Dellet,   Adam    1258 

Delp,   George   Mi 53i 

Demmy,  Aaron  B 1045 

Denlinger,  Abraham  R 495 

Denlinger,  Benjamin  K 527 

Denlinger,    B.    Willis 936 

Denlinger,  Daniel    482 

Denlinger,   Daniel   H 748 

Denlinger,    Daniel   K 11 33 

Denlinger,   Elmer   K i  IS4 

Denlinger  Families  748,  936 

Denlinger,    Freeland    L 748 

Denlinger,  Jacob    498 

Denlmger,  Jacob    (Leacock)...  933 

Denlinger,    Jacob    B 1408 

Denlinger,   Jacob   M 1 136 

Denlinger,   John   B 498 

Denlinger,   Mrs.   Margaret 482 

Denlinger,  Samuel 1284 

Denlinger,  Simon SSo 

Denlinger,   Mrs.   Susanna 496 

Denney,   John   Q 304 

Dennison,    Joseph 1058 

Derrick,  Richard  J 1416 

Desch,  George  S 1306 

Desch,  Joseph   G 1015 


Detwiler,  Hiram  L 904 

Detwiler.    Joseph 912 

Detwiler,   William   B 743 

Detz,  John  G 1293 

Detz,   Joseph 1317 

Deutsch,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 1369 

Deutsch,    Kaufman 1369 

Dickey,  J.  Scott 1359 

Diem,  John  H 710 

Diem,   John  K 810 

Dierolf,  William 1522 

Dietrich   Family 708 

Dietrich,    Pljilip 708 

Dietrich,     Samiuel 706 

Diffenbach,  John  R 26 

Diffenbaugh,   Aaron   H 427 

Diffenderffer,   Fra;nk  R 172 

Diller,  Mrs.  A.  M 565 

Diller,    Charies    F 1328 

Diller,   Edwin    C 424 

Diller,    Elias 376 

Diller   Family 564 

Diller,  Grabill  1496 

Diller,    Isaac 564 

Diller,   Isaac    (Leacock) 1443 

Diller,  Lewis  1496 

Diller,    Roland 28  " 

Diller,    Samuel    W 1090 

Diller,  William  F 1322 

Dillich,    Franklin 793 

Dillinger    Family 982 

Dillinger,    Henry   K 982 

Dinks,  Henry 1495 

Divet,    Mlarion 13^ 

Doble,    Charles 971 

Doble,   Charles   A 971 

Dodge,   Byron  G 600 

Donley,  Hugh 1022 

Donoghue,  Dennis 175 

Donoghue,  Mirs.  Jane 175 

Dorsey,  Mrs.  Martha 1024 

Dorsey,    Samuel 1024 

Dorsheimer,  Peter 1082 

Douglas  Family 1507 

Dorwart,    Martin 323 

Doutrick,  Byram   1382 

Drennen.  James   K 498 

Drybread,   H.    M 956 

Duffy,  James  8 

Duffy,    Col.    James 7 

Duffy,    Mrs.    Martha 8 

Dunlap,  Andrew  J 1232 

Dunlap  Family  1232 

Dunlap.  Mrs.   Frances 1233 

Dutt,  Christian 414 

Eaby,    C.   Reese 1343 

Eaby   Family 253 

Eaby,    George    W 459 

Eabi',  Jacob  724 

Eaby,  Jacob  M 253 

Eaby,  Jason  K 275 

Eaby,  Joseph Ii8g 

Eaiby,    Peter  R 1338 

Easton,  Rev,  William,  D,  D 19 

Eavenson,  Benjamin 1178 

Eberle,  John,  M.  D 185 

Eberly,  Adam  J 381 

Ebersole,  Jacob  L 861 

Ebersole,   Samuel  E.. 1362 

Eby,   Araaziah  B 435 

Eby,    Amos    F 512 

Eby,    Christian 509 

Eby,    Elias 444 




Eby,   Emanuel   W 288 

Eby    Families 480,    511 

Eby,   Henry   N 511 

Eby,    Henry   W I180 

Eby,  Bishop  Isaac 316 

Eby,  Isaac  D 117 

Eby,   John  -  N 480 

Eby,   Lemuel    C 796 

Eby,  Hon.  Milton 1493 

Eby,     Samuel 510 

Eby,  Sim 435 

Eby,   Simon  P 268 

Ecicert,  Otomer  S 834 

Eckmian,   B.   D 437 

Eckman   Family 1182 

Eckman,    Miller 1182 

Eckman,    William   H 1131 

Edgerley,     Edward 368 

Edwards,    William    H 975 

Efinger,  Adolph 818 

Ehrenf ried,   Joseph 131 

Eisenberg,  Simon  U 1172 

Elliott,   Samuel   646 

Ellmaker,     Amos 60 

Ellmaker,  Levi,  Esq 648 

Ellmaker,   Nathaniel 64 

'Ellmaker,  Mrs.  Nathaniel 65 

Ellmaker,  Thomas,  M.  D 60 

Elser     Family 767 

Elser,  Peter  0 767 

Engle,  Abraham  W 558 

Engle,   Daniel   G 258 

Engle   Families 257,  29s 

Engle,    Frederick 929 

Engle,    Frederick    S 929 

Engle,    Mrs.    Harriet 765 

Engle,  Hon.  Henry  M 258 

Engle,  Jacob  H 765 

Engle,   Levi   L 428 

Engle,   Samuel  G 836 

Engle,   Simon  H 295 

English,  John  W 970 

Epler,  ChrisUian  M 1489 

Epler,  John  H 1383 

Epler,    P.    S 1278 

Erb,   Abraham    1 150 

Erb;   A.    Lincoln 1371 

Erb,  Benijamiin  H 1411 

Erb,  Clayton   iocs 

Erb,   Daniel    B 7 1150 

Jirb  Family 465 

Erb,   Henry   R 512 

Erb,   Hiram   L 465 

Erb,  Israel  G 192 

Erb,  Mlahlon   942 

Erb,    Samuel    B 950 

Erb,  William  W 96s 

Erisman,   Christian    597 

Erisman,  Clement  S 1515 

Erisman,  John    377 

Esbens'hade,  Abraham   1128 

Esbenshade,    Christian   B 203 

Esbenshade,   Isaac   B 881 

Esbenshade,   Joseph    H 1158 

Esbenshade,    Peter    1157 

Esbenshade,   Peter   B 1352 

Esbbach,    Abraham    L 11 16 

Eshbach,   Henry  F 1033 

Eshbach,  John  B 1500 

Eshelman,  David  B 1503 

Eshelman,   David  M 949 

Eshelman    Family    949 

Eshelman,  Henry   S 1026 

Albert  H 

Benjamin  K 


Rev.  Daniel  M. 

David,  Sr 

David  B 

David   F 

David  G 



440,  924,   1122, 

Eshleman,   George  R 

Eshleman,   H.   Frank 

Eshleman,  Jacoib   

Eshleman,  Jacob  S 

Eshleman,  John  B.,  Esq 

Eshleman,    Samuel    

Eshleman,   Samuel   S 

Eshleman,   Walter  M 

Evans.  Benjamin  

Evans  Family  

Evans,   Franklin   J 

Evans,   Capt.   Samuel 

Evans,  Rev.   Sydney  K 

E-vans,    William    L 

Eyer,   David   M 




1 122 

1 153 






1 153 


Eager,    Charles    F 1164 

Fairer    Family    955 

Fairer,  William  W.,  Jr 955 

Farmer,  Clayton  R 1354 

Fasnacht,   Joel    184 

Fausnacht.   Samuel   S 949 

Fawkes,   Joseph   W 23 

Feagley,   Frank   S 1246 

Feagley,  John   1246 

Ferguson,   Christian  C 277 

Ferguson,  John  G 1476 

Ferguson,  Joiin  W 395 

Ferguson,  Mrs.   Sarah  A 277 

Ferry,  James  H 759 

Fieles,    Martin   M' 713 

Fink,  William  D.,  M.  D 1201 

Fisher,    Daniel    S 1 120 

Fisher,   David   R 1313 

Fisher,   Mrs.    Elizabeth 758 

Fisher,    Henry    758 

Fisher,  Philip   1405 

Fisher,   Sheridan  D 1313 

Fitler,   James   W 525 

Flickinger  Family  886 

Flickinger,  John  885 

Flowers,  Addison  S 1498 

Folmer,   Frank   R 740 

Foltz,  Jonathan  M 10 

Foltz,  Peter  Y 877 

Foltz.    Samuel   F 895 

FonDersmith,   Charles   A 76 

Fordney,   Thomas   P 1068 

Foreman  Family   812 

Foreman,   Peter   812 

Forney,   Abraham  R 432 

Forney,  David  R 1273 

Forney,  John  W 154 

Forney,   Levi   R 1422 

Forrest  Family  79 

Forrest,    Hon.    George 79 

Forrey,  Amos  N 1267 

Forrey,   Danief  N 839 

Forrey,  Isaac  N 1361 

Forrey,   Jacob    C 390 

Forrey,  John  1266 

Forrey,  John   C 607 

Forry,   Daniel   D 14S0 


Fox,  Henry   1088 

Fox,   Jacob  D 938 

Fox,    Mrs.    Margaret 1088 

Frailey  Family  880 

Frailey,  William  0 880 

Frame,  Rev.   Cleveland 11 14 

France,  Ike   583 

Frank,   Charles   977 

Franklin  Family 402 

Franklin,   George   M 462 

Franklin,   Thomas   E 402 

Franklin,  Walter  13,  402 

Franklin,  Walter  M 402 

Frantz   Family   734 

Frantz,   Henry  L 226 

Frantz,  John  R 734 

Frantz,  Mrs.  Susan  E.  W 226 

Freitchie,   Barbara  205 

Frew,  George  W.  H.,  M.  D. . .  1226 

Frew,    William   C 1226 

Frey,   Charles  H 1168 

Frey  Family   824 

Frey,   Henry  D 1457 

Frey,  James  F 1276 

Frey,   Samuel   F 824 

Fridy,   Sam   Matt 236 

Fritchey,  Rev.  John  G 372 

Fritchey,  Joseph  U 376 

Fritz,  Ezra  B 1436 

Froelich,  John  M 404 

Fry,  Rev.   Charles  L 615 

Fry,   Emanuel   G 1352 

Fry   Families    615,  1169 

Fry,  Jacob  M 1169 

Fry,  Menno  M 740 

Fry,   Phares   W 1332 

Frybarger,  Sylvester  563 

Fuhrman,   William    1368 

Fulton,  Edgar  F 843 

Fulton,  Hugh  R.,  Esq 412 

Funk,  Amos  G 1016 

Funk,   Henry   K 220 

Funk,   Isaac   S 542 

Funk,  John   H 1451 

Furniss   Family    426 

Furniss,  John  M 426 

Futer,  Amos   206 

Futer,  Andrew  J 1134 

Gable,   Michael   F 937 

Gable,  William  K 1084 

Gallagher,   Albert   L 1376 

Gamber,  John  H 906 

Gamiberling,   John   H 1056 

Gantner,  John  128 

Gara,  Miss  Elizabeth 32 

Gara,   Hugh   S 31 

Garber,   Amos  E 1384 

Garber,    Andrew    1295 

Garber,   Andrew   M 1 124 

Garber,  Christian  G 1307 

Garber,  David  L 931 

Garber  Family   931 

Garber,    Henry    G 943 

Garber,   Jacob    L 884 

Garber,  John  E 973 

Garber,   John   S 1195 

Garber,   Simon  E 1 102 

Garber,  Mrs.   Susan 1195 

Gardiner   Family   150 

Gardiner,  Rev.  Frederic,  A.  M.  150 

Gardner,  Edmund   923 

Gardner   Family   923 




Garrett,  Elwood  P 1312 

Garrett,   George   K 850 

Garvin,   Milton   T 852 

Ga'st,   Christian   140 

Gast,  Frederick  A.,  D.  D 140 

Gatchell,  Hon.  J.  C,  M.  D....   1177 

Geiger,  Mrs.  Catherine  M 339 

Geiger,  Christopher  148,  543 

Geiger,   William   C 543 

Geist,  Henry 14 

Geist,  Isaac   S 1400 

Geist,  J.   M.   W 88 

Geist,   John    487 

Gemperling,   Henry   C 580 

Gensemer,  Mrs.  Mary  A 1093 

Gensemer,   Samuel  G 1093 

Gerhard,  Rev.  Dariits  W.,  A.  M.      55 

Gerhard   Family   SS 

Gerhard,  Milton  U.,  M.  D 589 

Gerhart,     Rev.     Emanuel     V., 

D.  D.,  LL.  D 33 

Gerhart,   Henry    556 

Gerhart,  John   379 

Gerhart,  Col.  William  R.,  A.  M.  1342 

Getz   Family    578 

Getz,   Noah   L 578 

Geyer,  George   S ........  .■ 418 

Gibble,   Isaac   S 1277 

Gibble,    Isaac   W 1277 

Gibbons,  Joseph,  M.  D 659 

Gibson,  George  199 

Gibson,  Henry  W 747 

Gibson,  John  1 179 

Gibson,   Samuel    1220 

Gibson,  Mrs.    Susan 1179 

Gilbert,  Amos  562 

Gilbert,  Edwin  M 533 

Gillespie.  George  W.,  M.  D 363 

Ginder,  Ephraim  C 1087 

Gingrich,  Alfred  B 1499 

Gingrich,  Jonas  S 1521 

Gingrich,  Milton  E 1520 

Girfin,  Frank  G 1317 

Girvin.   Robert   499 

Gish,  Mirs.  Amanda  S 328 

Gish,   Amos   R 1473 

Gish   Famiily   327 

Gish,   Henry  B 327 

Gish,   Henry  J 1470 

Gish,    Jacob   R 144S 

Gish,  Peter  R 1305 

Given,    Frank   S 493 

Given,  William  B 492 

Givler,   Hosea   1287 

Glass,   Samuel   1296 

Glatfeker,    David   L. 1109 

Glatfelter    Family 1109 

Glatfelter,  Harris  A 497 

Glosser,   William   A 1227 

Gochnauer,   Andrew  H 1358 

Gochnauer  Family  538 

Gochnauer,  John  M 538 

Gochnauer,  Joseph  H 538 

Gochnauer,   Samuel  247 

Goldbach,   George  G 853 

Goll,   John   A 1211 

Good,  Amos  G 1288 

Good,  Benjamin  1158 

Good,   David   K 1106 

Good,    Mrs.    Elizabeth 96 

Good,   Ezra  M logo 

Good  Family  573 

Good,   Henry   1461 


Good,  Isaac  B 877 

Good,  Jacob  H 1429 

Good,  J.  Martin 575 

Good,  John  B 95 

Good,  John  E 433 

Good,  John  J 1501 

Good,   Martin   H 1453 

•Good,  Martin  R 1092 

Good,   Miss  Mary 433 

Good,  Michael   R 343 

Good.    Solomon   H 883 

Goos,  Henry   1381 

Gorrecht,  William   P 1380 

Goss,  Christian  E 643 

Grab,   Frederick  V 355 

Grab,  Mrs.  Louise 356 

Gra'bill,    Clayton   L 858 

Grady.   John    875 

Graeff.   David    619 

Graeff,  John  H 620 

Graham,  Dana 114 

Graham,  Mrs.  Lucy  M 114 

Grasnick.  Dr.  Dorothea  J.  L...     876 

Graul,   Daniel  D 933 

Graul   Family    933 

Graver,  Amos  317 

Graver,  Henry  M 1415 

Graver,  Henry  M.,  Jr 1415 

Graybill,  Hon.  David  W 800 

Graybill   Families    715,1187 

Graybill,  Herman  W 715 

Graybill,  Rev.  Jacob  N 296 

Graybill.   Samuel  G loii 

Grebill,  John  B 1 191 

Greenleaf.  F.  M 1470 

Greer,  Adam  1102 

Greer,  John   A iioi 

Gregg,  Lewis  B 1D18 

Greider,  Amos  M 917 

Greider,  Christian   678 

Greider,  Mlartiti 1386 

Greider,   Samuel   S 1305 

Greiner,   Anthony  G 1087 

Gress.    George   W 1113 

Greybill,   Rufus   D 1004 

Grier.   William  H 53 

Griest,   Major  Ellwood 92 

Griest.  Hon.  W.  W 92 

Griffiths.   Herman   B 896 

Grilhortzer,   Esther  A 446 

Gril'bortzer,  Gottleib  446 

Grissinger.   Jacob   R 1408 

Groff,  Abraham  B. loio 

Groff.   Abraham   S 422 

Groff.  Adam ISII 

Groff.   Adam   R 406 

GrofF.   Aldus    1215 

Groff,   Amos    1264 

Groff.    A  mos   H 1064 

Groflf,    Christian   279 

Groff.    David    187 

Groff.  David  E 566 

Groff.  Rev.  Elias 103 

Groff.   Ezra    912 

Groff  Families    

103.  263.  204,  566.  805,  845,  1064 

Groff.   Frank  R ■^55 

Groff.   Frank   S .* 84.^ 

Groff.  Harry   406 

Groff.   Henry  L 452 

Groflf.   Isaac   203 

Groff.  Rev.  J.  N 263 

Groff,  John  L 734 


Groff,  John  M.  (East  Drumore)   1246 

Groff,  John  M.  (Strasburg)  . . .  407 

Groff,  John  M.   (Lancaster)  . . .  664 

Groff,  M.  H 834 

Groflf,   Martin  K 1008 

Groff,  Nathaniel   S 761 

Groflf,  Silas  E 491 

Groff,   Wenger  R 1231 

Groff,   William   S 805 

Grosh,  John 1183 

Grosh,   Samuel  E 629 

Gross   Family 639 

Gross,  Levi  S 639 

Grubb,  Charles  B 50 

Grubb,  Clement  B 49 

Grubb,  Miss  Daisy  E.  B 50 

Grubb   Family  48 

Grubb,  Henry  B 49 

Grube,  David  K 606 

Grube,   George  B 1264 

Grube,  Martin  H 405 

Grube,  William   C 942 

Gruber,  John  C 1479 

Gruel,  Jacob  W 1 197 

Gruger,  Pearson  E 944 

Guiles   Family   1303 

Guiles,  William  M 1303 

Gunzenhauser,  Christian   888 

Guthrie,  William  H 797 

Habecker,  Christian   1346 

Habecker,  Joseph  H 1487 

Habecker,  Joseph  K 1419 

Hackenberger,  George  W 633 

Hacker,  Mrs.  Lavinia  L 338 

Hacker,  Levi   S 337 

Hackman   Family  771 

Hackman,   Franklin   S 771 

Hackman,  Jacob  W 771 

Haefner,  Joseph  656 

Hager,   Charles  F 179 

Hager,   Christopher  555 

Hager,   Christopher    (1800)....  179 

Hager  Family  178 

Haines  Family   701 

Haines,  Henry  B 701 

Haines.  John  F 764 

Halbach,  Jacob   1200 

Haldeman,   Samuel   S 144 

Haldy,   Lewis    560 

Haldy,  William  Y 560 

Hall,  Edward  C 548 

Hall,  Joseph  A 1081 

Hall,   N.   Franklin 879 

Hamaker.  John  S . . . '. 962 

Hambleton,   Thomas   B 652 

Hamibright,  Albert  B 1505 

Hambright,  Mrs.   Fanny 1403 

Hambright,   George  1402 

Hambright,  Prof.  George  M...  170 

Hambright,  Mrs.  William  T...  293 

Hamilton,   John   A 1275 

Hamilton,   Lafayette  867 

Hamilton.  William   714 

Hamt),  William  H.,   Sr 1071 

Hanck,  George  224 

Hanck,   Michael   S 1067 

Hanck,  Samuel  M 1068 

Hanna,   Charles   G 1005 

Hannum,   Preston  E 729 

Hark,  Dr.  Hugo  C 1135 

Harm,  William  760 

Harman,  Daniel   153 



Harner,   Henry   C 155 

Harner,  Jesse    473 

Harner,   John    S 486 

Harner,  Joseph   1049 

Harner,  Samuel   482 

Harnish,   Abraham    717 

Harnish,  Abraham   B 1204 

Harnish,  Amos  B 11 18 

Harnish,   Benjamin   786 

Harnish,   Benjamin   B 940 

Harnish,   Daniel   F 1030 

Harnish,   David   F 309 

Harnish,   David   H 1038 

Harnish,   David  L 908 

Harnish,  H.  H 1453 

Harnish,  Michael  786 

Harper,  Joseph  D 516 

Harple,   Franklin   G 1062 

Harrar,   A.   Jackson 1057 

Harrar  Family  I0S7 

Harrar,  John  D 1257 

Harris,  Alexander  59 

Harry,  Willis  G. 1373 

Hart,   Stephen  J 1454 

Hartman,  Aaron  E 976 

Hartman,  Albert   860 

Hartman,  Mrs.  Anna  M 1500 

Hartman,   Mks.   Catherine. 1331 

Hartman,  David  K 1380 

Hartman,  George  H 1300 

Hartman,  Henry  F 1331 

Hartman,  John  1 248 

Hartman,  John  K 1518 

Hartman,  Lewis   S 540 

Hartman,  Mrs.  Mary  A S4i 

Hartman,   Samuel   488 

Hartman,  Samuel  B.,  M.  D 968 

Hassler,  Aaron  B iioi 

Hassler  Family    iioi 

Hastings,  Miss  Emma  R 4S9 

Hastings   Family   403 

Hastings,  Joto  458 

Hastings,  Joseph  D 403 

Hastings,  L.   Rutter 1171 

Hastings,   William   S 269 

Hatz,  Mrs.   Harriet 355 

Hatz,  John  3S4 

Hatz,   Samuel    354 

Hauck,   David   C 902 

Haupt,  Rev.  Charles  E.,  D.  D..  1212 

Haverstick,   Abraham  B ...... .  334 

Haverstick,  Mrs.  Annde  B 946 

Haverstick,   David   C 596 

Haverstick  Families  596,  656 

Haverstick,  Johti  M 1418 

Haverstick,  Levi 656 

Haverstick,   Levi   H 946 

Hawthorn,  George  W 1245 

Hayes,  Enos  P 995 

Hayes  Family  995 

Hays,   Charles  478 

Hays,  John  L 809 

Heagy,  H.  R 852 

Heckler,  Franklin  J 311 

Heidelbaugh  Family 324 

Heidelbaugh,   Hon.   Milton 324 

Heidlebach,  Jacob  H 1484 

Heidler  Family    795 

Heim,  George  790 

Heim,   George,   Jr 1316 

Heim,  John  F 1060 

Heine.   Paul   468 

Heinitsh,  Charles  A 208 


Heinitsh,  John   F 210 

Heinitsh,   Sigmund   W 209 

Heinitsh,   Walter   A 209 

Heinitz,  Anton  Frederick,  Bar- 
on von   208 

Heintzelman,    Samuel    P 206 

Heise,    B.    Frank 932 

Heisey,   Edward   L 1208  ■ 

Heisey  Family   1138 

Heisey,   George  R 899 

Heisey,  John  W 1360 

Heisey,  Joseph   K 1359 

Heisey,  Jacob  W 1438 

Heisey,    Martin   N -I136 

Heisev,   Simon   C 967 

Heisey,   W.    Scott I4S9 

Heistand,   Franklin  Ml 846 

Heitshu,   William  A 384 

Helfrich,  Matthias  S 1103 

Heller  Family  938 

Heller,  Deacon  Henry  D 938 

Heller,  John   S 1125 

Helm,   Daniel    227 

Helm,   D.   E 303 

Helm,   Frank   W 475 

Henderson,  Archibald  L 667 

Henderson,  Jacob  M 247 

Henderson,  James   B 1358 

Henderson,  Mrs.  Margaret  A..     667 

Henderson,   William   1259 

Henderson,   Mrs.   William 1259 

Henderson,  Col.  William  C. . . .     702 

Hennecke,   Mrs.   Sarah  J 279 

Hennecke,   William  F 279 

Henninger,   N.   C i457 

Henry,   Benjamin  F 1194 

Henry,  Judge  John  J 13 

Hensel  Family   1236 

Hensel,  N.  N 449 

Hensel,  Hon.  William  U 373 

Hensel,  William  W 1236 

Herchelroth,  Norman  F 1C09 

Herman,  Adam  T 1300 

Herman,   J.   Peter 1171 

Hernley,  Abrami  954 

Hernley   Family   954 

Herr,  Aaron   887 

Herr,   Abraham    228 

Herr,  Abraham  B 448 

Herr,  Rev.  Abraham  B 173 

Herr,   Abraham  G 1225 

Herr,  Abraham  H 817 

Herr,  Albert  M. 802 

Herr,   Allan  A 205 

Herr,  Ambrose  J.,  M.  D 185 

Herr,   Amos   F 783 

Herr,  Amos  H 393 

Herr,   Amos  K 699 

Herr,  Andrew   649 

Herr,   Benjamin    B 1425 

Herr,   Benjamin   G 205 

Herr,   Mrs.    Charlotte 1335 

Herr,    Christian.    817 

Herr,   Christian   B 176 

Herr,  Christian  S.  B 361 

Herr,   Cyrus   S 400 

Herr,   Daniel    ( Pequea) 679 

Herr.   Daniel   D 582 

Herr,  Col.  Daniel  H 29 

Herr,   David  E 1204 

Herr,   D.   Jefferson 857 

Herr,  Elias  1089 

Herr,  Elias  H 709 


Herr,   Emanuel   H 1327 

Herr.  Families    29, 

176,  204,  254,  679,  802,  1041,  1066 

Herr,  F.  M 1306 

Herr,   Francis    '  1335 

Herr,   Francis  L 807 

Herr,   George  K 708 

Herr,   Harry   B loi  I 

Herr,  Henry  B 985 

Herr,  Henry  M 370 

Herr,   Hiram   P 964 

Herr,   Isaac   798 

Herr,  Isaac  R 227 

Herr,  Jacob   817 

Herr,  Jacob  K 826 

Herr,  J.   Aldus. ,. ' 1219 

Herr,  Jeremiah  267 

Herr,  J.  Haldeman 176 

Herr,  John  964 

Herr,   John   B 383 

Herr,  John  D 1118 

Herr,  John  L 254 

Herr,  John  R 1311 

Herr,  Martin  173 

Herr,   Reuben   D 679 

Herr,  Rudolph  S 652 

Herr,   Silas   S 1066 

Herr,   Solomon  R 1041 

Hersh,   Benjamin  F 1028 

Hersh,  E.  H ' I45S 

Hershey,  Abraham  L 1 159 

Hershey,   Andrew   H 567 

Hershey,   Benjamin   F 1372 

Hershey,   Benjamin   H 1326 

Hershey,   Benjamin  M 997 

Hershey,  Benjamin  W 726 

Hershey,   Christian    ml 

Hershey,   Clarence  B looi 

Hershey,  Dianiel  M 1504 

Hershey,   Elias    142 

Hershey,  Elias  H 44 

Hershey,  Ephraim 63,  677 

Hershey,   Ephraim  H 1485 

Hershey,   Eusebius   K 1163 

Hershey  Families  62, 

141,  285,  471,  677,  726,  1 163,  1326 

Hershey,  George  B.,  M.  D 930 

Hershey,  Harry  L 1083 

Hershey,   Henry    (Leacock)..  . .     981 
Hershey,   Henry    (Lancaster)  . .     190 

Hershey,  Henry  S 696 

Hershey,  Jacob  D.,  M.  D 1099 

Hershey,  Jacob  E 63,  677 

Hershey,  Jacob  G 292 

Hershey,  Jacob  H 631 

Hershey,  Jacob  R 285 

Hershey,  Rev.  Jacob  R 62,  676 

Hershey,  Jacob  S 671 

Hershey,  J.  Milton 1302 

Hershey,  John  E. . .  .■ 698' 

Hershey,  John  E.   (Paradise)  . .     141 

Hershey,  Josiab  649 

Hershey,   Landis    1480 

Hershey,   Mrs.   Magdalena iiii 

Hershey,   Peter  E 471 

Hershour,  .Abraham   470 

Hertgen,  Joseph  E 1382 

Hertzler  Family  674 

Hertzler,  John    644 

Hess,  Abraham  Z 1054 

Hess,  B.  Z 897 

Hess,  Mrs.   Catharine 1430 

Hess,    Christian   H 1472 




Hess,  Conrad  Z 802 

Hess,   Daniel   D 1430 

Hess,   Daniel   T 1139 

Hess,  David  H 552 

Hess  Families  1051,  1054,  1440 

Hess,  Mrs.  Harriet  A 1404 

Hess,  Henry  L 1461 

Hess,  Isaiah  F 1440 

Hess,  John    (Salisbury) 1404 

Hoss,  John   (Strasiburg) 1051 

Hess.,  John  L 989 

Hess,  John  W.,  M.  D 532 

Hess,  Rev.  Jonas  H 666 

Hess,  Miss  Mame  B 1462 

Hess,  Martin  G 863 

Hess,  Noah   G 1053 

Hess,   Noah  Z 804 

Hess,,  Mrs.  Sarah  A 533 

Hess,  Mts.   Sarah  J 195 

Hess,  William  G.,  M.  D 1462 

Ifibshman  Family   735 

Hibshmian,  George 73S 

Hickey,   John  W 1295 

Hicks,  George  W 1502 

Hitstand  Family    683 

Hie^Btand,   Simon  H 683 

Hiester,   Isaac   E 147 

Higbee;     Elnathan    E.,    D.    D. 

LL.  .D 96 

High,  Mrs.  Catherine  A 700 

High,  Samuel  S 700 

Hildebrand,   Isaac  H 1413 

Hildebrand,   Isaac   N 942 

Hildebrand,  Jacob   634 

Hiller,  Casper 197 

Hilton,   C.  H 839 

Himes,  Miss  Anna  C 676 

Himes,  Clinton  684 

Himes,  Re«s   C 676 

Hinkle,   Mrs.   Anna 431 

Hinkle,   Calvin  G ion 

Hinkle,   Charles  H 517 

Hinkle  Family   518 

Hinkle,   Harry   M 998 

Hinkle,  Joseph  431,  951 

Hippey,   George   379 

Hippie,  Charles  P 1271 

Hirsh,  Abraham  822 

Hirsh,  Benjamin  W 861 

Hirsh,  Leopold  822 

Hirst,  Elder  Thomas  R 1241 

Hoak,   Amos  D 1433 

Hoak,   Mrs.    Caroline 1433 

Hoar,  William  C. 621 

Hocking,  John 953 

Hoefel,   Mrs.   Elizabeth 775 

Hoefel,   Frederick   775 

Hoffer  Family   590 

Hoffer,  Elder  Henry  B 1108 

Hoffer,  Jacob  R 590 

Hoffer,  Tobias   397 

Hoffman,  Abraham   L 409 

Hoffman,  Amos  H 749 

Hoffman,  Benjamin    408 

Hoffman,  Benjamin  F 410 

Hoffman,  Christ  S 487 

Hoffman,  Clayton  R 411 

Hoffman  Families  409j  1156 

Hoffman,   Henry    1160 

Hoffman,  Henry  B 1061 

Hoffman,   Isaac  W 1156 

Hoffman,  Michael  M 409 

Hoffman,  Michael  R 409 

Hoffman,  Niorman  R 411 

Hoffman,  Paris  R 408 

Hoffman,  Peter  S 1274 

Hoffmeier,  Charles  S 897 

Hoffmeier,  George  K 896 

Hogg   Family    661 

Hogg,  Squire  William  H 661 

Hpibein,   Mirs.   Elizabeth 1363 

Hohein,  Osoar 1363 

Hoke,  Joseph  A 1449 

Hollinger,   Amos    344 

Holman,  John   W 1453 

.  Homsher  Family   1181 

Homsher,  Franklin   1466 

Homsher,  John  1 181 

Hood,  John  D 927 

Hood,  Thomas  S 940 

Hook,  John  A 323 

Hook,  John  F 1286 

Hook,  John  H 1269 

Hook,  John  H.    (Lancaster) . . .  746 

Hook,  Mrs.  Mary  A 324 

Hookey,  Benjamin  F 644 

Hoopes,  Maris 1262 

Hoover,   Mrs.   A.  Lizzie 1284 

Hoover,   Christian   H 1040 

Hoover,  John  S 1284 

Hopkins  Family  870 

Hopkins,  William   870 

Horning,  John    448 

Horst,   Rev.   Abraham 159 

Horst.  David   S 517 

Horst,  John  C.  S 279 

Horst,  Mrs.  Louisa 279 

Hoster,  Charles  J 1523 

Hostetter,  Abraham  F 167 

Hostetter,  Amaziah  H 866 

Hostetter,  Christian  F 757 

Hostetter,  Emanuel  F 502 

Hostetter,   Emanuel  P 1094 

Hostetter  Family  7S7 

Hostetter,   Henry   F 530 

Hostetter,   John    502 

Hostetter,  Jonas  E 998 

Hostetter,  Tillman  N 998 

Hottenstein,   Henry   S 1027 

Hougendobler,  Amos  R 130 

Hougendobler,  John  J 1407 

Houser,  Henry  M 1337 

Houser,  John   E 134S 

Houston,  Joseph  W.,  M.  D 244 

Houston,  Robert   J 240 

Howard,   Mrs.   Barbara 1376 

Ho'well,  Msijor  Charles  M 20 

Howett,  H.  G 1414 

Howry,  Walter  C 1109 

Huber,  Aaron   1439 

Htiber,   Amos   559 

Huber,  Abraham  B 1481 

Huber,   Christian   651 

Huber,  Christian  B 1318 

Huber,  David  730 

Huber,  David  A 835 

Huber,  David  B 670 

Huber,  David  H 1300 

Huber,  David  H.  (Martic) 1170 

Huber  Families 57i.  730,  1040 

Huber,  H.  C 884 

Huber,  Henry  284 

Huber,  J.  Miilton S7i 

Huber,  Jonas  57° 

Huber,  Levi  B 925 

Huber,  Martin 790 


Huber,  Samuel  M' i486 

Hufman  Family  in 

Hull   Family   82 

Hull,   George   W 81 

Humble,  William  F 271 

Hunter,  James 1483 

Hunsecker,  Ellis  E 890 

Hupper,  Albert  1210 

Hurst,  Matthias  S 4Si 

Hurst,  Michael  W.,  M.  D 1353 

Husson,  Harry  K 1274 

Ilyus,   A.   C 1179 

Immel,   Henry   S 744 

Ingram,  William  J 1088 

Irwin  Family 243 

Irwin,  John  E 1315 

Irwin,  Lewis  W 1437 

Irwin,   Plank   643 

Irwin,  Samuel  1262 

Irwin,  Thaddeus  S.,  M.  D 243 

Jackson,  Andrew  1002 

Jackson,  David  W 1392 

Jackson,  John   873 

Jackson,  John  K 394 

Jackson,  Joseph   1474 

Jackson,  Newton   1460 

Jackson,  William  L 11 12 

Jacoby,   Harry   S 419 

Jacoby,   Peter    419 

Jacoby,  Reuben  E 419 

Jamison,  J.  A 1477 

Jamison,  Joseph  G 1034 

Jenks,  James  M 390 

Johnson,  Arthur  A 1016 

Johnson,  Cyrus  957 

Johnson,  John  1487 

Johnson,  John  E 1463 

Johnson,   Kirk   928 

Johnson,  Mrs.  Margaret  H....  1016 

JoneSi   Stephen   1 162 

Kaegel,   Henry  H 966 

Kahl,  MSss  Sarah  L 814 

Kahl.  William  813 

Kauffman,  Abraham  B 1025 

Kauffman,  Amos  G 1524 

Kauffman,  Mrs.  Barbara 464 

Kauffman,  Benjamin  B 1523 

Kauffman,  Benjamin  C 1124 

Kauffman,  Hon.  Christian  C. . .  256 

Kauft'man,   Christian  H 1334 

Kauffman,    Christian    H.     (de- 
ceased)      463 

Kauffman  Families  256,  1123 

Kauffman,  Mrs.  Fanny  H 474 

Kauffman,  Henry  M 1124 

Kauffman,  Rev.  Hiram  G 1139 

Kauffman,  Isaac  1334 

Kauffman,  Isaac  H 474 

Kauffman,  John  H 442 

Kauffman,  John  M 1281 

Kauffman,  Mrs.  Mlartha 1281 

Kauffman,  Michael  Mi 1375 

Kauffman,  Reuben  G 1320 

Kauffman,  Samuel  L 469 

Kaaiffman,  Winfield  S 1089 

Kaufhold,  Joseph  G 801 

Kaul,    Very   Rev.    Anthony    F., 

V.  F 616 

Kautz,  Jacob  F 1187 



Kautz,  Mrs.  Maria  M 232 

Kautz,  William  S 232 

Kaylor,  John  H 466 

Keen,   Adam   1406 

Keen,  Albert  M 965 

Keen  Family  1406 

Keener,   Clayton   F 858 

Keener,    Henry 864 

Kehler,  Henry  N 630 

Keller,   Charles   B 1210 

Keller     Families 882,  1210 

Keller,  Jacob  B 882 

Keller,  Jacob  K 1314 

Keller,    John    A 1211 

Keller    Thomas   H 854 

Keller,  William  H 1219 

Kelley,    Jacob iioo 

Kelly,   James 1489 

Kelly,    Michael 1488 

Kemmerly,    John 1279 

Kemper  Family   1050 

Kemper,  George  A 1050 

Kemrer  Family 983 

Kemrer,   Phares   D 983 

Kendig,  Mrs.  Annie 609 

Kendig,  Miss   B.  Alice 706 

Kendig,   Christian   H 609 

Kendig,   Miss  Elizabeth  M 837 

Kendig,  Miss  Fannie 443 

Kendig,   Henry 443 

Kendig,  Jacob 1228 

Kendig,    John 706 

Kendig,    Martin   D 360 

Kendig,   Willis   G.,   Esq 842 

Keneagy,  Samuel,  M.  D 71 

Kennedy,    Horace   E iigo 

Kennedy,    William'   H 915 

Kent,   Miahlon   B 697 

Kepler,  Aaron  C 146 

Kerner,    John 1481 

Kerner,  Joseph  B 878 

Kershner,   Dr.   Jefferson  E. . . .     165 

Kessler,    Amos 302 

Kesskr,    John 1 1 14 

Keylor  Family   513 

Keylor,  F.  S 262 

Keylor,  Henry  S 261 

Keylor,   Milton 513 

Keys,  James  J 1077 

Kieffer   Family 74 

Kieffer,  John  B.,  Ph.  D 74 

Kinard,  John  W 70S 

Kindig,   Christian,  Jr 737 

King  Family  1 167 

King,  Mrs.  Rebecca  D 1202 

King,    William 1202 

King,  William  D 806 

King,  Williami  W 1262 

Kinzer,  B.  F 355 

Kinzer,    George   W 1432 

Kinzer,    Mrs.   Louisa   A 1432 

Kinzer,    William   W 1432 

Kinzler    Miss    Elizabeth 334 

Kinzler,  Frederick  334 

Kirk,  Family 74 

Kirk,  Lewis  J 74 

Kisiner,  Theodore 979 

Klaus,  John 378 

Klau.s,    Mrs.    Katherine 378 

Kline,    Abram 594 

Kline,    Charles    R 398 

Kline,  Henry  H 1232 

Kline,    John    H.    (Columbia)..   1299 


Kline,  John  H.  (Lancaster) ....  1345 

Kline,  J.  Y.,  M.  D 1463 

Klittg,  Isaiah  M 1167 

Klugh,  Horace  H 1168 

Knapp,    Joseph 1252 

Knobb,   George~L 1138 

Knox,  Rev.   Charles   T 862 

Knox,   David   S 782 

Knox,  Edward  J 782 

Knox,  Robert  J 1137 

Knox,  Robert  S 561 

Kofroth,  P.  B 1218 

Kehler,   Rev.   John 1385 

Kohler,  Mrs.  Louisa  A 1385 

Kohr,    Jacob    D 821 

Kohr,    John 54 

Kohr,  Bishop  John 54 

Konigmacher   Family 424 

Konigmacher,  Jacob 424 

Koser,  Samuel  B.,  M,  D 744 

Krantz,  John  H 1008 

Kray,  Andrew  338 

Kready,  Edgar  B 856 

Kready,  Jacob   B 287 

Kready,  John  E 287 

Kready,   Miss  Mary 287 

Kreckel,   Edward 415 

Kreider,  Andrew  H 1051 

Kreider,    Benjamin    R 32 

Kreider,  Charles  D 626 

Kreider,   Christian 443 

Kreider,   David  L 1329 

Kreider,   Eli  L 778 

Kreider    Families 778,  1291 

Kreider,  Franklin  N 1369 

Kreider,  George 407 

Kreider,   John 490 

Kreider,  John  H 1291 

Kreider,  Tobias  R 1328 

Kreiter,   Diavid  H 1428 

Kreiter  Family 723 

Kreiter,  Jacob  C 723 

Kreiter,  John  S.,  M.  D 769 

Krodel,  Peter  A iiii 

Kurtz,    Daniel 348 

Kurtz.   David  W 723 

Kurtz  Families 348,  1029,  1032 

Kurtz,  George  816 

Kurtz,  Henry  K 1244 

Kurtz,  John  G 1043 

Kurtz,   John   S 330 

Kurtz,  Joseph 1032 

Kurtz,   L.    Scott 1029 

Kurtz,  Mrs.   Maria  H 724 

Kurtz    Martin 349 

Kurtz,  Mrs.   Susan 1137 

Lamborn    Family 610 

Lamborn,   George   S 610 

Lamparter,  Eberhart  J 915 

Lamparter,   Jacob  J 941 

lamparter.   Miss   Pauline 528 

Landau,  Mrs.  Barbara  E 310 

Landau,    John 310 

Landes,  Levi 1052 

Landis,    Aaron    B 1171 

Landis,  Adam  1514 

Landis,  Amos  N 1009 

Landis,  Benjamin  B 337 

Landis,  Benjamin  F 763 

Landis,  Benjamin  L 1150 

Landis,   Hon.   Charles   1 183 

Landisi,  Christian  N 1061 


Landis,  Clayton  G 1358 

Landis,  David  B 1357 

Landis,  David  Bachman 233 

Landis,  David  H 1212 

Landis,  David  N 891 

Landis,  Eli  L 1155 

Landis  Families. 233,  452,  1186,     1288 

Landis,  Henry  B 1 147 

Landis,  H.   Reisit 454 

Landis,   Jacob   L 538 

Landis,  John   B 356 

Landis,  Rev.  John  B 137,      748 

Landis,   John   F 864 

Landis,  John  R 1288 

Landis,   Lemon    S 1098 

Landis,  Levi  L 1 187 

Landis,   Phares  K 935 

Landis,  Rev.   Sanford  B 874 

Landis,  Solon  Z 1355 

Lane,  George  A 897 

Lanie,  Samuel  E 49^ 

Lantz,  Mrs.  Maria 472 

Lantz,   Samuel  W 471 

Latta,  Rev.  James 83 

Law,  James 604 

Layman,  David  R 1279 

Learaan,  Abraham  L 936 

Leaman,  Amos 959 

Leaman,  B.  Frank. . . ., 1259 

Leaman,  David  1036 

Leaman,    Henry 603 

Leaman,  John 886 

Leaman,  John  L 886 

Leaman,  Reuben  B 604 

Leaman..  Tobias 1053 

Lebzelter,    Philip 524 

Leech,  John  F 586 

Lefever,   Abram  A 1253 

Lefever,   Adam  450 

Lefever,  Christian   337 

Lefever,  David   780 

Lefever  Families  477,  780 

Lefever,  Frank  K 1305 

Lefever,  George  477 

Lefever,  George  N 1503 

Lefever,  Harry  R 1275 

Lefever,  Henry  K 450 

Lefever,  Jacob    1336 

Lefever,  John   1342 

Lefever,  John  H 251 

Lefever,  Martin   1304 

LeFevre,  Acton  A 860 

Lefevre,  John  S 1240 

Lehman,  Amos  N 1448 

Lehman   Family   777 

Lehman,  Henry  C 223 

Lehman,  John  N 777 

Lehman,  Mrs.  Mary  L 223 

Leibley,  George 903 

Leisey,  James  C 1058 

Leman  Brothers  1377 

Leman,  Herbert  D 1377 

Leman,  Reuben  J 1377 

Lennox,  F.  M 1506 

Lesher,  Pierce  62a 

Le  Tort,  Jacques 71 

Levan,   Edgar  H 937 

Levan  Family  937 

Levan,  George  789 

Levan,  Landis  789 

Levenite,  David  B 140S 

Levergood,  John,  M.  D 694 

Levergood,  Mrs.  M.  Louisa 694 




Lewis,   Judge  Ellis 14 

Lightner  Family  1475 

Lightner,  James  N 1475 

LiUer,  William  C 869 

Lindemuth,   Mrs.   Elizabeth....  380 

Lindeniuth,  Martin  Z 380 

Linden  Hall  Seminary 625 

Line,  John   1410 

Lineaweaver,  Mrs.  Jane  S 363 

Linea'weaver,  John  K.,  M.  D. ..  361 

Lingerfield,  Mrs^  Adaline  B....  1397 

Lingerfield,   Cyrus   1396 

Lintncr,  Daniel  H 1494 

Linton,  Robert  C 766 

Lipp,  Christian  C 1025 

Lipp   Family    1025 

Livingston,  Hon.  John  B.,  LL.  D.  i 

Locher,  Charles  A 911 

Locher,   CliJirles  H 132 

Locher   Family    132 

Locher,  Mrs.  Margaret 912 

Locher,   Robert   E 428 

Lockard,  Bayard  T 1335 

Lockard,   Hiram   C 1252 

Loder,  Joseph   1247 

Long,  Adam  B 916 

Long,  Benjamin  K 647 

Long  Families  647,  957,  980 

Long,  Judge  Henry  G 14 

Long,  Jacob  B 411 

Long,  James  M 1037 

Long,  John  F 412 

Long,  Joseph  H 1507 

Long,  Joseph  J 980 

Long,  J.  Robert 957 

Longenecker,  Addison  B 57s 

Longenecker,  Christ  G 794 

Longenecker,   Isaac   S 1468 

Lucas,  William  H 1265 

Lutz,  Aaron  R 1208 

Lutz  Family  1048 

Lutz,  Harvey  B 1048 

Lutz,  John  H 959 

Lyie,  George  L SS6 

Lynch  Family  1 105 

Lynch,  James  A 1 105 

Lyte,   Eliphalet  O.,  A.  M.,  Ph.  D.  35 

McAnall,    Robert 1280 

McBride,  John  G 1490 

McCall,  William  H 1273 

McCanna,  Henry  F 787 

McCarter,   Henry  G 250 

McCaskey,  Capt,  Edward  W. .  .  288 

McCaskey  Family   116 

MbCaskey,  John  116 

McCaskey,  John  P .'.  117 

McCaskey,  Joseph  B.,  D.  D.  S.  75 1 

McCaskey,  Walter  B 127 

McCaskey,  Col.  William  S 122 

McClain,  Hon.  Francis  B 1086 

McClure,  David   298 

McClure    Family   298 

McClure,  Mrs.  Mary  J 34S 

McClure,    Samuel    345 

McCommon,  Joseph   mo 

McCommon,  Miss  Maggie  E. .  iiio 

McComsey   Family   366 

McConnell,  Jacob  C,  M.  D 643 

MicCoy,  James  F 1330 

MtDonald,   Abraham   K 1475 

McDonaW,  Joseph  R 1475 

'McElbany  Family  1144 

McElhany,  John  W ii43 

McElligott,  Dr.   Thomas  F 1416 

McElwain,  Miss  Ella  R 306 

McElwain,  Miss  M.  Amanda...     306 

McElwain,   William    306 

MicEvoy,  Patrick  62 

McFalls,  Mrs.   Susan 1078 

McFalls,   William   H 1078 

McGinness,   George  B 846 

MicGinnis,  John   W 1417 

MicGlaughlin,  Joseph   H 920 

McGowan,  Mrs.  Annie  E 687 

MicGowan  Family   . .'. 687 

McGowan,  John  687 

McGrann,   Bernard  J 346 

McGrann,  Richard  .' 346 

McHose,   Clarence   N 1228 

Mcllvaine  Family   685 

McLane,   Breneman   S 255 

McLaughlin,  J.  F I49S 

MtManamy,   Mrs.   Bridget 1429 

McManamy,  Jolui'   1429 

McManus,  James  R 1287 

McManus,  Owen   1479 

McMellen,  Capt.  Elias 138 

McMichael,  James  M 1238 

McMichael,  Thomas  L 1333 

McMullen,  Hon.  David 651 

McNeal,  Samuel 719 

McSparran,  Edgar  L 1099 

McSparran  Family 1099 

McSparran,  James  G 871 

McSparran,  James  M 1491 

McSparran,  Thomas  F 792 

Mable,  John  828 

Mable,  William  828 

M'ack,  Patrick  J 1310 

Magee,  David  F 738 

Malone  Family  1339 

Malone,  John  E i339 

Manlick,   Frederick   1257 

Manlick,  Jacob  F 1256 

Mann  Family 641 

Mann,  Jacob  K I3S6 

Mann,  Simon  S.,  M.  D 641 

Manning,  Albert  A 910 

Manning  Family 91° 

Manning,  George  K 113S 

Manning,  Harry  N 910 

Manuel.  Israel  1096 

Markley,  Benjamin  F 979 

Markley,  J.  Monroe 1116 

Marsh,  James  P 731 

Marsh,  Thomas  J 398 

Miarshall,  Charles  L 767 

Marshall,  James  H 1326 

Marshall,  William  0 767 

Martin,  Abner  H 1007 

Martin,  Adam  1217 

Martin,   Abraham  W 1493 

Martin,  Barton  B 221 

Martin,  Benjamin  S 973 

'Martin,  Benjamin  F i4S6 

Martin,  Christian  1203 

Martin,  David  H ii49 

Martin,    David    H.    (Elizabeth- 
town)    1479 

Martin,  David   S 1216 

Martin,  E.  K 220 

Martin  Families 220,  1479 

Martin,  Henry  N 988 

Martin,  Isaac  1063 

Martin,  Isaac  G 1063 

Martin,  Mrs.  Joanna 507 

Martin,  John  C 221 

Miartin,  John  N 1425 

Martin,  John  P 1363 

Martin,  Menno  B 1007 

Martin,   Peter   171 

Mfeirtin,  Samuel 521 

Martin,   Samuel  D 1007 

Martin,  William  S 506 

M'atz,  Carl  0 280 

MJaule,  J.  Comly 461 

Maule,  Mrs.  S.  Emma 461 

Maurer,  George  M 519 

Mlaxwell,  Miss  Ellen  E 693 

Maxwell,  Hugh 33 

Maxwell,  William  693 

May,  Frederick 147 

May,   Samuel  C 1220 

May,  Tobias  H 147 

Mayer,  David  E 479 

Mayer,  Henry  M 532 

Mayer,  Israel  P 733 

Mayling,  George  A 366 

Mayling,  Mrs.  Rebecca  M 366 

Mearig,  William  M 927 

Meek,  John 589 

Meek.  Philip   573 

Meckley,  Abraham  H 739 

Meckley,  David  C 489 

Meckley,  Isaac 489 

Mfeckley,  Jacob  B 650 

Mieckley,  Jacob  H 519 

Meginness,  John  F 112 

Mehl,  William 838 

Meister,  Rev.  Emil 476 

M'ellinger,   Clayton  S 1207 

Mellinger.  Daniel  H 1162 

Mellinger,  David  F 286 

Mellinger,  David  H 436 

Mellinger,  David  H.   (1832) 1463 

Mellinger  Families  436,  1207 

Mellinger,  Henry  S 232 

Mellinger,  Henry  S.,  M.  D 436 

Mellinger,  Jacob  564 

Menaugh,  John  H 1434 

Meshey,  Peter  G 1225 

Metz,  Thornton  B 1285 

Metzger  Family 164 

Metzger,  Henry  S 164 

Metzger,  Philip  A 920 

Metzler,  Abraham   1130 

Metzler  Family  1 130 

Metzler,  John  H 1289 

Metzroth,  Mrs.   Amelie 1443 

Metzroth,  Martin  1442 

Meyers,  David  H 1061 

Michael,  Frank  887 

Miesse,  D.  Walter 1477 

Mifflin,  James  DeV 1082 

Miller,  Amos  B.,  M.  D 1356 

Miller,  Aaron  W 1285 

Miller,  Mrs.   Bai'bara 1031 

Miller,  Benjamin  P 832 

Miller,  Christian  B ; . .     885 

Miller,  David  L 592 

Miller,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 1435 

Miller,  Franklin  P.  D 301 

Miller,  George  H , .   1298 

Miller,  Henry  C 73;? 

Miller,  Henry  E S85- 

Miller,  Mrs.  Hettie  E 1399 

Miller,  Dr.  Israel  A 1152 

Miller,  John  175 



Miller,  John  (1811) 1435 

Miller,  John  L 1030 

Miller,  John  S 400 

Miller,  Joseph  1067 

Miller,  Joseph  (East  Donegal)  .  396 

Miller,  Joseph  E 1268 

Miller;  Martin  59° 

Miller,  Martin  L 878 

Miller,  Milton  N 1232 

Miller,  Oliver  B 1084 

Miller,  Samuel   1398 

Miller,  Samuel  K 1020 

Miller,  S.  Clay : 80 

Miller,  Wesley   1039 

Milleysack,  Jphn  B 1125 

Minich,  Mrs.  Anna  C 224 

M'inich,  Benjamin  F 951 

Minich,  Charles  W 1244 

Minich,  Henry  G 223    . 

Minich,  Jacob  A 1243 

Minnich,  John  L 1075 

Minnich,  Jonas  L 104S 

Minnich,  Simon  B '. . . .  1344 

Missener,  J.  R 684 

Mitchell,  James,  M.  D 392 

Mitchell,  Rev.  James  Y.,  D.  D.  391 

Moderwell,  S.  P 961 

Mioench,  Charles  L 843 

Mo'bler,  David  K 1004 

Mohler,  Levi  829 

Montgomery,  Caleb  E 78 

Montgomery,  James  441 

Montgomery,  Prof.  John  V. . . .  78 

Montgomery,  Washington 141S 

Moore,  Mrs.  Anna  E 28 

Moore  Family 809 

Mtoore,  Harry  H 1378 

Moore,  John 183 

Moore,  Dr.  John  G 27 

Moore,  John  H 270 

Mioore,  Michael  H 432 

Moore,  Dr.  Mordecai  M 27 

Moore,  Phares  S S29 

M'oore,  William  B ' 809 

Moiore,  Prof.  William  W.,  A.  M.  1341 

Morison,  George  A 1424 

Morrison,  Alexander  K 510 

Morrison,  Robert  A 1384 

Mowery  Family   239 

Mowery,  Henry  A.,  M.  D 239 

Mowrer,  Amos  S 635 

Mowrer,  David  W 948 

Mowrer  Family   948 

Moyer,  David  L 1048 

Moyer,  John  G 893 

Mueller,  John  P 1079 

Muhlenberg,  Frederick  A 72 

Muhlenberg,  Dr.  G.  Henry  E. .  72 

Muhlenberg,  Henry  E.,  M.  D. .  72  , 

Mumma,  Christian  N 1418 

Mumma,  Frank  Ni 278 

Mumma,  Jacob  S 526 

Murr,   Mrs.    Catharine ,. .  642 

Murr,  Isaac  642 

Murray,  Lindley 81 

Musselm'an,  Christian 156 

Musselman,  Harry 1481 

Musselman,  Jacob 485 

Musselman,  John  187 

Musselman!,  Weaver 1023 

Musser,  Andrew  J 90 

Musser,  Benjamin  G 401 

Musser,  B.  Frank 868 


Musser,  Mrs.  Caroline 163 

Musser,  Daniel  793 

Musser,  Eli  M 654 

Musser  Families 90,  250,  814,  868 

Musser,  Harry  E 1465 

Musser,  Henry  E.,  M.  D 814 

Musser,  Henry  S 1373 

Musser,  Henry  S.   (East  Done- 
gal)     1263 

Musser,  Isaiah  N 401 

Musser,  J.  Henry,  M.  D 250 

Musser,  John  N 955 

Musser,  Mrs.  M|ary 654 

Musser,  Michael  B 654 

Musser,  Milton  B.,  M.  D 163 

Musser,  Miss  Susan  S 1162  ' 

Myer,  Miss  Anna 862 

Myer,  Miss  Elizabeth 383 

Myer  Family  862 

Myer,   Samuel   R 382 

Myers,  Abraham 898 

Myers,  Christian 1444 

Myers,  Christian  H 1348 

Myers,  David 507 

Myers,  David  B 689 

Myers,  Elam  S 939 

Myers,  Mrs.  Ella 1444 

Myers  Families   898,  1 181 

Myers,  Henry  222 

Myers,  Jacob  R ,  1181 

Myers,  John  B 1069 

Mjyers,  John  H 1235 

Myers,  Mrs.  Mary  H 689 

Myers,  Michael  B 1447 

Myers,  Michael  G 1447 

Myers,  Reuben  J 74S 

Myers,  Samuel  M 504 

Mylin,   Aldus   C 858 

Mylin,  Hon.  Amos  H 1401 

Mylin,  EU  K 1467 

Mylin,  Frank , 1432 

Mylin,  John  B iiis 

Mylin,  Martin  K 369 

Mylin,  Samuel  M 401 

Nagel,  Rev.  Charles 466 

Nagle  Family   1412 

Nagle,  Henry   1411 

Nauman,  Mrs.  Annie  R 761 

Nauman,  George 91 

Nauman,  John 92 

Nauman,  John  S 761 

Neff,  Aldus  F 866 

Neff,  Benjamin  H I43S 

Neff,  Daniel  S 919 

Neff,  Emanuel 467 

Neff.  Levi  B 1425 

Nevin,  John  W.,  D.  D 143 

Newcomer,  Abraham 335 

Newcomer,  Amos  W 339 

Newcomer,  Christian  K 1222 

Newcomer,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  M. .  1222 

Newcomer,  Ezra  W.,  V.  M.  D. .  1107 

Newcomer,  Jacob  B 1392 

Newcomer,  Rev.  Jacob  K 756 

Newcomer,  Jacob  N 339 

Newcomer,  Joseph  K 503 

Newell,  Charles  F 1360 

Nislev,  Daniel  B I3S3 

Nissley,  Eli  L 74i 

Nissley,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 39.=; 

Nissley,  Gabriel  E 1478 

Nissley,  Harvey  B 1374 


Nissley,  Henry  B 536 

Nissley,  Hiram  H 1209 

Nissley,  Peter  B 395 

Nissley,  Peter  R 1 148 

Nissly,  B.  H 1303 

Nissly  Family  638 

Nissly,  Mrs.  Joseph  B 235 

Nissly,  Joseph  B 234 

Nissly,  Levi  W 1266 

Nissly,  Samuel  528,  638 

Noble,  Mrs.  Martha  L 1249 

Noble,  William  M 1249 

Nolt,  Jonas  H S97 

Nolt,  Rev.  Reuben  S 1030 

North,  Hugh  M 32 

Ober,  Andrew  C 1494 

Ober,  Henry  K 1370 

Ober,  Henry  R 1176 

Ober,  Michael  R 1370 

Oberholtzer,  Christian  B 1006 

Oberholtzer,  Chri'stian  H 447 

Oberholtzer,  Jacob  B '. . . .  991 

Oberholtzer,  Samuel  L 926 

Oberlin  Family 994 

Oberlin,  Howard  L 994 

Oberlin,  W.   Shelley 994 

Oldweiler,  Cyrus 1361 

Olmsted,  John 1467 

Oster,  William  M 1517 

Ostertag,  John  H ll6o 

Overdeer,  E.  Silas 119S 

Owen,   Benjamin   673 

Owen,  Eliza  673 

Owen,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  L 988 

Owen  Family 672 

Owen,  George  B 672 

Owen,  Mary  B 673 

Parke,  Alexander  G.  B.,  M.  D. .  195 

Parthemer,  John  H 645 

Patterson,  Alexander 627 

Patterson,  Bordley  S 481 

Patterson,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 627 

Patterson  Families  326,  481 

Patterson,  James  A 163 

Patterson,  James  S 326 

Patterson,  Miss  Mary  W 163 

Patton,  Abraham  1224 

Patton,  David  K 844 

Patton,  Henry 338 

Paules,  David  L 602 

Paules  Family 1366 

Paules,  Granville  W 1365 

Paules,   W.   Percy 1255 

Paxson,   Samuel   P 1466 

Paxson',v  Rev.  William,  D.  D. . .  167 

Pelen,  Abraham  1312 

Pennell,  Frank  G 582 

Pennell,  John  J 1422 

Penny  Family 491 

Penny,  John  D 1019 

Penny,  Joseph  491 

Penny.  William  C 691 

Pennypacker,  John 1052 

Penrose,  Israel   1070 

Penrose,  Lukins  534 

Peoples,  Abner  637 

Peoples.  Hon.  -Hiram 755 

Perry,  John  C 1423 

Pf aeffle,  Louis  H 1229 

Pfahler,  Henry  1192 

Pfahler,  Jacob  C 811 




Pf autz,  Ezra 728 

Pfautz,  Matilda  R 729 

Phalm,  M.  H 1464 

Phenegar,  Isaac   574 

Pbillip,  John  W 1438 

Phillip,  Mrs.  Mary  L 1438 

Phillips  Family 1441 

Phillips,  Hemy 1441 

Pickel,  Ellis 854 

Pickel,  Jacob  729 

Pickel,  Jacob  K 1410 

Plank,  Edward  H.,  M.  D 294 

Poisal,  David  W.  E 1354 

Porter,  Thomas 196 

Powdeni,  Abraham  H 592 

Powl,  Eli  B 480 

Pownall,  Benjamin  H 1424 

Pownall  Families 318,  1424 

Pownall,  Henry 317 

Pownall,  Henry  (1857) 382 

Pownall,  Joseph  D.  C 693 

Pownall,  Mrs.  Louissa  S 318,  382 

Pownall,   Phebe   '   318 

Prangley,  James,  Jr 853 

Prizer,  Elmer  T.,  M.  D 884 

Pugh,  Samuel  J 1175 

Pugh,  William  T 1351 

Purple,  Mirs.  Margaret  A 359 

Purple,  Silas  H 399 

Pusey  Family 299 

Pusey,  William  P 299 

Quade,  Frederick  327 

Quay,  Hon.  Matthew  S 2 

Ranck,  Adam  M 1492 

Ranck,  Daniel  E 1447 

Ranck,  David  W 447 

Ranck  Families  447,  1403 

Ranck,  George  H 1403 

Ranck,  Rev.  Jacob  D 166 

Ranck,  Jacob  L 697 

Ranck,  John  D 1426 

Ranck,  Rev.  John  K 165 

Ranck,  John  M 1459 

Ranck,  Samuel  W 1106 

Rankin,  Joseph  G 934 

Ranjsing,  Henry  E 1129 

Ransing,   Capt.   Henry.... 1129 

Ransing,  Mrs.  Rose 1129 

Rathfon,  Jacob 188 

Rathfon,  John  E 665 

Rathvon,  Simon  S.,  Ph.  D 139 

Raub,  G.  J.  P 833 

Raub,  John  P.  Mi 950 

Rauch.  Lewis  A 425 

Rea,  Philip  D 813 

Ream,  George  U 1466 

Ream,  William  W 1308 

Redsecker  Family 216 

Redsecker,  George 314 

Redsecker,  John  C 314 

Reed,  George  K 224 

Reed,   G.   Harry 1071 

Reed,  J.  Frank 331 

Reed,  John  F 292 

Reed,  Mansell  672 

Reed,  Mrs.  Mary 22S 

Reel,  Elam  1268 

Reel,  Whitell  L. 271 

Reemsnyder,  Byron  J.,  M!.  D...  1421 

Reemsnyder  Family 1421 

Reese,  Abram 987 


Reese,  'Christian  G 941 

Reese  Family 1390 

Reese,  Harry  G 1477 

Reese,  Samson  D 1390 

Reeser,  Peter 892 

Reeser,  Plank  713 

Reich,  Mrs;.  Ella  C 201 

Reich,  George  R.,  M.  D 1316 

Reich,  George  W.,  M.  D 201 

Reichenbach,  John  C.  W 183 

Reiling,  Charles  M 1230 

Reilly,  Edward  D 253,  336 

Reilly,  James  B 1374 

Reilly,  John 252 

Reilly,  Michael  1365 

Reilly,  Richard  M' 252 

Reilly,  T.  Wallace 253 

Reinhart,  George  W 1256 

Reinhart,  John '  1256 

Reinhart,  Levi  1387 

Reinhold,  Edwin  B 393 

Reinhold,  Edwin  L 392 

Reinoehl,  Major  Adam  C 157 

Reisinger,  Adam  J 1302 

Reist,  Aaron  E 762 

Reist,  Elias  E 190 

Reist  Family 512 

Reist,  Levi  S 189 

Reist,  Lineas  R 1276 

Reist,  Peter  1276 

Reitzel.  Edward  B 1233 

Reitzel,  Elias  0 1205 

Reitzel,  Ephraim  H.,  Sr 807 

Reitzel  Family 120S 

Rem'sburg,  Ointon  E 1039 

Resh,  Emanuel  M 1131 

Resh  Family 572 

Resh,  Henry  B 573 

Resh,  Mrs.  Susanna 573 

Ressell,  John  1469 

Resisler,  C.  M 439 

Ressler,  Henry 750 

Retheiser.  Daniel   '.     838 

Rettew,  Amos  M 1037 

Rettew,  Samuel 1481 

Rettew,  Willis  M 1480 

Retzer,  James   I4S9 

Reynolds  Family 340 

Reynolds,  George  N 340 

Reynolds,  James  L 261 

Reynolds,  John  261 

Reynolds,  Gen.  John  F 261 

Reynolds,  Samuel  H 192 

Reynolds.,  Admiral  William 261 

Rhoads,  Abraham  S 761 

Rhoads,  Henry  Z 320 

Rhoads,  Levi  S 784 

Rice,  Joseph  S 1063 

Rice,  William  R 1417 

Rich  Family 198 

Ricke'r,  Frederick  A 1020 

Ricksecker  Family I77 

Ricksecker,  Levi  177 

Riddle,  William  296 

Rider,  Jacob  D 1215 

Rieker,  Frank  A 1033 

Rieker,  Mrs.  Katharine  M, 1238 

Rinier  Family  1439 

Rinier.  Henry  1439 

Risk  Family  1202 

Risk,  Robert  B 663 

Risk,  William  R 1202 

Risser,  Mrs.  Amanda 1 147 


Risser,  Amos  L 987 

Risser,  Joseph  N 1034 

Risser,  Joseph  S 467 

Risser,  Levi  1146 

Ritchie,  E.  R 1469 

Roath,  Hon.  Emanuel  D 673 

Roath,  George  H 783 

Robinson,  Mrs.  Annie  J 1309 

Robinson  Family 1309 

Robinson,  George  M 1126 

Robinson,  John  W 1309 

Rochow,  Charles 831 

Rochow,  Ernest 1 106 

Rochow  Family 831 

Rodgers,  Augustus   1286 

Rodkey,  Mirs.  Amelia  M 318,  1130 

Rodkey,  John 1 130 

Roebuck,  Peter  J.,  M.  D 113 

Rogers,  William  R looi 

Rohr,  George 283 

Rohrer,  Abram  K 839 

Rohrer,  Amos  K 1473 

Rohrer,  Christian 493 

Rohrer,  Christian  H 1426 

Rohrer,  David  B 1463 

Rohrer  Family 213 

Rohrer,  George  R.,  M.  D 213 

Rohrer,  Henry  D 839 

Rohrer,  Henry  'S 493 

Rohrer,  Isaac  F 1468 

Rohrer,  Jacob 470 

Rohrer,  Jacob  H 1330 

Rohrer,  John  K 1146 

Rohrer,  John  L 196 

Rohrer,  John  S 1231 

Rohrer,  Milton  S 1377 

Rohrer,  T.  M.,  M.  D 1038 

Rohrer,  Wayne  B 938 

Roland,  Cornelius  F 34 

Roland,  Miss  Elizabeth  J 628 

Roland,  George  0 627 

Roland,  Henry  A 333 

Roland,  Mrs.  Jane  W 334 

Roland,  John  618 

Roland,  Hon.  Jonathan  H 628 

Romig,  S.   P 1272 

Roop,  Harry  B.,  M.  D 849 

Root,  Abraham  W 1012 

Root  Family 1012 

Root,  Samuel  N 717 

Rosenmiller,  Hon.  David  P 1199 

Rosenmiller,  Miss  Rebecca 1199 

Rosenstein,  Albert 728 

Ross,  George  189 

Rost,  George  1433 

Rote,  Andrew  B 1107 

Rote,  Henry 1333 

Rotehorn,  Frank 1310 

Rowe,  C.  S 844 

Royer,  Abraham  429 

Royer,  Cyrus  1497 

Royer,  Jacob  W.,  M.  D 430,  988 

Royer,  Joseph  R 848 

Ruby,  Harry  K 746 

Rudy,  Christian 918 

Rudy,  David  B 1277 

Ruhl,  Harry  H 1017 

Rupp,  Benjamin  S 1360 

Rupp,  Prof.  Isaac  D 149 

Rupp,  Joseph 1364 

Rupp,    Rev.    William.,    A.    M., 

D.  D 82 

Russel,  John  R 313 




Russell,  Michael  F 1198 

Ruth  Family  1412 

Ruth,  John  F 151S 

Ruth,  William  D 1412 

Rutherford,  Albert  C 1196 

Rutherford,  John  D SS4 

Rutt,  Samuel  M 1458 

Rutter,  Amos 704 

Rutter  Families 195,  370,  704 

Rutter,  Henry  S 59i 

Rutter,  John  M 370 

Rynear,  Charles   593 

Rynear,  Mrs.  Rachel  M 594 

Sample,  Dr.  Nathaniel  W 151 

Sample,  Samuel  R.,  M.  D 151 

Samuels',  Charles  A 1349 

Sander,  Henry .'  754 

Sander,  Henry  M '. 755 

Sandoe,  George 1270 

Sapp,  William  C 1381 

Sauder,  Jacob  M 1024 

Sauder,  Rev.  John  M 1229 

Saud«r,  Peter  H 562 

Saylor,   Benjamin  F 1157 

Schaeffer,  Emanuel  694 

Schaeffer,  M'.  G 724 

Schaibley,  Michael  1094 

Scheetz,  Abram 350 

Schenck  Family   1127 

Schenck,  John  H 1127 

Schlegelniilch,  Frank  X 11 17 

Schleich,  George  H 1369 

Schleich,  John  1369 

Schlott,  William  1003 

Schnader  Family  692 

Schnader,  Reuben  K 691 

Schneider  (or  Snader)  Family.  109 

Schneitman,  William  B 821 

Schock  Families 626,  1028 

Schock,  John  626 

Schock,  John   (Manor) 102S 

Schofield.  Mrs.  Mary  M 1322 

Schroeder,  Francis I44 

Schroeder,  Mrs.  Katherine  B...  144 

Schroyer  Family 460 

Schroyer,  Henry  A 460 

Schuberth,  Charles  G 608 

Scott,  Mrs.  Edith  R 350 

Scott,  Jesse 542 

Scott,  John  542 

Scott,  Miss  Mary  H 350 

Scott,  N.  Davis 350 

Scott,  Robert  A 759 

Scott,  Winfield 1242 

Seabold,  John 1217 

Seachrist.  Jacob  S II47 

Seiple,  Harvey   358 

Seiple,  John   358 

Seitz,  Charles  C 416 

.Seitz,  Christian  394 

Seitz,  Jacob  C 725 

Seitz,  Jacob  G 725 

Seitz,  John  C 707 

Seldomridge,   Aldus   M 1451 

Seldomridge,  George   163,  1451 

Seldomridge,  Jeremiah  486 

Seldomridge,  Robert  C , . .  1338 

Seldomridge,  Samuel  M . .' 364 

Seldomridge,  Mrs.  Sarah  A....  164 

Seltzer,  William  K 61 

Sener  Family 200 

Sener,  J.  Frederick 200 


Sener,   Levi    1076 

Senger,  John  B 981 

Sensenich,  Franklin  W 1063 

Sensenig,  George  R 468 

Shafer,  Adam  S 1148 

Shaftner,  Casper 85 

Shand,  James 228 

Shank,  Aaron  H 523 

Shank,  Jacob  I399 

Shank,  Jonas  E 919 

Shank,  Park  B 1166 

Sharp,  Samuel  L 1481 

Shaub,  Abraham  ..  .• 1491 

Shaub,  Prof.  Benjamin  F 335 

Shaub,  Ephraim  H 843 

Shaub  Family  1143 

Shaubach,  Amos 771 

Shauhach,  Martin 1378 

Shaubach,  Reuben 739 

Shaw,  Emmor  1234 

Sheaffer,  Amos  A 895 

Sheaffer,  Diller  S 632 

Sheaffer,  Enos  D 1015 

Sheaif  er,  Martin  D 632 

Sheaffer,  Mlartin  R 518 

Sheaffer,  Peter  F.,  M.  D 1255 

Shec  Family 711 

Shee,  Parke  E 711 

Sheetz,  Rev.  Amos  M 971 

Sheibly,  Abram,  Jr 352 

Sheibly,  Abram  G 35i 

Sheibly  Family  633 

Shellenberger,  Andrew  R 792 

,  Shellenberger  Family 1207 

Shelley,  Samuel  A 823 

Shelly,  Amos  851 

Shelly,  Emanuel  906 

Shelly,  Samuel  S 857 

Sbenberger,  Mrs.  Anna  J.  B 1094 

Sbeniberger,  John 1093 

Shenck,  Albert  F 154 

Sbenck,  Henry  C 872 

Shenck,  Jacob  K 1468 

Shenk,  Abraham  M 1446 

Shenk,  Abram  L 380 

Shenk,  Benj  amin  M 922  ' 

Shenk,  Christian  L 445 

Shenk,  Christian  K 795 

Shenk  Families 794,  922 

Shenk,  Henry  K 794 

Shenk,  Oliver  H 939 

Sberer,  Joseph 95 

Sherk,  Christian  G 387 

Shero,  Rev.  William  F.,  A.  M. .  818 

Sherts,  John  J 1097 

Shertzer,  Benjamin  381 

Shertzer,   Benjamin  F 382 

Shetrone,  David  329 

Shetrone,  Mts.  Mary  M 329 

Shillott,  Frank 768 

Shillow,  George  A 963 

Shindle,  Michael  G 671 

Shindle,   Peter  236 

Shippen,  Edward   93 ' 

Shi  reman  Mrs.  Martha 636 

Shirk,  Emanuel  R 600 

Shirk,  L.  W 1282 

Shissler,  Simon 901 

Shnavely,  Henry 446 

Shoemaker,  Abram   1013 

Shoemaker,  Leander  985 

ShoemakeT,  William  L 806 

Shoff,  Frederic  568 


Shoflf.  Christian  568 

Shomier,  J.  Edward 943 

Shookers,  Tobias  S 242 

Showaker,  John  W S06 

Shreiner,  Qiarles  E 803 

Shreiner,  Henry  M 754 

Shreiner,  Martin 754 

SliTom,  Andrew  F 785 

Shue,  Ephraim  W 1206 

Shuemaker,  Christian  423 

Shultz,  Benjamin  K 1411 

Shultz,  John  M 1321 

Shultz,  Joseph  K 1428 

Shultz,  Levi  900 

Shultz,  Milton  K 378 

Shuman,  Michael  S 1070 

Sides,  B.  F.,  M.  D 83 

Siebold,  Julius  P 815 

Siegler,  Mrs.  Helen  P 1244 

Siegler,  Lewis  F.,  M.  D 785 

Siegler,  Nicholas  S 1244 

Sigle,  Mrs.  Barbara 907 

Sigle,  Thomas  E 906 

Simon,  Joseph 90 

Siple,  George  E 956 

Skiles,  John  D 52 

SI jck,  Harry  B 566 

Slaymaker,  Amos  52 

Slaymaker  Families 50,  93;  882 

Slaymaker,   Henry  E 93 

Slaymaker,  J.  Martin,  M.  D 881 

Slaymaker,  Peter  E 202 

Sload,  John   i473 

Slokom  Family 721 

Slokom,  Isaac  W 721 

Slough,  Col.  Matthias 15 

Smith,  Amos  P SSO 

Smith,  Mrs.  Christiana  C 397 

Smith,  Charles  H 624 

Smith,  Eugene  G 293 

Smith,  Filbert   .-  ■  ■  692 

Smith,  George 1163 

Smith,  George  J 396 

Smith,  Gerritt  1215 

Smith,  Gideon  H 263 

Smith,  Gilbert  929 

Smith,  Mrs.  Grace  C S96 

Smith,  Rev.  Henry  R S9S 

Smith,  John  1126 

Smith,  John  C ii74 

Smith,  John  R I43i 

Smith,  John  S 624 

Smith,  Mftss  Lettie 1127 

Smith,  Capt.  Martin  H 114S 

Smith,  Mrs.  Mlary  E 1 14S 

Smith.  Robert  1329 

Smith,;  W.  J 1S17 

Smoker  Family 1332 

Smoker,  James  M 1332 

Smoker,  William  H 130S 

Sraucker,  EK   1216 

Smucker,  John  B 1201 

Snader,  Aaron  W no 

Snader,  Abraham  P 1021 

Snader  (or  Schneider)  Family.  log 

Suavely,  Abraham,  B 599 

Sriavely,  Mrs.  Annie 1 143 

Suavely  Family 342 

Suavely,  Frank  B 1205 

Suavely,  Henry  H 1121 

Snavely,  John  G 342 

Snavely,  Moses 529 

Sneath,  Jacob 369 




Snyder,  Mrs.   Annie 1491 

Snyder,   Mrs.  Elizabeth 198 

Snyder,  Elwood  S.,  M.  D 632 

Snyder  Family  . .  .  ; 658 

Snyder,  Jacob  L 859 

Snyder,  J.  A 826 

•  Snyder,  John  A 197 

Snyder,  John  E 916 

Snyder,  John  M 847 

Snyder,  John  P 1216 

Snyder,  John  S 1223 

Snyder,   Joseph    C 1490 

Snyder,  Samuel 826 

Snyder^  Samuel   S 658 

Snyder,  Gov.  Simon m 

Snyder,  William  D 820 

Sommers.  Dennis  1073 

Souders,  O.  N 1236 

Sourbeer,   Mrs.    Charlotte 1521 

Sourbeer,  Joshua   1520 

Spotts,  James  H 8.S0 

Sprecher  Family  484 

Sprecher,  George  D 484 

Sprecher,  John  438 

Sprecher,  Capt.  Philip  L 689 

Sprecher,  Samuel  799 

Sprecher,  Mirs.  Samuel 800 

Sprenger,  John  A 464 

Spurrier  Family , 1193 

Spurrier.  Nathaniel  A.  K 1193 

Stacks,  Samuel  S 1331 

Stair,  Edwin  S 1074 

Stair,  Mrs.  Eunice 1074 

Staman,  Edward  H 1298 

Stamm,  Carl  P 1325 

Stamra,  Charles  P.,  D..  D,  S...  1518 

Stamm,  Frederick 1.^25 

Stamm,  John  664 

Stamm,  Miss  Martha  E 665 

Stamy,  Adam  R 462 

Stape,  Daniel  , .  277 

.Staufifer,  Abraham  E. .  . '. 700 

Stauffer,  Abraham  Y 1034 

Stauffer,  Amos  N 804 

Stauffer,  Benjamin  F 1469 

Stauffer,  Benjamin  F.    (Colum- 
bia)      827 

Stauffer,  Charles  F S^'O 

Stauffer,  Christian  R 1470 

Stauffer,   Clayton  K 1301 

Stauffer,   Cyrus  D 549 

Stauft'er,  Edwin  H 1 1 19 

Stauffer  Families  840,  1301 

Stauffer,  Harry  M 1078 

Stauffer,  Henry  M 1007 

Stauffer,  Irvin  H 549 

Stauffer,  Jacob  E 4.57 

Stauffer,  Jacob  G 83.S 

Stauffer,  Jacob  M i'034 

Stauffer,  John'  G I I7S 

Stauffer,   Samuel  S Q2i 

Steacy,  George  S 899 

Steele  Families  30,  95 

Stehman,  Abraham  W 311 

Stehman,  Christian  W 286 

Stehman,  Harry  J 1504 

Stehman,  John  S 1 128 

Steigel,  Wilhelm  H 83 

Steinheiser,  Georpre  F 1258 

Steinman,  A.  J.,  Esq 46 

Steinman  Familv   46 

Steinman,  John  F 47 

Steinmetz.  Hon.  Jacob  L 668 


Steinmetz,  Mrs.  Mary  V.  H....  66g 

Stephan,  Cha;rles  B 1151 

Stephan,  John  W 993 

Sterni  Family 888 

Stern,  Peter  M 888 

Stevens,  Tbaddeus  36 

Stevenson,  Samuel  C 338 

Stillinger,  Samuel  M 1267 

Stively,  A.  L 1385 

Stively  Family 1,386 

Stively,  Frederick 417 

Stober  Family 7i8 

Stober,  Hon.  Jeremiah  A 718 

Stokes,  Daniel  .'....  1292 

Stoll,  Harry  S 695 

Stoltzfus,  Christian  B 523 

Stoltzfus,  Samuel  U : . . .  900 

.Stoner,  Christian  F 1367 

Stoner,  Frederick  680 

Stoner,  Jacob 752 

Stoner,  John  K 456 

Stoneroad,  Samuel  584 

StoTb,  Theodore  M 543 

Stork,  Harvey  K 1516 

Strauss,  William  T 969 

Strickler,  Calvin  R 964 

Strickler,  Mai.  Michael  B 787 

Stroh,  John  B 712 

Stubbs,  Ambrose  H.,  M.  D 219 

Stubbs,  Charles  H.,  M.  D 218 

Stubbs,  Clarence  T 219 

Stubbs  Family 216 

Stubbs,  Jeremiah  B.,  M.  D 217 

Stump,  Michael 1079 

Stumpf,  Mrs.  Henrietta 1044 

Stumpf,  Philip 1044 

Styer,  Daniel  W.,  M.  D 978 

Styer  Family  435 

Styer,  Peter  435 

Summy,  Hon.  Aaron  H.  ...... .  I34 

Summy,  Abrarii 657 

Summy,  Simeon  G 972 

Swarr  Family   . 1320 

Swarr,  Milton  L 1380 

Swarr,  Phares  P 1320 

Swartz,  Charles 1076 

S wartz,  John  H 12QI 

Sweeney,  John  J 1480 

Swisher,  James  1434 

Swisher,  James,  Sr 473 

Swisher,  Simeon  W.,  Esq 774 

Tanger,  John  G 680 

Taylor,  Mrs.  Marv  L 1019 

Taylor,  Samuel  W 1019 

Tennis,  Samuel  455 

Terry,  Henrv 778 

Tboma-s.  Michael  P..  Tr 914 

Thome,  William  B,,  M.  D 816 

Thompson  Families 235,  770 

Thompson,  Squire  Hiram  L.  ..  .  135 

Thompson,  John  C 710 

Thompson,  John  W 235 

Thorbahn,  Prof.  John  F.  C...  I74 

Tomlin,  Mrs.  Mary 847 

Townsend,  Elwood  H 1046 

Townsend,  Elwood  M 1136 

Townsend,  Henry  P 347 

Townsend,  Jacob  R 1 140 

Townsend,  Miss  M,arietta 347 

Townsend,  Mrs.  Susan  M 1141 

Trexler,  Jacob  F.,  M.  D 865 

Trissler,  Benjamin  F 990 


Trout  Family 265 

Trout,  Frank  B ..  808 

Trout,  Squire  Frank  M '. .  .  264 

Trout,  Harry  L 741 

Truscott,  Mrs.  Jemima  M 811 

Tschantz,  Hans  92 

Tyson,  Charles  H 539 

Tyson  Family 539 

Ulrich,  Joseph  A 1104 

Umble  Family 211 

Umble,  Jacob  K 211 

Underwood,  Dr.  Mary  A 1165 

Upp,  William  W 273 

Van  Ness,  Marie  R.,  M.  D 925 

Von  Nieda,  Daniel  S 578 

Wacker,  Cha'rles  V 1384 

Wacker,  Joseph 479 

Wacker,  Joseph,  Jr 479 

Wade,  Amos 1235 

Wade,  Miss  Effie  L 1235 

Wade,  John  M 732 

Wagner,  George  F 1496 

Wagner,  Samuel  1251 

Walker  Families 113,  308 

Walker,  James  M.  . .  ; 113 

Walker,  Joseph  1242 

Walker,  Joseph  C 308 

Walker,  Josiah   1242 

Walker,  William 445 

Walter.  Adam  V.,  M.  D 1158 

Walter,  B.  Frank 751 

Walter,  .Brinton 230 

Walter  Family 230 

Walton,  Amos 472 

Walton  Family  765 

Walton,  George  W 763 

Wanner,  David  1204 

Wanner  Family 1204 

Warfel,  EU '.  1456 

Warfel,  Elwood  C 881 

Warfel.  George  W 1502 

Warfel,  Hiram  G 1462 

Warfel,  John  B 136 

Warfel.  John  H 1116 

Warfel,  Samuel 485 

Warfel,  Silas  N 185 

Watson,  John  J 1319 

Watt,  P.  T 148 

Wayne,  Simon  P 819 

Weaver.  Aaron  472 

Weaver,  Aaron  (Earl) 1144 

Weaver,  Amos 413 

Weaver,  Amos  A 727 

Weaver,  David  D 1131 

Weaver,  Enos  B 931 

Weaver,  Ephraim  E 516 

Weaver  Families  .325,  788 

Weaver,  Frank  J 325 

Weaver,  Isaac  , 472 

Weaver,  Isaac  H 842 

Weaver,  J.  F 1074 

Weaver,  Jacob  G.,  M.  D 142 

Weaver,  John  H 528 

Weaver,  Jonathan  H 207 

Weaver,  Joseph  B 1120 

Weaver,  Rev.  Levi  H 242 

Weaver,  Maris  B 701 

Weaver,  Martin   788 

Weaver,  Milton  L 500 

Weaver,  Samuel  R.,  Esq.  ......  1346 




Webb,  Ezekiel  G 1185 

Webb  Family 1185 

Weber,  John  T 946 

Weber,  Louis  1013 

Weber,  Otto  E 1521 

Webster,  Cicero  S 1281 

■Wehner,  Peter I3S7 

Weidler,  Jacob  G 1409 

Weidler,  Walter  B.,  M.  D 932 

Weiler,  George   363 

Weill,  Henry  804 

Weiser,  Conrad  178 

Welchans,  Mrs.  Anna  M 1136 

Welchans,  Charles  H 1283 

Welchans,  William 1 13S 

Welk,  George 1499 

Welk,  George,  Jr 1500 

Weiler,  David   14S 

Weller,  Miss  Elizabeth 145 

Welsh  Brothers Ii97 

Welsh,  Mis'S  Carrie 292 

Welsh,  David  F 291 

Welsh,  John  T 1198 

Welsh,  Michael  H 1198 

Welsh,  Gen.  Thomas 11 

Wendler,  John  M .  . . 1407 

Wenger,   Abraham  E 182 

Wenger,  Miss  Anna  M 966 

Wenger,  Clayton  S 1352 

Wenger  Families  181,  891 

Wenger,  Henry  L 1 141 

Wenger,  Jacob   182 

Wenger,  Michael   966 

Wenger,  Monroe  B 8gi 

Wentz  Families   I49,  1085 

Wentz,  Thomas  H.,  M.  D 1085 

Wentz,  William  H 524 

Wentz,  W.  J.,  M.  D I49 

Weseman,  ^'irs.  Florence  M.  ..  .  259 

Weseman,  George  T.,  M.  D....  258 

Westafer,  John  G 533 

Westerhoff ,  Henry 1253  ' 

Wetzel,  Samuel  M 307 

Whiteside,  John  W 1081 

Whiteside,  Samuel  P 1209 

Whiteside,  William  C 904 

Whitson,  Jacob  T iiS4 

AA'hitteker,  Rev.  John  E.,  D.  D.  205 

Wickersham,  James  P 25 

VVickersham,  J.  Harold 26 

Widmyer,  David  B 269 

Widmyer  Family 269 

Wiggins,  Samuel   45i 

Wike  Families   1103,  1222 

Wike,  Milton  1222 

Wike,  Nathan  E 1103 

Williams  Family I94 

Williams,  Isaac  T I95 

Williams,  Zachariah  B I94 

Willson,   George   B 1347 

Wilson  Family 129 

Wilson,  James  jNI 580 

Wilson,  John  682 

W«lson,  John  D 683 

Wilson,  Jonathan  M 105,6 

Wilson,   Mrs.   Margaret  A 490 

Wilson,  Sidwell  T 489 

Wil-on    William  R 129 

Wimer,  Michael   419 

Winower,  Charles  A 1379 

Winower  Family   318 

Winower,  Peter  J 318 

Winter,  Ella  M 769 

Winters,  Barton  M.,  M.  D 87 

Winters  Family    86 

Winters,  Isaac  D.,  M,  D 86 

Winters,  John  L.,  M.  D 87 

Winters,  Mrs.  Mary 1434 

Winters,  Richard  N 1434 

Winters.  Walter  H 1073 

Wise,  Christian  552 

Wise,  Jacob  389 

Wisler  Family 952 

Wisler,  Henry 960 

Wisler,  Jacob  F .' 952 

Wisler,  John  K 1092 

Wisman,  Adam  797 

Wisner,  George  E 686 

Wissler,  Aaron  259 

Wissler,  Ezra 665 

Wissler  Families  259,  666 

Wissler,  Jacob  B 501 

Wissler,  Tobn  B 666 

Withers,  Mrs.  Anna  B 827 

Witman,  Barton  114S 

Witman  Family    1233 

Witman,  William  426 

Witmcr;  Aaron   599 

Witmer,  Rev.  -\braham  M 1026 

Witmer,  Abraham  R 547 

Witmer,  Abraham  Z 1161 

Witmer,  B.  Barton 935 

Witmer,   Benjamin  Z 577 

Witmer,  David  Z 1463 

Witmer,  Elias  H.,  M.  D 262 

Witmer  Families 226,  235, 

306,  4,38.  544,  601,  727,  1026,  1464 

Witmer,  George  H 3°^ 

Witmer,  Jacob  438 

Witmer,  Jacob  E 1278 

Witmer,  Jacob  H 246 

Witmer,  Jacob  R 601 

Witmer,  Mrs.  Margaret  M 1018 

Witm-er,  Martin    712 

Witmer,  Martin  F 902 

Witmer.  Mary  K 727 

Witmer,  Peter  E 494 

Witmer,  Samuel   1018 

Witmer.  Rev.  S,  Z 202 

Witmer,  Zachariah  R 14=2 

Witmeyer,  Henry  H 763 

Witmeyer.  Jeremiah  H 768 

Wohlsen,  P.  Harry 873 

Wohlsen;  William    ,^48 

Wolf.  Elias S^7 

Wolf,  E.  S 1059 

Wolf,  Ezra  B 8.36 

Wolf,  Henry   • 777 

Wolf,  John   S 1055 

Wolf.  Joseph   1043 

Wolf.  Lemon  C "64 

Wolf.  Dr    \apoleon  B 1461 

Wolf.  William  H.. 8.37 

Wolgemuth,  Rev.  Daniel 238 

Wolgemulh.  Daniel   B 1448 

Wolgemuth,  Eli  H 957 


Wolgemuth,  Henry  B I042 

Wolgemuth,  Rev.  John  M 84 

Wood,  Alfred   1023 

Wood  Families 945,  1132,  1393 

Wood,  James 503 

Wood,  Jesse 945 

Wood,  Lewis  1132  ' 

Wood,   Rev.   Ottiwell 1393 

Wood,  Robert  K 945 

Woods,  John  N 655 

Woolworth,  F.  W 781 

Worrest,  Alfred  H 618 

Worst  Family   707 

Worst,  Henry  707 

Worth,  Albert  B 1213 

Worth  Family  1213 

Worth,  William  T.,  M.  D 963 

Worthington,  Thomas  K 239 

Wright,  E.  W.,  Al.  D 1475 

Wright,  Howard .' 423 

Wright,  John  50 

Wright,  Robert  K 423 

Yeager,  Charles  S 266 

Yergey,  H.  F 1205 

Yocom,  Mrs.  Annie  K 1167 

Yocum,  Joseph  W 260 

Yoder,  Jo.?eph  C,  D.  D.  S 674 

Yohn,  William    406 

Yohn,  William  F 916 

Yost,  John  F.,  M.  D 171 

Young  Family   1250 

Young,  Henry  A 1364 

Young.  Henry  Z 1250 

Young,  Hiram   S i486 

Young,  John  M mo 

Young,  Samuel  1250 

Zcamer.  Joseph  H 990 

Zell,  Edwin  M..  D.  D.  S 166 

Zell,  John  W.,  M.  D 1389 

Zeller,  Charles  H 515 

Zeller.  John  H 515 

Zercher,  Andrew  J 986 

Zercher,  Emanuel  H 762 

Zercher,  Ezra  H 860 

Zercher,  Jacob  699 

Zercher,  John 688 

Ziegler,  Amos   1060 

Ziegler,  Francis  X 274 

Ziegler,  Frank  1251 

Ziegler,  Jacob  H 581 

Ziegler,  Jacob  L.,  M.  D 508 

Ziegk-r,  Mrs.  Mary  M 1251 

Zimmerman,  Abraham  M 944 

Zimmerman,  Daniel 549 

Zimmerman      (or      Carpenter), 

Emanuel    163 

Zimmerman  Family 169 

Zimmerman.  Rev.  John  M 169 

Zook  Family   180 

Zook,   T.   Gu^t 180 

Zook,  Jolm  G 716 

Zook,  .tolin  S 1452 

Zook,  Jr --f  r,h   1294 

Zook,  S.  Kurtz 1336 





INGSTON, LL.  D.,  Presi- 
dent Judge  of  the  Second 
Judicial  District  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, now  serving  his 
fourth  term,  was  born  in 
Salisbury  township,  Lancas- 
ter county,  on  Sunday,  Oct. 
14,  1 82 1.  His  father  was 
John  Livingston,  and  his 
mother  Jane  Graham.  John  Livingston,  through 
whom  the  Judge  is  of  English  descent,  was  a  farmer, 
teacher  and  justice  of  the  peace,  and  one  of  the  prom- 
inent citizens  of  Lancaster  county.  On  his  mother's 
side  Mr.  Livingston  is  descended  from  Scotch-Irish 

John  B.  Livingston  obtained  his  primary  edu- 
cation under  the  private  instruction  of  his  father, 
whom  he  assisted  in  the  farm  work,  for  some 
branches  of  which  physical  disability  had  irlcapaci- 
tated  the  father.  Much  devolved  upon  the  eldest 
son,  who  attended  school  in  the  winter  and  improved 
his  leisure  hours  during  his  summer  work  by  study. 
Matters  continued  thus  until  1842,  when,  his 
younger  brothers  being  able  to  assume  their  share 
of  the  farm  work,  John  engaged  in  teaching  school, 
which  occupation  he  followed  three  years,  still  assist- 
ing his  father  during  the  summer.  In  the  mean- 
time, besides  receiving  instruction  from  his  father 
and  in  the  public  schools,  he  attended  the  select 
school  of  Rev.  Dr.  Timlow,  one  of  the  best  in  the 
county.  He  early  evinced  marked  ability  in  the 
prosecution  of  his  studies,  making  rapid  progress, 
and  the  roughing  he  experienced  on  the  farm  de- 
veloped that  naturally  vigorous  constitution  which 
serves  him  so  well  in  discharging  the  duties  of  the 
Bench  at  the  age  of  over  four-score. 

When  thinking  of  choosing  a  profession  the  first 
inclination  of  Mr.  Livingston  was  toward  medicine, 
but  upon  reflection  he  shrank  from  the  responsibility 
it  involved.  While  if,  as  a  doctor,  he  made  a  fatal 
mistake,  it  would  be  buried  out  of  the  light  of  the 
world,  he  feared  that  the  consciousness  of  it  would 
remain  as  an  ever  harassing  memory.  Therefore 
he  chose  the  legal  profession,  where,  if  he  blundered. 

there  would  still  be  opportunity  to  make  amends. 
Having  gained  the  consent  of  his  father,  who.  had 
been  averse  to  his  son  encountering  the  temptations 
of  city  life,  he  wrote  to  Thaddeus  Stevens  to  know 
if  he  had  room  for  a  student,  and,  if  so,  what  were 
his  terms.  He  received  this  characteristic  reply: 
"Have  room.  Take  students.  Terms,  $200.  Some 
pay,  some  don't."  So  he  came  to  Lancaster,  accom- 
panied by  his  father, '  who  introduced  him  to  Mr. 
Stevens,  who  had  just  concluded  an  address  to  a 
jury  in  the  old  court-house.  Their  reception  was 
rather  discouraging.  Assuming  that  stern  look  for 
which  Mr.  Stevens  was  sometimes  noted,  he  said: 
"You  had  better  take  the  young  man  home."  Being 
pressed  for  a  reason  by  the  astonished  father,  who 
had  thought  the  arrangement  with  the  son  under- 
stood, Mr..  Stevens  repeated  his  advice  with  em- 
phasis. Finally,  assuming  that  bland  smile  which 
he  could  command    with    equal    facility,  he  said: 

"Because  his  face  is  too honest  to  be  a  lawyer." 

The  father  replied,  "If  that  is  the  only  objection  we 
will  take  the  risk,"  and  the  "too  honest"  young 
country  lad  became  a  law  Student  of  Thaddeus 
Stevens  on  the  6th  of  January,  1846. 

Young  Livingston  was  fortunate  in  his  choice 
of  a  preceptor.  He  was  noted  in  his  early  life,  as 
he  is  to-day,  for  the  legibility  and  elegance  of  his 
penmanship,  while  Mr.  Stevens  was  a  close  com- 
petitor with  Greeley  and  Forney  in  tempting  clients 
and  compositors  to  indulge  in  profanity  while  try- 
ing to  decipher  their  chirography.  Stevens  there- 
fore was  not  long  in  estimating  the  value  of  his  new 
student  as  an  amanuensis,  and  the  result  was  that 
young  Livingston  was  domiciled  in  the  private 
office,  while  the  other  students  studied  in  the  other 
room.  Thus  he  heard  the  great  lawyer's  confer- 
ences with  clients,  and  in  this  way  learned  more  of 
practical  law  than  he  could  have  possibly  gained 
from  books  alone  in  the  same  time,  although  Mr. 
Stevens  spoke  of  him  in  after  life  as  one  of  the  most 
studious  students  he  ever  had. 

After  studying  law  two  years  Mr.  Livingston 
was  admitted  to  the  Bar,  Jan.  26,  1848;  and  at  once 
opened  a  law  office,  pursuing  a  general  practice  on 
his  own  account  until,  in  1851,  he  entered  the  office 


of  Nathaniel  Ellmaker,  Esq.,  to  assist  him  in  his 
extensive  orphans'  court  and  general  practice. 
The  estimate  which  Mr.  Stevens  facetiously  put 
upon  the  country  lad,  as  having  too  honest  a  face 
to  be  a  lawyer,  was  soon  illustrated  by  the  moderate 
fees  he  charged  his  clients,  which  became  proverb- 
ial, and  the  subject  of  criticism  by  some  of  his  less 
conscientious  contemporaries;  but  it  by  no  means 
detracted  from  his  popularity,  when,  in  1862,  he 
became  a  candidate  for  District  Attorney,  to  which 
ofEce  he  was  elected,  serving  a  term  of  three  years. 
The  energy,  ability  and  conscientious  integrity 
with  which  he  discharged  the  duties  of  that  office 
brought  him  still  more  favorably  into  public  notice, 
and  he  secured  one  of  the  largest  and  most  lucrative 
practices  in  the  county. 

Although  in  a  pecuniary  sense  it  was  no  pro- 
motion to  yield  such  a  growing  practice  for  a  seat 
on  the  Bench,  Mr.  Livingston  was  induced  to  stand 
for  the  nomination  for  President  Judge,  and,  re- 
ceiving more  votes  at  the  primary  election  than  all 
his  comipetitors  combined,  was  elected  by  a  large 
majority  in  the  fall  of  1871,  and  entered  upon  his 
official  duties  on  the  4th  of  December,  following. 
He  was  re-elected  in  1881,  and  again  in  1891, 
triumphing  over  the  most  bitter  factional  opposi- 
tion ever  made  against  any  candidate  in  Lancaster 

A  flattering  but  deserved  compliment  was  vol- 
untarily paid  Judge  Livingston  in  1882,  when  he 
received  the  joint  endorsement  of  the  Republican 
organization  and  the  Bar  of  Lancaster  County  as  a 
candidate  for  Judge  of  the  Supreme  court,  "in  the 
full  confidence  that  the  spotless  integrity  and  judi- 
cial attainments,  and  his  untiring  industry,  that 
have  made  him  the  honored  head  of  our  court, 
eminent!}'  fit  him  for  the  discharge  of  the  high 
duties  devolving  upon  a  fnember  of  the  Supreme 

But  the  crowning  recognition  of  an  upright 
judge,  a  Christian  gentleman  and  an  exemplary  citi- 
zen was  achieved  in  1901,  when  John  Boyd  Living- 
ston received  the  nomination,  by  the  unanimous  vote 
of  his  party,  for  a  fourth  term  as  President  Judge 
of  the  courts  of  Lancaster  county,  while  his  name 
was  placed  on  the  ticket  of  the  opposition  party  as 
their  candidate  for  the  same  office.  This  is  a  unique 
example  of  a  reward  for  merit — nlerit  recognized 
because  it  commanded  recognition  solely  upon  the 
admitted  claims  of  the  beneficiary.  It  is  the  first 
instance  in  the  political  history  of  Lancaster  county 
when  the  merits  of  a  candidate  have  commanded 
recognition  irrespective  of  partisan  predilections, 
and  Judge  Livingston  is  now  rounding  out  a  tenure 
of  professional  and  official  life  without  a  parallel  in 
the  judicial  annals  of  the  Commonwealth. 

While  devoted  to  his  profession  and  the  scrupu- 
lous discharge  of  every  official  duty  which  devolves 
upon  him,  Judge  Livingston  has  kept  himself  in 
touch  with  the  various  local  interests  of  his  fellow 
citizens,  especially  with  the  cause  of  popular  educa- 

tion. He  was  a  school  director  for  many  years, 
assisting  in  organizing  the  night  schools,  was  prin- 
cipal for  a  time,  and  occasionally,  when  a  teacher 
was  ill,  he  assumed  his  old  role  of  schoolmaster  by 
filling  the  temporary  vacancy.  He  served  as  presi- 
dent of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  and  took  an  active  part  as  a 
member  of  the  library  committee  in  selecting  and 
installing  the  library  of  that  institution ;  served  as  a 
member  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College,  which,  in  1897,  conferred  upon 
him  the  honorary  degree  of  LL.  D. ;  and  is  an  active 
member  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  First  State 
Normal  School,  at  Millersville,  having  been  first 
elected  by  the  stockholders  and  subsequently  ap- 
pointed by  the  State  executive.  He  is  a  communi- 
cant of  St.  James  Episcopal  Church,  and  a  member 
of  the  vestry. 

Judge  Livingston  was  united  in  marriage.  May 
18,  1853,  to  Anna  M.  Swentzell,  who  died  Sept.  24, 
1902,  and  was  buried  in  Woodward  Hill  cemetery 
Sept.  27th.  She  was  a  sister  of  Rev.  Dr.  Frederick 
Swentzell  (deceased),' and  aunt  of  Rev.  Dr.  Henry 
C.  Swentzell,  rector  of  St.  Luke's  Episcopal  Church, 
Brooklyn,  New  York. 

United  States  Senator  from  Pennsylvania,  was 
born  Sept.  30,  1833,  at  Dillsburg,  York  Co.,  this 
State.  He  comes  of  honorable  American  ancestry, 
being  a  son  of  Rev.  Anderson  Beaton  and  Catherine 
(McCain)  Quay,  the  former  a  prominent  Presby- 
terian divine,  who  was  in  the  ministry  for  many 
years,  being  pastor  in  charge  of  flourishing  churches 
at  Dillsburg,  York  county;  Beaver,  Beaver  county, 
and  Indiana,  Indiana  county,  successively. 

Through  his  mother  Rev.  Anderson  B.  Quay  was 
descended  from  James  Anderson,  who  came  from 
Scotland  in  1713,  and  subsequently  married  Eliza- 
beth Jerman,  daughter  of  Thomas  Jerman,  a  noted 
Quaker  preacher.  The  latter  emigrated  from  Wales 
with  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  and  about  1700  settled  in 
the  Chester  Valley,  where  he  erected  one  of  the  first 
mills  in  the  province.  Patrick  Anderson,  son  of 
James,  and  great-grandfather  of  the  Senator,  was 
the  first  white  child  born  in  what  is  now  Schuylkill 
township,  in  the  northern  part  of  Chester  county. 
Pa.  He  was  one  of  the  prominent  men  of  his  time 
and  place,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  stirring 
events  preceding  and  during  the  Revolutionary 
period.  He  was  a  captain  in  the  French  and  Indian 
war,  and  when  the  Revolution  broke  out  was  a 
member  of  the  Chester  County  committee,  on  which 
Anthony  Wayne  was  also  serving.  In  1776  he  en- 
tered the  service  as  captain  of  the  First  Company, 
Pennsylvania  Musketry  Battalion,  of  which  he  took 
command  after  the  battle  of  Long  Island,  in  which. 
Col.  Atlee  was  captured  and  Lieut.  Col.  Parry  was 
killed.  In  1778  and  1770  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Assembly,  and  his  son,  Isaac  Ander- 
son, represented  that  District  in  Congress  from 
1803    to    1807.     Ascenath  Anderson,  daughter  of 


Patrick  Anderson,  became  the  wife  of  Joseph  Quay, 
the  Senator's  grandfather,  and  they  lived  near 
Phoenixville,  in  what  is  now  Schuylkill  township, 
Chester  county.  Senator  Quay's  great-grand- 
mother, Ann  Beaton,  was  a  daughter  of  Daniel 
Beaton,  and  a  sister  of  Col.  John  Beaton,  who  was 
active  in  military  affairs  in  Chester  county  .during 
the  Revolutionary  war. 

Matthew  S.  Quay  graduated  from  Jefferson  Col- 
lege, Philadelphia,  in  1850,  took  up  the  study  of  law 
with  Penny  &  .Sterrett,  in  Pittsburg,  and  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  Bar  of  Beaver  county  in  1854.  In 
1855  he  was  appointed  prothonotary  of  that  county, 
was  elected  to  that  office  in  1856,  and  again  in  1859. 
In  1861  he  resigned  to  accept  a  lieutenancy  in  the 
toth  Pennsylvania  Reserves.  He  was  subsequently 
made  assistant  commissary  general  of  the  State, 
with  the  rank  of  lieutenant  colonel;  was  appointed 
private  secretary  to  Gov.  Andrew  G.  Curtin ;  and  in 
August,  1862,  was  commissioned  colonel  of  the 
134th  P.  V.  I.  He  was  mustered  out  Dec.  7,  1862, 
on  account  of  ill  health,  but  the  following  week, 
Dec.  13,  took  part  as  a  vohmteer  in  the  assault  on 
Marye's  Heights.  Having"  received  the  appoint- 
ment of  State  agent  at  Washington,  he  served  in 
that  Capacity  for  a  time,  until  recalled  by  the  Penn- 
sylvania Legislature  to  fill  the  office  of  military 
secretary,  created  by  that  body.  In  1864  he  was 
elected  to  the  Legislature,  and  again  in  1865  and 
1866.  In  the  year  last  mentioned  he  was  secretary 
of  the  Republican  State  Committee,  of  which  he 
was  chairman  in  1878.  In  1869  Mr.  Quay  estab- 
lished the  Beaver  Radical,  which  he  edited.  In 
1:873  he  became  secretary  of  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, which  incumbency  he  resigned  in  1878  to  ac- 
cept the  appointment  of  recorder  of  Philadelphia, 
resigning  the  latter  office  in  January,  1879,  when  he 
was  again  appointed  secretary  of  the  Common- 
wealth; in  October,  1882,  he  again  resigned  this 
post.  In  November,  1885,  Mr.  Quay  was  elected 
State  treasurer  by  the  largest  vote  ever  given  a 
candidate  for  that  office.  He  resigned  in  Septem- 
ber, 1887.  On  Jan.  18,  of  the  latter  year,  he  was 
elected  United  States  Senator  for  the  term  ending 
March  3,  1893,  and  immediately  took  a  most  active 
part  in  the  deliberations  of  that  body.  He  was 
member  of  the  committees  on  Manufactures,  Pen- 
sions, Public  Buildings  and  Grounds,  Post  Offices 
and  Post  Roads,  and  Claims,  and  chairman  of  the 
committee  to  examine  the  various  branches  of  the 
civil  service.  Mr.  Quay  has  been  reelected  to  this 
high  office,  continuing  to  hold  a  most  prominent 
place  in  that  legislative  body  to  the  present  time 


In  1855  Matthew  S.  Quay  was  united  m  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Agnes  Barclay,  daughter  of  John 
and  Elizabeth  (Shannon)  Barclay,  natives  of  Penn- 
sylvania, of  Scotch-Irish  descent.  Children  as  fol- 
lows have  been  born  to  this  union :  Richard  Rob- 
erts, Andrew  Gregg  Curtin,  Mary  Agnew,  Coral 
and  Susan  Willard,  all  natives  of  Beaver.    The  eld- 

est son  is  a  lawyer.  The  second  son  graduated  from 
West  Point  June  11,  1888,  and  is  in  the  United 
States  army.  The  Senator  owns  one  of  the  hand- 
somest farms  in  Lancaster  county. 

MAJOR  SIMON  B.  CAMERON.  Prominent 
in  the  social,  business,  political  and  military  affairs 
of  Lancaster  county,  this  gentleman,  now  located  in 
Marietta,  is  active  as  becomes  the  descendant  of  "so 
worthy  an  ancestor  as  Gen.  Simon  Cameron,  who 
was  his  grandfather. 

Gen.  Simon  Cameron  was  one  of  Lancaster 
county's  most  distinguished  citizens.  Born  March 
8,  1799,  in  Maytown,  this  county,  he  was  descended 
from  Donald  Cameron,  who  came  from  Scotland  to 
America  in  the  spring  of  1775,  in  the  same  vessel 
with  Rev.  Colin  McFarquhar.  He  was  accom- 
panied by  his  sons,  John  and  Simon,  the  latter's  wife 
and  Ann  McKenzie,  probably  a  sister  of  Simon's 
wife,  whose  maiden  name  is  known  to  have  been  Mc- 
Kenzie. Coming  from  the  same  neighborhood  as 
the  reverend  gentleman,  they  were  Undoubtedly 
,  well  acquainted,  and  having  been  tenant  farmers  in 
their  native  place  thev  resumed  their  occupation 
upon  the  glebe  lands  of  Donegal  Church.  As  none 
of  their  names  appear  upon  the  Donegal  assessment 
roll  for  two  or  three  years,  it  is  probable  that  after 
Mr.  McFarquhar  purchased  a  farm  about  two 
;niles  north  of  Mount  Joy  they  carried  on  its  culti- 
vation. Simon  and  John  Cameron  took  the  oath  of 
,  allegiance  in  June,  1778,  before  James  Bayley,  who 
.  owned  and  occupied  the  "Graybill  farm,"  now  the 
property  of  Abraham  N.  Cassel. 

Charles  Cameron,  son  of  Simon,  was  married 
about  1794  to  Miss  Martha  Pfoutz,  daughter  of  John 
Pfoutz.     She  was  a  woman  vigorous  in  both  mind 
;  and  body,  possessed  of  a  cheerful  and  indomitable 
,  spirit,  which  enabled  her  to  face  bravely  the  many 
I  vicissitudes  she  and  her  husband  experienced  in  pro- 
viding for  the  needs  of  their  family.    Charles  Cam- 
[  eron  learned  the  tailor's  trade  in  Maytown,  and  for 
a  few  years  carried  on  the  hotel  at  the  southwest 
corner  of  the  square  in  that  village,  but  with  meager 
success.    There    their    eldest    son,    William,    was 
born  in  1796,  and  the  others,  John,  Simon,  James 
;and  a  daughter .  (who  married  a  Mr.  Boggs),  were 
born  in  a  small  frame  house  not  far  away,  to  which 
the  family  moved  in   1797.     From  Maytown  the 
family   removed   to   Vinegar's   Ferry,   and   thence, 
about  1809,  to  Northumberland,  Pennsylvania. 

Simon  Cameron  was  about  nine  years  old  when 
the  family  located  in  Northumberland,  and,  his 
father  dying  not  long  afterward,  he  was  early  thrown 
upon  his  own  resources.  In  1816  he  entered  as  an 
apprentice  to  the  printing  business  with  Andrew 
Kennedy,  of  Northumberland,  editor  of  the  North- 
\umberland  County  Gazette,  but  continued  only  one 
:  year  when  his  employer,  because  of  financial  reverses, 
:was  obliged  to  close  his  establishment.  By  river- 
boat  and  on  foot  the  young  man  made  his  way  to 
Harrisburg,  where  he  obtained  a  position  in  the 


printing  office  of  James  Peacock,  editor  of  the  Re- 
publican, with  whom  he  remained  until  he  attained 
his  majority.  In  January,  1821,  at  the  soHcitation 
of  Samuel  D.  Ingham,  he  went  to  Doylestown,  where 
he  published  the  Bucks  County  Messenger,  which,  in 
March  of  the  same  year,  was  merged  with  the  Doyles- 
town Democrat  under  the  name  of  the  Bucks  County 
Democrat.  Toward  the  close  of  1821  the  plant  was 
purchased  by  Gen.  W.  T.  Rodgers.  Mr.  Cameron 
was  engaged  that  winter  as  a  journeyman  printer 
in  the  office  of  Gales  &  Seaton,  publishers  of  the 
National  Intelligencer,  at  Washington.  Returning  to 
Harrisburg  in  1822,  he  entered  into  partnership  with 
Charles  Mowry  in  the  management  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Intelligencer.  At  the  conclusion  of  his  services 
as  State  printer  he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  Shulze, 
of  whom  he  was  an  early  friend  and  supporter,  to  the 
ofEce  of  adjutant  general  of  Pennsylvania.  Thus 
began  the  career  of  public  service  which  ended  only 
with  the  close  of  his  life  itself,  and  in  which  he  made 
a  record  equalled  by  few. 

Mr.  Cameron  early  became  interested  in  the  de- 
velopment of  internal  improvements.  In  1826  he  be- 
gan building  the  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal 
(then  in  process  of  construction)  between  Harris- 
burg and  Sunbury,  and  not  long  afterward  took  con- 
tracts for  other  sections,  on  the  western  division. 
The  charter  granted  by  the  Commonwealth  to  the 
State  Bank  of  Louisiana  provided  that  the  bank 
build  a  canal  from  Lake  Pontchartrain  to  New  Or- 
leans, and  Mr.  Cameron  assumed  the  contract  for 
the  work,  which  was  considered  by  engineers  the 
greatest  undertaking  of  the  day.  In  Philadelphia 
he  engaged  twelve  hundred  men,  whom  he  sent  by 
sea  to  New  Orleans,  he  himself,  with  his  engineers 
and  tools,  going  by  river,  from  Pittsburg.  This  was 
in  1831.  He  spent  half  a  year  upon  the  work,  and 
demonstrated  its  feasibility  beyond  a  doubt.  When 
the  Bank  of  Middletown  received  its  charter  from  the 
Legislature,  in  1832,  Mr.  Cameron  became  cashier, 
and  held  that  position  for  twenty-five  years,  the  bank 
being  a  success  from  the  start.  The  duties  of  that 
incumbency,  however,  were  too  limited  to  occupy  all 
the  time  of  a  man  possessed  of  his  resources,  and  he 
interested  himself  in  other  fields  of  usefulness,  par- 
ticularly the  promotion  of  railroads,  serving  at  one 
time  as  president  of  four  corporations,  all  operating 
lines  in  the  region  of  his  birth  place.  The  establish- 
ment of  the  railroads  from  Middletown  to  Lancaster, 
from  Harrisburg  to  Sunbury,  from  Harrisburg  to 
Lebanon,  was  due  to  his  efforts,  and  he  also  gave  his 
influence  in  favor  of  the  Cumberland  Valley  road, 
and  succeeded  in  securing  to  Pennsylvania  the  own- 
ership of  the  Northern  Central  railroad,  from  Har- 
risburg to  Baltimore. 

Mr.  Cameron  organized  the  Pennsylvania  dele- 
gation to  the  first  National  Convention  ever  held  in 
the  United  States,  which  met  in  Baltimore,  having 
been  recalled  from  his  work  in  Louisiana  for  that 
purpose.  This  delegation  supported  Van  Buren  for 
the   Vice  Presidency.     After    the    Convention    ]\Ir. 

Cameron  was  appointed  a  visitor  to  West  Point,  by 
Gen.  Jackson.  In  1838  President  Van  Buren 
tendered  him  an  appointment  as  commissioner,  with 
James  Murray,  of  Maryland,  under  a  treaty  with  the 
Winnebago  Indians,  to  settle  and  adjust  the  claims 
made  against  the  Indians  bv  the  traders.  In  1845 
he  was. elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  to  fill  a 
vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation  of  James  Buch- 
anan (who  became  Secretary  of  State  under  Polk), 
and  served  four  years  with  a  fidelity  which  the  most 
exacting  of  his  constituents  could  not  question.  In 
the  winter  of  1857  he  was  re-elected  to  that  body, 
to  succeed  Senator  Brodhead,  and  was  thus  again 
brought  prominently  to  public  notice.  In  the  polit- 
ical movements  which  preceded  the  campaign  of 
i860  he  was  named  as  the  choice  of  Pennsylvania 
for  the  Presidency,  and  his  name  was  early  asso- 
ciated with  that  of  Lincoln  for  the  Republican  Na- 
tional ticket. 

Gen.  Cameron's  influence  was  strongly  felt  at, 
the  Chicago  Convention  in  i860,  and  he  so  won  the 
confidence  of  Mr.  Lincoln  that  when  that  gentleman 
was  elected  to  the  Presidency  he  voluntarily  offered 
the  General  a  cabinet  office.  From  the  organization 
of  the  cabinet  it  was  a  recognized  fact  that  of  all  its 
members  Gen.  Cameron  held  the  closest  personal 
relations  with  the  President,  who  during  his  service 
as  Secretary  of  War,  consulted  him  in  private  as 
well  as  in  the  regular  cabinet  meetings.  Gen.  Cam- 
eron, anticipating  that  the  Civil  war  was  too  serious 
for  speedy  settlement,  set  on  foot  the  extensive 
preparations  which  time  justified.  On  Jan.  11,  1862, 
he  resigned  from  the  cabinet,  and  the  same  day  was 
nominated  by  Lincoln  for  the  most  important  diplo- 
matic mission  in  his  gift — ^the  minister  to  Russia  be- 
ing intrusted  with  the  transaction  of  our  affairs  there- 
at a  time  when  a  tact  and  discretion  were  never  so- 
necessary.  He  was  given  an  honor  never  before  or 
since  accorded  a  cabinet  officer  that  of  naming  his- 
successor  as  Secretary  of  War. 

The  General  played  a  promirient  part  in  nominat- 
ing Lincoln  for  a  second  term,  and  meantime  took 
active  part  in  the  politics  of  his  native  State,  winning- 
for  the  Republican  party  a  standing  which  defied 
opposition.  In  1866  he  was  again  sent  to  the  United 
States  Senate,  in  which  body  he  served  longer  than 
any  other  representative  from  Pennsylvania,  and 
made  a  record  also  unsurpassed  for  activity  and  bril- 
liant service.  After  his  last  election  he  served  eleven 
years,  resigning  in  1877.  He  was  at  the  time  one  of 
the  foremost  members  of  that  body,  holding  the 
chairmanship  of  the  committee  on  Foreign  Relations, 
appointment  to  which  incumbency  was  a  recognized 
acknowledgment  of  superior  statesmanship.  Though 
he  made  no  claims  to  being  an  orator,  and  seldom 
participated  in  debate,  Mr.  Cameron's  influence  in 
National  legislation  was  as  great  as  that  of  any  man 
who  ever  held  a  seat  in  the  Senate.  He  armed  him- 
self with  facts,  his  arguments  were  clear  and  charac- 
terized by  common  sense,  his  propositions  eminently 
practical,  and  his  judgment  in  matters  of  finance,. 


commerce,  manufacturing,  internal  improvements, 
etc.,  was  always  accepted  as  correct,  and  consequently 
reliable.  He  encouraged  every  project  looking  to- 
ward the  development  and-opening  up  of  the  Western 
States,  and  his  work  was  never  without  visible  re- 

Gen.  Cameron  married  Margaret  Brua,  daughter 
of  Peter  Brua,  of  Harrisburg.  The  children  born 
to  this  union  were  Rachel,  who  married  Judge  Burn- 
side,  of  Belief onte ;  Brua,  who  is  mentioned  below ; 
Margaret,  wife  of  Richard  J.  Haldeman ;  James 
Donald;  and  Virginia,  who  married  Wayne  Mac- 

Brua  Cameron  was  a  Civil  engineer  by  profes- 
sion. He  was  cashier  of  the  Bank  of  Middletown, 
founded  by  his  father,  and  in  May,  1861,  commis- 
sioned paymaster  in  the  regular  army,  serving  as 
such  until  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1864,  at 
Lochiel,  Pa.,  when  he  was  thirty-eight  years  of  age. 
He  married  Elizabeth  Bastedo,  daughter  of  Gilbert 
and  Marian  Bastedo,  of  Nelson,  Ontario,  Canada, 
the  former  of  whom  was  a  farmer  by  occupation. 
Mrs.  Cameron  survived  her  husband  several  years, 
passing  away  Dec.  31,  1 871,  at  the  age  of  forty-eight 
years,  near  Nelson,  Ontario.  The  remains  of  both 
Test  in  the  cemetery  at  Middletown.  They  were 
members  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  at  that  place, 
and  socially  he  was  a  Mason  and  Odd  Fellow.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Brua  Cameron  had  the  following  named 
children:  Simon  B.,  whose  name  introduces  this 
sketch ,  Marian  Bastedo,  widow  of  David  Watts,  of 
Harrisburg,  who  was  an  ironmaster;  Margaret  B., 
who  died  when  eight  years  old ;  Janet  R.,  who  mar- 
ried Dr.  George  Husband,  a  physician  of  Philadel- 
phia ;  and  James,  who  died  in  infancy. 

Simon  B.  Cameron  was  born  May  11,  1855,  in 
Middletown,  Dauphin  Co.,  Pa.,  where  he  passed  the 
■first  twelve  years  of  his  life,  and  the  next  three  were 
spent  in  Lititz,  Lancaster  county,  where  he  attended 
the  Academy.  He  was  subsequently  a  student  at 
Williston  Setninary,  Easthampton,  Mass.,  and  Upson 
Seminary,  New  Preston,  Conn.,  and  took  the  exam- 
ination for  entrance  to  Sheffield  Scientific  School, 
Yale.  Being  offered  a  position  on  the  Wheeler  ex- 
ploring expedition,  he  accepted,  and  was  thus  occu- 
pied two  years,  after  which  he  was  engaged  two  years 
as  instructor  in  Upson  Seminary.  In  May,  1881, 
Mr.  Cameron  came  to  East  Donegal  township,  Lan- 
caster county,  to  take  charge  of  the  Donegal  farms 
for  his  grandfather,  and  he  continued  there  until 
his  marriage.  He  then  moved  to  a  farm  two  and  a 
half  miles  from  the  Donegal  farms,  which  was  given 
him  by  his  grandfather,  residing  on  that  place  until 
his  removal  to  Marietta  in  1894.  Here  he  has  car- 
ried on  a  real-estate  and  insurance  business,  and  in 
1898  was,  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  in  which  ca- 
pacity he  is  still  officiating.  Like  his  honored  fore- 
fathers, he  is  a  Republican  in  political  sentiment,  and 
has  been  quite  active  in  party  affairs,  serving  as  dele- 
gate from  Lancaster  county  to  the  State  Convention 
in  1894.    He  has  not  sought  office,  however,  though 

he  has  been  a  member  of  the  school  board  one  year 
since  locating  in  Marietta. 

Since  January,  1890,  Mr.  Cameron  has  been  a 
member  of  the  Pennsylvania  National  Guard,  and 
he  served  as  quartermaster  of  the  4th  Regiment  until 
May,  1897,  when  he  was  promoted  to  his  present 
position,  in  the  3d  Brigade,  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  J. 
P.  S.  Gobin,  as  commissary  of  subsistence ;  he  ranks 
as  major.  During  the  riot  at  Hazleton,  Pa.,  he  pro- 
vided the  food  for  the  troops  in  service.  He  accom- 
panied the  National  Guard  to  the  coal  fields  in  the 
troublesome  times  in  1902.  The  Major  is  a  member 
of  the  Loyal  Legion,  and  fraternally  of  the  Masonic 
Order,  in  which  he  has  attained  the  thirty-second 
degree.  He  is  also  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian 
Church  and  assistant  superintendent  of  the  Presby- 
terian Sunday  School  in  the  town  in  which  he  re- 

On  Feb.  15,  1887,  Simon  B.  Cameron  was  united 
in  marriage,  at  Harrisburg,  with  Miss  HePen  Mark- 
ley,  and  two  children  have  blessed  their  union: 
Simon  B.,  born  May  20,  1888,  died  June  18,  1901 ; 
and  Elva  M.,  born  Aug.  4,  1890.  In  religious  con- 
nection our  subject  is  a  Presbyterian. 

Dr.  George  H.  Markley,  father  of  Mrs.  Cameron, 
was  born  in  Lancaster,  and  was  a  member  of  the  old 
Markley  family  which  has  long  been  prominent  in 
this  county.  In  1863  he  removed  to  Harrisburg, 
where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days,  dying 
May  II,  1900.  He  was  a  physician,  and  also  con- 
ducted a  pharmacy.  Dr.  Markley  married  Miss 
Emma  Snyder,  of  Harrisburg,  daughter  of  Charles 
and  Emma  Snyder,  the  former  of  whom  was  a 
justice  of  the  peace  for  many  years.  Mrs.  Markley 
now  makes  her  home  in  Harrisburg.  Of  the  chil- 
dren born  to  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Markley,  Helen,  Mrs. 
Cameron, '  was  born  in  Lancaster ;  Elva  married 
Ralph  Shaw,  a  lawyer  of  Paterson,  N.  J.,  where  he 
is  now  assistant  district  attorney;  and  Miss  Kath- 
erine  lives  with  her  mother. 

DAVID  HAYES  AGNEW  was  born  at  Noble-  ■ 
ville,  now  the  borough  of  Christiana,  in  Lancaster 
county,  Nov.  24,  1818,  only  child  of  Robert  and 
Agnes  (Noble)  Agnew.  The  latter  had  been  pre- 
viously married  to  Rev.  Eleazer  Henderson,  by  whom 
she  had  two  children,  James  N. ;  and  Mary  Hender- 
son, who  married  Davies  Wallace,  of  Lancaster 
county,  and  had  a  son,  E.  D.  Wallace,  who  now  re- 
sides at  Blue  Ball. 

The  Agnew  family,  which  has  been  prominent  in 
this  country  for  nearly  two  centuries,  can  be  traced 
through  many  generations  of  North  of  Ireland  and 
Scotch  ancestry  to  Norman  progenitors.  The  earli- 
est authentic  record  of  the  family  comes  from  Ag- 
jieaux,  a  quaint  village  in  northern  France,  from 
which  the  family  derives  its  name — this  being  the 
leverse  of  the  process  in  this  country  where  the  fam- 
ily has  invariably  given  the  name  to  the  place.  The 
little  town  of  Agnew,  Lancaster  Co.,  Neb.,  named 
in  honor  of  Dr.  Agnew,  is  a  typical  example  of  this 


method,  and  shows  the  space  of  time  and  changes 
in  living  and  civilization  between  the  Agneaux  of 
the  Old  World,  and  the  Agnew  of  the  New. 

Tames  Agnew,  the  great-grandfather  of  the  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch,  with  two  brothers,  emigrated  from 
Ireland  about  the  year  1717.  He  was  a  typical  Scotch- 
Irishman.  In  an  old  graveyard  near  Gettysburg 
lie  a  number  of  the  earlier  members  of  the  Agnew 
family.  On  one  of  the  grave-stones  is  the  coat  of 
arms  of  the  Agnews  of  Lochnar,  and  on  another  a 
rude  carving  of  Weights  and  Measures,  with  the 
inscription,  "The  Weights  and  Measures  of  Scot- 
land." His  biographer.  Dr.  J.  Howe  Adams,  says 
Dr.  Agnew  evinced  a  pathetic  interest  in  this  little 
deserted  spot,  where  so  many  of  his  lineage  were  laid 
to  rest,  and  always  spent  much  of  his  time  when  he 
visited  Gettysburg  taking  tracings  of  the  various 

Robert  Agnew,  the  father  of  David  Hayes,  was 
born  in  Adams  county,  Pa.,  and  received  his  general 
education  at  Dickinson  college,  studied  medicine  and 
became  a  surgeon  in  the  United  States  Navv.  On 
his  first  voyage  the  vessel  was  wrecked  oflf  Cape 
Hatteras,  and  he  narrowly  escaped  with  his  life. 
This  incident  changed  his  plans.  He  settled  at 
Nobleville,  where  he  soon  acquired  a  large  general 
practice,  which  finally  made  inroads  upon  his  health, 
and  he  determined  to  retire.  His  popularity,  how- 
ever, was  such  that  he  concluded  the  only  way  to 
do  this  was  to  remove  from  the  neighborhood.  He, 
therefore,  after  a  practice  of  a  quarter  of  a  century, 
removed  to  Baltimore  county,  Md.,  where  he  pur- 
chased a  handsome  countrv  seat.  While  a  citizen 
of  Lancaster  county  he  was  prominently  identified 
with  the  Octoraro  United  Presbyterian  Church  as 
a  leading  member  of  the  Sessions.  He  died  Oct. 
10,  1858,  aged  seventy-three  years.  The  farm  house 
in  which  his  distinguished  son  was  born  is  still  stand- 
ing and  in  good  repair.  The  old  flouring  mill,  built 
by  Dr.  Robert  Agnew  in  1816,  on  a  branch  of  the 
Octoraro  at  Christiana,  is  now  a  ruin.  For  many 
'  years  the  driveway  leading  from  the  public  road  to 
the  farm  buildings,  led  over  the  embankment  of  the 
mill  pond. 

After  receiving  his  primary  education  in  the 
country  school  David  Hayes  Agnew  was  sent  to  the 
Moscow  Academy,  at  that  time  a  flourishing  school, 
of  which  the  Rev.  Francis  Latta  was  the  principal. 
It  derived  its  name  from  this  incident:  Soon  after 
the  war  of  1812  there  was  a  mania  in  this  State  for 
laying  out  new  towns.  '  The  proprietor  of  the  "Gen- 
eral Wayne  Tavern,"  on  the  Lancaster  turnpike,  sold 
his  property,  including  fifty  acres  of  land,  to  a  party 
of  speculators  for  the  fancy  price  of  $16,000,  who 
laid  out  a  town  (on  paper),  to  which  they  gave  the 
name  of  Moscow,  after  the  Russian  town  of  that 
name  which  had  been  recently  destroyed  by  fire  to 
prevent  its  occupation  by  Napoleon  Bonaparte.  The 
speculation  failed,  and  "Cossack  Street"  again  be- 
came the  Lancaster  turnpike  and  the  others  with 
Russian  names  were  lost  in  the  bosom  of  the  farm. 

It  was  on  this  property  that  Mr.  Latta  built  the 
Moscow  Academy  in  1826,  and  there  that  young 
Agnew  received  the  foundation  of  a  good  classical 
education.  From  there  he  was  sent  to  Jefferson 
College  at  Canonsburg,  Pa.,  an  institution  then  the 
centre  of  Presbyterian  influence  in  Western  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  as  such  influenced  his  parents  in  choos- 
ing a  school  to  complete  the  education  of  their  son, 
together  with  the  fact  that  the  Rev.  James  Ramsay, 
a  relative,  was  a  trustee.  He  did  not  stay  to  graduate 
as  had  been  intended,  but  left  to  enter  Newark  Col- 
lege, which  had  just  been  opened  at  Newark,  Del. 
(now  Delaware  College),  under  the  auspices  of  the 
State,  and  of  which  his  cousin,  Rev.  John  Holmes 
Agnew,  had  been  elected  Professor  of  Languages. 
He  resigned  his  position  when  he  discovered  that 
the  College  was  supported  in  part  by  the  proceeds 
of  a  lottery,  and  there  being  no  special  inducement 
for  his  young  cousin  to  stay,  he  left  before  graduat- 
ing. He  now  felt  that  he  had  reached  the  age  when 
he  could  prepare  for  the  profession  which  had  been 
the  dream  of  his  boyhood.  After  studying  some  time 
with  his  father,  he  entered  the  Medical  Department 
of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1836,  being  one 
of  the  youngest  members  of  the  class.  He  graduated, 
in  1838,  among  his  classmates  being  Surgeon  Gen- 
eral Barnes  and  Dr.  Henry  E.  Muhlenberg. 

After  graduating  Dr.  Agnew  returned  to  Noble- 
ville in  order  to  assist  his  father  in  his  extensive 
practice.  He  remained  with  his  father  two  years, 
until  the  latter  removed  to  Maryland  in  1840.  The 
younger  Agnew  lived  in  the  old  homestead,  where  his 
parents  had  resided  Tor  many  years,  and  his  mother's 
family  had  long  dwelt  in  that  locality,  the  village 
having  been  named  after  them,  and  when  the  name 
was  changed  in  1847  to  Christiana  it  was  in  honor  of 
Christiana,  wife  of  Wm.  Noble,  Dr.  Agnew's  uncle. 
While  living  here  he  met  his  future  wife,  Margaret 
Creighton  Irwin.  Their  parents  had  been  friends 
for  many  years,  Dr.  Robert  Agnew  having  been  their 
family  physician.  After  he  went  South  the  son  was 
called  in  to  attend  a  member  of  the  family.  An  at- 
tachment was  formed  between  Miss  Irwin  and  him- 
self which  culminated  in  their  marriage  at  the  Irwin 
homestead,  Pleasant  Garden,  on  Nov.  21,  1841,  in 
Dr.  Agnew's  twenty-third  year.  The  life-long  friend 
of  his  father  and  himself.  Rev.  Dr.  Easton,  performed 
the  ceremony. 

Dr.  Agnew  had  been  in  practice  nearly  five  years, 
and  was  quite  successful  as  a  country  practitioner, 
when  he  unexpectedly  drifted  in  another  direction^ 
His  father-in-law  was  extensively  engaged  in  the 
iron  business.  At  his  death  his  sons  assumed  con- 
trol of  his  extensive  business,  and  Dr.  Agnew  was 
urged  to  enter  the  firm  to  represent  his  wife's  in- 
terest. This  looked  like  a  promising  opportunity, 
and  he  joined  the  firm  of  Irwin  &  Agnew  in  the  man- 
agement of  the  iron  works  at  Spring  Garden,  Chester 
county.  But  this  seemingly  auspicious  move  was 
made  on  the  eve  of  the  great  revolution  in  industrial 
methods,  when  railroads,  the  telegraph  and  improved 


machinery  were  working  new  conditions.  The  Irwin 
iron  works  had  been  erected  and  fitted  for  making 
charcoal  iron,  and  had  been  located  with  a  view  to 
convenience  to  water  powers  and  abundance  of  wood. 
They  were  not  adapted  to  the  new  conditions,  and 
the  panic  of  1837  made  matters  worse.  The  firm 
made  a  determined  struggle  against  unequal  forces, 
but  three  years  after  the  admission  of  Dr.  Agnew  to 
the  firm  they  were  obliged  to  make  an  assignment, 
and  Dr.  Agnew  returned  to  his  first  love  worse  off 
financially  than  when  h&  began,  being  heavily  in 
debt.  He  felt  keenly  the  failure  of  his  firm,  and 
determined  to  make  up  to  the  creditors  all  they 
had  lost,  and  through  his  future  success  he  was 
able  to  pay  every  cent  pf  indebtedness  of  the 
firm,  even  claims  that  had  been  outlawed  by  lapse 
of  time. 

About  the  time  Dr.  Agnew  was  making  up  his 
mind  to  locate  in  Philadelphia,  where  he  would  have 
better  facilities  to  pursue  his  favorite  studies  of 
Practical  Anatomy  and  Operative  Surgery,  Dr.  Na- 
thaniel Sample,  then  the  most  eminent  physician  in 
Lancaster  county,  invited  him  to  take  temporary 
charge  of  the  practice  of  his  son,  who  had  been  sick 
for  some  time ;  but  while  thus  engaged  he  was  in- 
jured in  a  runaway  accident  which  confined  him  to 
his  bed  for  nine  weeks,  and  the  effect  of  which  he 
carried  to  his  grave,  in  a  slight  limp  in  his  gait,  his 
hip  having  been  severely  injured.  As  soon  as  he 
was  well  enough  he  went  to  Philadelphia,  where  he 
entered  upon  that  career  as  a  surgeon  which  gave 
him  more  than  a  national  reputation.  Some  years 
afterward,  when  meeting  a  citizen  of  Soudersburg, 
Dr.  Agnew  said,  "I  located  at  Soudersburg  when  a 
young  man;  I  stayed  long  enough  to  know  all  the 
roads  in  that  district ;  but  I  found  that  the  people 
around  there  wanted  a  better  doctor  than  I  was 
likely  to  prove,  so  I  moved."  How  limited  is  human 
foresight ! 

Dr.  Agnew  located  in  Philadelphia,  in  1848,  when 
he  was  thirty  years  of  age,  with  seven  years  of 
country  practice  and  two  years  of  business  ex- 
perience, and  soon  attained  a  fair  practice.  In  1852 
he  began  his  teaching  of  Practical  Anatomy  and 
Operative  Surgery  in  the  Philadelphia  School  of 
Anatomy,  and  his  name  is  still  the  most  distinguished 
in  the  long  list  of  able  men  who  have  been  connected 
with  that  institution.  In  1854  he  was  elected  a  sur- 
geon in  the  Philadelphia  Hospital,  which  was  his 
first  opportunity  to  perfect  himself  in  the  teaching 
of  Clinical  Surgery;  and  in  speaking  of  it  to  his 
friend  and  professional  associate,  Dr.  J.  William 
White,  he  said  he  "might  as  well  attempt  to  be  a 
gardener  without  a  garden  as  a  surgeon  without  a 
hospital."  During  the  Civil  war  he  had  large  oppor- 
tunities;  principally  in  the  Hestonville  General  Hos- 
pital, for  operative  work.  In  1863  he  was  elected 
surgeon  to  Wills'  Eye  Hospital ;  in  1867  surgeon  to 
the  Orthopedic  Hospital ;  in  1870  pr(ffessor  of  Clin- 
ical Surgery,  and  in  1871  Professor  of  Surgery  in 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  retaining  the  latter 
positions  until  1889,  when  he  resigned  them  to  be 

created  Emeritus  Professor  of  Surgery  and  Honor- 
ary Professor  of  Clinical  Surgery.  During  all  these 
years  he  grew  steadily  in  professional  strength ;  his 
clinics  were  crowded;  his  office  was  filled;  his  ser- 
vices were  in  daily  demand  in  all  parts  of  the  Middle 
States,  and  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  was  send- 
ing out,  year  after  year,  hundreds  of  young  men  who 
justly  regarded  him  as  the  best  possible  adviser  in 
all  cases  of  surgical  disease  or  injury.  He  was  one 
of  the  surgeons  employed  in  the  Garfield  case,  spend- 
ing many  days  and  nights  with  the  President  during 
a  period  of  three  months,  involving  a  loss  of  weeks 
from  his  practice,  then  the  largest  of  any  American 
surgeon,  for  which  he  refused  to  make  a  charge,  and 
for  which  Congress  appropriated  a  sum  which  gave 
him  only  $5,000. 

Dr.  J.  William  White,  who  attended  to  his  sur- 
gical cases  when  Dr.  Agnew's  health  began  to  fail  in 
1888,  and  who  was  a  constant  attendant  in  his  last 
illness,  in  his  memoir  read  before  the  College  of 
Physicians,  thus  spoke  of  the  closing  days  of  his 
active  career :  "After  his  retirement  from  the  chair 
of  Surgery  he  gave  each  year,  at  my  urgent  solicita- 
tion, backed  by  that  of  the  class,  a  clinic  at  the  Uni- 
versity Hospital.  It  was  always  known  in  advance 
and  the  amphitheatre  was  packed  from  floor  to  ceil- 
mg  .  .  .  He  never  lost  his  hold  on  the  love  and 
respect  of  the  students,  and  until  the  day  of  his  death 
was  the  most  popular  member  of  the  University 

Dr.  Agnew  entered  into  rest  on  March  22,  1892. 
The  immediate  cause  of  death  was  uremia.  His  re- 
mams  repose  in  West  Laurel  Hill. —  |J. ■  M.  W. 

COL.  JAMES  DUFFY  was  for  many  years  one 
of  the  prominent  residents  of  Marietta,  but  his  repu- 
tation was  not  by  any  means  confined  to  that  locality. 
He  was  active  in  many  lines  before  connecting  him- 
self with  the  Marietta  Hollow  Ware  &  Enameling 
Co.,  with  which  he  was  identified  from  1877  to  the 
close  of  his  long  life. 

Col.  Duffy  was  a  grandson  of  John  Duffy,  a  na- 
tive of  Newtown  Cunningham,  County  Donegal, 
Ireland,  who  was  a  leather  dresser  by  trade.  He 
married  Ann  Bradley,  and  their  son,  James,  the 
father  of  our  subject,  was  also  born  in  Newtown. 
The  latter  came  to  America  in  1800,  locating  first 
in  Lancaster  and  later  in  Marietta,  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  which  borough  he  took  an  active  part.  He 
was  engaged  in  many  undertakings  which  proved 
of  great  benefit  to  the  county,  and  being  a  man  of 
good  business  ability  carried  on  the  contracting  busi- 
ness profitably.  He  constructed  the  Marietta  and 
Lancaster  turnpike,  the  turnpike  from  the  Elizabeth- 
town  to  the  Susquehanna  river,  and  the  road  frorri 
Carlisle  to  Baltimore,  through  York  Springs  and 
Gettysburg.  Mr.  Duffy  died  in  1836,  aged  sixty- 
five  years,  in  the  faith  of  the  Catholic  Church.  He 
was  a  Democrat  politically.  Previous  to  his  emi- 
gration to  this  country  he  was  a  member  of  the 
famous  Light  Horse  Cavalry,  of  Ireland.     James 


Duffy  married  Catherine  Sheriden,  like  himself  a 
native  of  County  Donegal,  who  died  in  1820.  Twelve 
children  were  born  to  them. 

Col.  James  Duffy,  our  subject,  was  born  in  Mari- 
etta Sept.  16,  1818,  and  in  his  boyhood  engaged  in 
rafting  on  the  Susquehanna,  rising  in  time  to  the  rank 
of  pilot.  He  was  thus  employed  until  1846,  and  the 
following  year  made  a  trip  to  Europe.  In  1848  he 
established,  a  line  of  boats  for  transporting  coal  from 
Pottsville  to  New  York,  in  the  interests  of  the 
Schuylkill  Navigation  Co.  In  connection  with 
James  Mehaffy  he  began  the  lumber  business,  in 
which  he  continued  until  1865.  Meantime,  in  1861, 
he  began  transporting  supplies  for  the  Government 
to  forts  in  New  Mexico  and  the  West,  among  other 
places  to  Salt  Lake  City.  The  magnitude  of  these 
contracts  can  be  estimated  from  the  facts  that  mil- 
lions of  dollars  were,  employed,  and  over  thirty 
thousand  oxen  were  used.  After  seven  years  spent 
in  this  line  Mr.  Duffy  retired  from  active  business, 
devoting  his  attention  to  his  landed  interests  and 
he  won  the  reputation  of  being  the  largest  tobacco 
grower  in  the  State.  In  1877  he  became  interested 
in  the  Marietta  Hollow  Ware  &  Enameling  Co.,  in 
which  he  controlled  one-half  the  stock.  He  was  one 
of  the  directors  of  the  Bald  Eagle  Valley  Railway 
Co.,>  and  was  active  in  the  support  of  many  enter- 
prises. He  was  a  Democrat,  and  in  i875_he  was  ap- 
pointed a  member  of  the  Board  of  Fish  Commission- 
ers for  Pennsylvania.  In  religion,  like  his  fore- 
fathers, he  was  a  Roman  Catholic.  His  death  oc- 
curred in  November,  1886. 

Col.  James  Duffy  was  married,  Sept.  8,  1863,  to 
Martha,  daughter  of  John  Park,  of  Marietta,  and  to 
them  were  born  the  following  named  children : 
Josephine ;  Catherine,  deceased :  James,  who  married 
Miss  Malone,  and  has  three  children,  James,  Joseph- 
ine and  Richard  ;  Donald  Cameron  ;  Thomas  Bayard ; 
John  Park,  deceased ;  Martha  Park;  John  Park  (2), 
who  also  passed  away ;  and  Mary  Agnes,  who  died  in 

CAPT.  SAMUEL  EVANS,  now  one  of  the 
ivenerable  residents  ,of  Columbia,  has  long  been  one 
of  the  best  known  citizens  of-  Lancaster  county, 
where  he  is  looked  upon  as  the  most  reliable  author- 
ity in  matters  pertaining  to  local  history.  His  efforts 
in  gathering  and  preserving  data  of  interest  and 
consequence  have  been  both  laborious  and  success- 
ful— all  the  more  so  that  he  has  ever  aimed  at  ac- 
curacy in  every  particular,  a  fact  which  invests  his 
articles  with  especial  value.  Capt.  Evans  was  born 
Jan.  20,  1823,  near  Marietta,  this  county,  in  the 
stone  mansion  on  what  is  now  Col.  James  Duffy's 
park  farm. 

Major  Samuel  Evans,  his  grandfather,  was  born 
near  Landenburg,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  of  Welsh  and 
Irish  extraction,  and  became  a  man  of  importance 
in  his  time  and  place.  He  was  captain  of  the  8th 
Company,  in  the  Chester  Countv  Battalion,  com- 
manded by  his  father,  Col.  Evan  Evans,  and  he  par- 

ticipated in  the  battles  of  Trenton,  Princeton  and 
Brandywine.  He  was  mustered  out  of  the  service 
holding  the  rank  of  major,  having  been  but  twenty- 
one  years  old  when  given  that  rank.  He  was  one  of 
the  judges  of  the  Chester  court,  and  served  several 
years  as  a  member  of  the  State  Legislature.  Major 
Evans  married  Frances  Lowrey,  youngest  child  of 
Col.  Alexander  and  Ann  Lowrey,  the  former  of 
whom  owned  and  lived  upon  the  present  Duffy 
farm.     Mrs.  Lowrey  was  of  English  extractiop. 

Alexander  Lowrey  Evans,  father  of  Capt.  Satn- 
uel,  was  given  advantages  for  education  such  as  but 
few  young  men  of  his  day  received.  He  was  a  col- 
lege graduate,  and  became  a  fine  classical  scholar. 
Possessed  of  rare  abilities,  he  displayed  in  his  writ- 
ings literary  attainments  of  a  high  order.  Like  his 
father,  he  had  a  taste  for  military  life,  but  had  no 
opportunity  for  seeing  active  service.  He  was  an 
ardent  Federalist,  but  he  never  sought  politicar 
honors.  His  death  occurred  in  July,  1839.  In  1822 
he  married  Hannah  Slaymaker,  youngest  daughter 
of  Hon.  Amos  and  Isabella  (Fleming)  Slaymaker, 
of  Salisbury,  the  former  of  whom  was  an  ensign  in 
the  Revolutionary  war,  and  a  member  of  Congress 
in  181 1  and  1812.  Mr.  Slaymaker  was  a  charter 
member  and  one  of  the  promoters  of  the  Philadel- 
phia and  Lancaster  turnpike,  which  was  built  in 
1792,  and  which  was  one  the  first  built  in  the  coun- 
try. He  was  also  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Phil- 
adelphia and  Pittsburg  stage  line,  which  was  estab-, 
lished  in  1800.  Mrs.  Slaymaker's  father,  James 
Fleming,  who  was  of  Scotch-Irish  extraction,  in- 
herited the  military  ardor  of  his  race,  and  served  in 
Capt.  David  Buyer's  company ;  he  was  at  the  battle 
of  Long  Island. 

Capt.  Samuel  Evans  remained  at  the  place  of  his 
birth  until  he  was  fifteen  years  old,  and  during  his 
boyhood  attended  regularly  the  best  schools  of  the 
neighborhood.  In  April,  1838,  he  was  apprenticed 
to  Israel  Cooper,  a  Quaker,  one  of  the  prominent 
builders  of  Columbia,  with  whom  he  remained  six 
years.  For  one  year  after  reaching  his  majority 
he  continued  in  that  locality,  and  then  for  eighteen 
months  he  followed  his  trade  successively  in  New 
York,  Pittsburg,  St.  Louis  and  New  Orleans.  Re- 
turning to  Columbia,  he  engaged  in  building  there 
and  in  Lancaster,  and  also  followed  the  lumber  busi- 
ness along  the  river. 

Although  his  business  received  the  attention  its 
successful  conduct  required,  it  was  hardly  to  be  ex- 
pected that  a  man  of  Capt.  Evans'  active  and  pro- 
gressive disposition  should  be  satisfied  with  only  a 
commercial  outlet  for  his  intelligence  and  energy. 
He  earl}'  took  an  active  part  in  the  political  affairs 
of  his  locality,  attaching  himself  to  the  Whig  party, 
in  time  becoming  an  aggressive  advocate  of  anti- 
slavery  principles.  He  was  a  liberal  and  welcome 
contributor  to  ^  the  editorial  and  local  columns  of 
the  newspapers'  of  his  party,  and  he  showed  himself 
apt  at  giving  and  parrying  the  blows  which  were 
so  freely  exchanged  at  a  time  when  party  feeling  ran 



high.  He  always  attended  the  primaries,  and  fre- 
quently represented  his  District  in  the  county  con- 
ventions, where  he  took  a  prominent  part  in  fram- 
ing the  platforms  of  his  party.  In  1856  he  had  the 
honor  of  being  a  delegate  to  the  Republican  State 
Convention  held  at  Philadelphia.  In  1853  Capt, 
Evans  was  elected  a  justice  of  the  peace  for  the 
lower  ward  of  Columbia,  and  in  1857  was  nominated 
by  the  Republicans  for  clerk  of  the  Court  of  Quarter 
Sessions,  and  Oyer  and  Terminer,  and  was  elected. 
During  his  term,  though  the  business  in  court  was 
quite  large,  there  was  not  a  single  adjourned  court 
■of  Quarter  Sessions.  In  the  spring  of  1861  he  re- 
turned to  Columbia,  and  was  again  elected  a  justice 
of  the  peace  of  the  lower  ward. 

When  Sumter  was  fired  upon,  and  a  company  of 
volunteers  was  raised  in  Columbia  by  Col.  Fisher, 
Mr.  Evans  enrolled  himself  as  a  private,  and  marched 
with  the  organization  to  Camp  Curtin,  about  May 
I,  1 86 1.  He  was  appointed  orderly  sergeant  of 
Company  K,  5th  Regiment,  Pennsylvania  Reserves, 
and  on  June  21,  1861,  was  promoted  to  a  second 
lieutenancy.  On  the  following  day  he  marched  with 
his  regiment  to  Cumberland,  Md.,  via  Hopewell  and 
Bedford,  part  of  the  way  by  rail.  From  Cumber- 
land the  regiment  proceeded  to  New  Creek,  and 
made  a  forced  march  by  night  from  the  latter  place 
to  Ridgeville,  a  distance  of  ten  miles,  to  relieve  Col. 
Kane.  From  West  Virginia  the  regiment  returned 
to  Harrisburg,  thence  to  Washington  and  Tennally- 
town,  about  Aug.  20,  1861.  From  there  they 
marched  to  Camp  Pierpont,  south  of  the  Potomac, 
on  the  Drainesville  turnpike.  On  Oct.  i,  1861,  Sam- 
uel Evans  was  appointed  quartermaster  of  the  regi- 
ment, with  the  rank  of  first  lieutenant,  and  was  given 
charge  of  the  brigade  quartermaster's  department 
for  some  months,  and  was  also  assigned  as  assistant 
commissary  of  subsistence  of  the  brigade  and  di- 
vision, which  responsible  position  he  held  for  a  year 
or  more.  At  Culpeper  he  was  appointed  on  Gen. 
\^'^arren's  staff,  and  was  assigned  to  the  duty  of 
issuing  commissary  supplies  to  detached  troops  at 
Warren's  and  Grant's  headquarters,  to  the  destitute, 
to  loyal  citizens,  and  to  contrabands  who  followed  in 
the  wake  of  the  army.  He  also  had  charge  of  the 
cattle  of  the  5th  Corps,  numbering  a  thousand  head, 
and  during  battle  issued  fresh  beef  to  the  soldiers, 
and  supplied  the  wounded  in  the  hospitals  on  the  bat- 
tlefield. On  May  11,  1864,  at  the  battle  of  Todd's 
Tavern,  he  issued  twenty  thousand  rations  to  the 
wounded.  When  this  battle  was  pending  he  was 
ordered  to  issue  fresh  beef  to  some  of  the  troops  at 
the  front.  A  detail  of  men  was  sent  from  the  in- 
trenchments,  a  hundred  yards  away,  to  take  the  beef 
and  divide  it.  They  were  compelled  to  crawl  along 
the  ground,  and  could  neither  go  back  nor  forward. 
Those  in  the  intrenchments  were  compelled  to  lie 
down,  and  the  beef  of  several  cattle  had  to  be  aban- 
doned. During  his  three  years  as  a  soldier  Capt. 
Evans  was  not  absent  from  a  single  battle  in  which 
the  troops  to  which  he  was  attached  were  engaged ; 

this  included  Drainesville,  the  seven  days  fighting 
on  the  Peninsula,  Fredericksburg,  South  Mountain, 
Antietam  and  the  Wilderness.  While  not  seeking 
danger,  he  always  obeyed  the  orders  of  his  superiors, 
and  never  required  a  subordinate  to  do  an  onerous 
or  responsible  duty  while  a  battle  was  pending,  but 
went  himself  and  saw  that  his  orders  were  executed. 
For  meritorious  conduct  in  the  Wilderness  cam- 
paign President  Johnson  commissioned  him  a  brevet 
captain.  With  his  regiment  he  returned  to  Harris- 
burg, and  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  in  July, 
1864.  In  addition  to  his  own  service  to  his  country, 
Capt.  Evans  and  his  wife  each  sent  a  substitute  to 
the  army,  both  of  whom  remained  until  the  close  of 
the  war. 

In  1866  the  Captain  was  again  elected  justice  of 
the  peace  in  Columbia,  and  he  was  re-elected  to  the 
office  in  1872,  1877,  1884,  1889  and  1894,  continuing 
to  serve  until  1900,  since  when  he  has  been  a  notary 
public.  In  political  affairs  his  interest  is  as  keen  as 
ever,  but  with  advancing  years  he  has  been  less  ac- 
tive and  more  inclined  to  conservatism,  though  he 
has  remained  a  stanch  Republican.  Capt.  Evans  is  a 
member  of  Col.  Welsh  Post,  No.  118,  G.  A.  R.,- De- 
partment of  Pennsylvania,  and  also  affiliates  with  the 
following  societies :  Colonial  Society,-  Sons  of  the 
Revolution,  Scotch-Irish  Society,  Maryland  His- 
torical Society  (corresponding  member,  with  head- 
quarters at  Baltimore),  Harford  County  (Md.) 
Historical  Society,  Virginia  Historical  Society,  and 
Lancaster  Historical  Society,  of  which  latter  he  is 

Industry  and  good  management  in  his  earlier 
years  brought  Capt.  Evans  a  well  deserved  com- 
petency, in  the  expenditure  of  which  he  and  his 
family  have  shown  both  judgment  and  common 
sense,  as  well  as  a  keen  appreciation  of  what  is  best 
in  life.  In  1852  the  Captain  married  Miss  Elizabeth 
Anderson,  who  died  in  the  summer  of  1855.  In 
1857  he  was  married  to  Miss  Mary  Shoch,  a  lady  of 
German  and  Scotch-Irish  stock.  Mrs.  Evans 
taught  school  for  a  number  of  years,  and  has  always 
taken  a  deep  interest  in  literary  subjects  and  mat- 
ters of  education  generally.  She  is  highly  cultured, 
and  is  the  author  of  many  poetical  writings  of  high 
merit.  Like  her  husband,  she  has  a  decidedly  pro- 
gressive disposition,  and  both  occupy  a  high  place 
among  the  citizens'  of  Columbia.  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Evans  have  but  one  surviving  child.  Miss  Lilian 
Slaymaker  Evans,  who  was  born  in  Columbia,  and 
now  resides  with  her  parents.  She  belongs  to  and 
takes  a  deep  interest  in  the  Society  of  the  Daughters 
of  the  American  Revolution.  She  was  the  first  mem- 
ber of  the  Society  from  Pennsylvania,  and  stands 
No.  4T  in  the  roll,  which  now  contains  forty  thou- 
sand names.  She  organized  the  chapter  of  Donegal, 
and  was  its  first  regent,  as  she  was  of  Witness  Tree 
Chapter,,  which  she  also  organized.  At  the  first 
meeting  of  the  Continental  Congress  of  the  Society, 
which  was  held  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  22,  1892, 
she  was  the  youngest  regent  present.    As  ex-officio 



regent  Miss  Evans  has  attended  nearly  all  the  meet- 
ings of  the  Continental  Congress  of  the  Society. 
She  is  also  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Colonial 
Dames,  and  takes  a  deep  interest  in  its  meetings  and 
projects.  She  is  proud,  as  well  she  may  be,  of  her 
Scotch-Irish  lineage,  and  is  a  member  of  the  Na- 
tional Scotch-Irish  Society. 

geon General  of  the  United  States  Navy,  was  born 
in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  April  25,  1810,  being  the  youngest 
son  of  Jonathan  and  Elizabeth  Foltz  of  this  city.  His 
ancestors  came  from  Prussia  in  1755,  and  settled  in 
Lancaster  county.  Pa.  Receiving  a  thorough  acad- 
emic education,  he  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Wil- 
liam Thompson,  and  graduated  from  the  Jefferson 
Medical  College,  Philadelphia,  in  1830.  On  April 
4,  1831,  though  not  yet  twenty-one  years  of  age,  he 
was  commissioned  an  assistant  surgeon  in  the  navy, 
and  soon  after  embarked  upon  the  frigate  "Potomac," 
for  an  expedition  against  the  pirates  of  Sumatra, 
and  a  three  years'  cruise  around  the  world.  This 
expedition,  under  command  of  Commodore  John 
Downs,  attracted  much  attention  at  the  time,  and  was 
completely  successful,  the  fortified  towns  of  the  Mo- 
hammedan pirates  being  bombarded  and  taken  by 
storm.  Surgeon  Foltz  landed  with  the  storming  col- 
umn, and  was  warmlv  commended  in  the  report  of 
Captain  Shubrick  as  "active  and  zealous  in  the  dis- 
charge of  his  duties,  binding  up  and  dressing  the 
wounded  under  the  fire  of  the  enemy."  Soon  after 
his  return  from  this  cruise  he  published  the  medical 
statistics  and  observations  upon  it.  Being  stationed 
at  the  Washington  navy  yard  from  1834  until  1838, 
he  formed  friendships  with  many  of  the  noted  men  of 
the  day,  and  was  present  at  the  memorable  duel  be- 
tween William  C.  Graves  of  Kentucky,  and  Jonathan 
Cilley  of  Maine,  when  the  latter  was  killed.  Dr. 
Foltz  had  tried  to  adjust  the  differences  between  the 
duelists,  and  only  remained  upon  the  scene  from  con- 
siderations of  humanity,  and  in  the  hope  that  he 
might  save  life.  In  1837  Yale  College  conferred 
upon  him  the  honorary  degree  of  Master  of  Arts, 
then  seldom  granted. 

In  1838  Dr.  Foltz  was  commissioned  past  as- 
sistant surgeon,  and  appointed  to  the  charge  of  the 
naval  hospital  then  maintained  at  Port  Mahon,  on 
the  island  of  Minorca,  in  the  Mediterranean.  Visit- 
ing Algiers  enroute  to  his  post,  he  met  the  French 
expedition  against  Abdel  Kader,  under  the  Duke  of 
Orleans  and  the  noted  Captains  Pelissier  and  Mc- 
Mahon,  the  latter  afterward  Marshal  McMahon.  He 
made  a  study  of  the  "pernicious  fever"  as  he  found 
it  in  the  French  military  hospitals,  and  published 
a  notable  monograph  upon  that  disease,  but  his  most 
successful  literary  and  professional  work  was  an 
essay  published  in  1843  after  his  return  to  America, 
and  entitled  "The  Endemic  Influence  of  Evil  Gov- 
ernment, Illustrated  in  a  View  of  the  Climate,  To- 
pography and  Disease  of  the  Island  of  Minorca." 

His  next  service  was  in  the  frigate  "Raritan," 

as  fleet  surgeon  in  South  American  waters,  and  on 
the  outbreak  of  the  war  with  Mexico,  when  his  vessel 
was  ordered  to  the  Gulf  Coast,  he  applied  for  shore 
service,  and  was  present  at  the  battle  of  Palo  Alto, 
assisting  in  the  treatment  of  the  wounded.  At  the 
battle  of  Resaca  de  la  Palma,  he  cared  for  Major 
Ringgold  when  that  gallant  officer  received  his  mortal' 
wound,  and  at  the  battles  of  Alverado  and  Tobasco- 
and  the  siege  of  Vera  Cruz,  he  rendered  efficient 
service.  He  published  "A  Report  on  Scorbutus," 
as  it  occurred  in  our  fleet.  He  had  written  in  1842- 
a  series  of  articles  "On  the  Employment  of  Steam 
Ships  of  War  in  the  United  States  Navy."  These- 
articles  were  embodied  in  the  report  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  Navy,  and  they  led  directly  to  the  building  of 
our  first  steam  war  ships,  the  "Princeton,"  and  the 
"Union."  He  next  served  in  the  "Jamestown"  on  the 
coast  of  Brazil,  and  at  the  Philadelphia  Naval  Asy- 
lum. During  the  administration  of  James  Buchanan, 
he  was  stationed  at  the  navv  yard  and  naval  hospital 
in  Washington,  and,  having  long  been  the  intimate 
friend  as  well  as  medical  adviser  of  the  President, 
was  in  closest  touch  with  the  stirring  events  of  the 
day.  He  was  one  of  the  partv  which  accompanied 
Buchanan  to  Washington  shortly  before  his  in- 
auguration, when  they  were  all  attacked  by  the 
mysterious  "National  Hotel  disease,"  believed  to 
have  been  an  attempt  to  poison  the  president-elect. , 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  war  he  served 
first  in  the  "Santee"  and  then  in  the  "Niagara"  of 
the   Gulf  squadron  at  the  bombardment  of  Forts 
McCrea  and  Barancas,  and  was  then  appointed  fleet 
surgeon  of  the  Western  Gulf  squadron  under  Ad- 
miral Farragut.     He  established  a  hospital  at  Pilot 
Town,  on  board  the  "Hartford,"  took  part  in  the 
bombardment  of  Forts  Jackson  and  St.  Philip,  the 
capture  of  the  Chalmette  Fort,  the  fight  at  Vicks- 
burg,  and  all  the  naval  battles  of  Admiral  Farragut 
on  the  Mississippi,  remaining  attached  to  the  "Hart- 
ford" as  fleet  surgeon  for  more  than  a  year,  and 
rendering  valuable  service  in  advising  and  directing 
measures  for  keeping  yellow  fever  out  of  New  Or- 
leans, and  away  from  our  naval  and  military  forces. 
On  May  8,  1862,  when  off  Baton  Rouge,  Surgeon 
Foltz  went  in  an  open  boat  under  fire  to  attend 
wounded,  and  on  July  15th,  during  the  fight  with 
the  ram  "Arkansas,"  he  performed  a  like  service.  He 
was  freqriently  commended  in  general  orders  and 
reports.     He  became  a  member  of  the  Naval  Med- 
ical Board  in   1863,  and  in  1866  president  of  the 
Board.     In  1867  he  was  chosen  by  Admiral  Farra- 
gut to  be  fleet  surgeon  of  the  European  squadron, 
with  which  that  officer  visited  the  great  harbors  of 
the  Old  World,  and  he  accompanied  the  Admiral 
to  the  many  audiences  granted,  and  the  splendid  re- 
ceptions tendered  by  monarchs  and  potentates,  in- 
cluding the  Emperors  of  France  and  Russia.     Re- 
turning to  America  in  1870,  he  again  became  presi- 
dent of  the  Medical  Board,  and  on  Oct.  25,  1871, 
was  appointed  by  President  Grant  chief  of  the  Bu- 
reau of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  and  Surgeon  General 



of  the  Navy,  with  the  relative  rank  of  Commodore. 
He  held  these  positions  until  April  25,  1872,  when 
he  reached  the  age  fixed  by  law  for  retirement.  In 
1874  he  was  elected  a  vice-president  of  the  Jefferson 
Medical  College.  His  death  occurred  at  his  home 
in  Philadelphia,  April  12,  1877,  and  he  is  buried  in 
the. Lancaster  cemetery. 

Dr.  Foltz  married  in  1854,  Rebecca  Steinman, 
daughter  of  John  Frederick  Steinman,  of  Lancastef, 
Pa.,  and  had  three  sons,  all  of  whom  were  living  in 
1902:  Frederick  Steinman,  a  captain  in  the  2d 
U.  S.  Cav.,  late  captain  of  the  port  of  Havana,  Cuba, 
supervisor  of  police  and  chief  of  the  Cuban  secret 
service ;  Charles  Steinman,  one  of  the  editors  of  the 
Lancaster  Intelligencer,  treasurer  of  the  Penn.  Iron 
Co. ;  and  Dr.  Jonathan  Clinton,  a  practicing  physi- 
cian of  Chestnut  Hill,  Philadelphia. 

GEN.  THOMAS  WELSH  (deceased).  One  of 
the  military  heroes  whom  the  city  of  Columbia  de- 
lights to  honor  is  Gen.  Thomas  Welsh,  whose  bril- 
liant career  during  the  Civil  war  was  cut  short  by 
an  untimely  death.  His  name  is  perpetuated  in  G.  A. 
R.  post,  No.  118,  at  Columbia,  and  the  affectionate 
remembrance  in  which  his  name  is  held  by  his  old 
comrades  in  arms  is  undimmed  by  lengthening  years. 
He  did  valiant  service  in  the  Mexican  war,  and  had 
participated  gallantly  for  more  than  two  years  in 
the  great  national  struggle  of  1861-65  when  death 
overtook  him. 

Gen.  Welsh  was  a  native  of  Columbia.  He  was 
born  in  1824,  son  of  Charles  and  Nancy  (Dougherty) 
Welsh,  old  residents  of  Columbia.  He  was  a  young 
man  of  twenty-three  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  Mexi- 
can war.  He  entered  as  a  private,  and  was  assigned 
to  Co.  C,  of  the  2d  Kentucky  Foot  Regiment.  He 
,  was  promoted  to  first  sergeant  Feb.  23,  1847,  ^^  the 
battle  of  Buena  Vista  he  was  severely  wounded  in 
the  leg,  and  the  preservation  of  both  life  and  limb 
was  due  to  the  care  of  Dr.  Blanton,  surgeon  in  the 
regular  army.  On  account  of  disability  from  wounds 
he  was  discharged  as  first  sergeant  June  11,  1847. 
Returning  home  for  complete  recovery,  he  was  com- 
missioned in  December,  of  the  same  year,  second 
lieutenant  of  the  nth  United  States  Infantry,  then 
in  Mexico.  He  marched  to  Vera  Cruz,  and  partici- 
pated in  the  sharp  campaign  under  Gen.  Scott.  At 
the  close  of  the  war  Lieut.  Welsh  resigned  his  com- 
mission and  returned  to  civil  life.  He  became  a 
merchant  at  the  Basin,  and  the  owner  of  several 
canal  boats.  Pie  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace  in 
1856,  and  during  Gov.  Bigler's  administration  was 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  lock. 

When  Fort  Sumter  was  fired  upon  in  April,  i86r, 
a  company  of  seventy-eight  men  was  recruited  at 
Columbia  in  one  night  for  the  three  months'  service, 
and  on  April  17,  i86r,  Lieut.  Thorrias  Welsh  was 
elected  captain  of  this  company.  Two  days  later  it 
reported  at  Harrisburg  for  duty,  and  became  a  part 
of  the  I  ith  P.  v.  I.  Capt.  Welsh  was  commissioned 
lieutenant  colonel.     At  the  expiration  of  the  three 

months'  service  Lieut.  Col.  Welsh  assisted  in  the 
organization  of  the  4Sth  P.  V.  I.,  for  three  years' 
service,  of  which  he  was  commissioned  colonel  July 
22,  1861.  He  participated  in  all  the  campaigns  of 
the  9th  Army  Corps,  and  was  a  model  and  brilliant 
soldier.  The  regiment  lost  145  men  at  the  battle  of 
South  Mountain,  Sept.  16,  1862,  and  thirty  at  An- 
tietam.  Col.  Welsh  was  promoted  to  brigadier- 
general  March  13,  1863,  and  in  that  capacity  partici- 
pated in  the  Mississippi  campaigns.  After  the  sur- 
render of  Gen.  Pemberton,  and  while  his  command 
was  being  transferred  to  the  East,  Gen.  Welsh  died 
at  Cincinnati,  Aug.  14,  1863,  of  disease  contracted 
during  the  investment  of  Vicksburg.  His  death 
was  a  shock  not  only  to  his  own  brigade  and  to  his 
many  friends  at  home,  but  to  innumerable  friends  of 
the  Union  cause,  to  whom  his  brilliant  and  patriotic 
career  had  become  a  pride  and  inspiration. 

A  family  of  five,  a  son  and  four  daughters,  re- 
mained to  mourn  him.  Gen.  Welsh  had  married  at 
Columbia,  Oct.  25,  1850,  Miss  Annis  F.  Young,  who 
was  born  at  Wrightsville,  Lancaster  county,  in  1831, 
daughter  of  Samuel  and  Elizabeth  (Kline)  Young, 
of  New  England  ancestry.  She  was  a  charter  mem- 
ber of  the  Lutheran  Church  of  Columbia,  and  died 
Feb.  23,  1894.  Both  are  buried  in  Mount  Bethel 
cemetery.  The  children  born  to  Gen.  and  Mrs. 
Welsh  are  as  follows  :  Alice ;  Mary  Y.,  principal  of 
the  Columbia  high  school ;  Effie ;  Addie,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  two  years;  Lilian,  a  physician  of  Balti- 
more, Md. ;  and  Lieut.  Blanton  C,  who  graduated 
from  West  Point,  m  1882,  and  in  October,  1885, 
married  Miss  Emily  Benson,  of  New  York.  He  is 
now  a  retired  army  officer  at  Montclair,  N.  J.,  and  has 
a  son  named  for  the  distinguished  and  honored 

dent Judge  of  the  Second  Judicial  District  of  Penn- 
sylvania, came  of  ancient  and  honorable  lineage.  He 
was  one  of  three  (some  accounts  say  five)  children 
born  to  William  Atlee,  of  Fordhook  House,  England, 
who,  contrary  to  the  wishes  of  his  family,  married 
Jane  Alcock,  a  cousin  of  William  Pitt,  and  maid  of 
honor  to  the  Queen  of  England.  The  match  was 
a  clandestine  one,  and  the  j'oung  couple  sailed  for 
America  (he  in  the  capacity  of  secretary  to  Lord 
Howe),  landing  at  Philadelphia,  in  July,  1734. 

Judge  Atlee,  the  oldest  child  of  his  father,  was 
born  in  Philadelphia  July  i,  1735.  His  father  died 
in  that  city  in  1744.  His  mother,  acting  under  the 
advice  of  her  husband's  friend,  Edward  Shippen, 
Esq.,  removed  to  Lancaster  with  her  young  family! 
and  when  of  a  suitable  age,  William  Augustus  read 
law  in  the  office  of  Mr.  Shippen.  In  1758  he  was 
admitted  to  the  Bar,  and  his  abilities  were  such  that 
he  rose  rapidly  in  his  profession,  and  in  a  few  years 
was  one  of  the  foremost  lawyers  in  the  State.  He 
also  took  an  active  part  in  local  affairs,  and  on  Sept. 
IS,  1770,  was  elected  chief  burgess  of  the  borough 
of  Lancaster,  and  he  was  elected  three  times  subse- 



quently  to  the  same  position.  While  acting  in  that 
capacity,  so  important  and  valuable  were  his  services 
esteemed  by  his  associates,  that  at  a  meeting  of  the 
burgesses  held  March  i6,  1774,  "was  taken  into  con- 
sideration the  many  services  Mr.  Atlee  had  done 
for  the  corporation  in  penning  and  preparing  the 
above  law  to  be  laid  before  the  Assembly,  drawing 
the  draught  of  the  borough,  waiting  on  the  Assembly 
with  the  bill,  and  other  services,  and  he  refusing  to 
accept  a  draught  on  the  treasurer,  or  any  other  satis- 
faction for  the  same,  it  is  therefore  unanimously 
agreed  (he  having  retired  at  the  request  of  the  other 
gentlemen  present),  that  Messrs.  Henry,  Lowman 
and  Hopson  have  some  piece  of  plate  made  such  as 
agreeable  to  Mrs.  Atlee,  genteel  and  not  too  expen- 
sive, and  present  the  same  to  her  as  a  testimony  of 
their  approbation  of  Mr.  Atlee's  conduct  in  serving 
the  borough." 

The  act  of  the  Assembly  to  which  reference  has 
just  been  rhade  was  "for  regulating  the  buildings, 
keeping  in  repair  the  streets,  lanes  and  alleys,  high- 
ways, etc.,  in  the  borough  of  Lancaster."  The  com- 
mittee appointed  to  procure  the  testimonial  attended 
to  the  duty  assigned  them,  and  in  the  report  of  the 
borough  treasurer,  presented  on  June  29,  1776,  the 
following  item  occurs :.  "May  16,  by  cash  to  Charles 
Hall  for  a  silver  tea  Sett  as  a  present  to  Mr.  Atlee, 
for  his  trouble  relative  to  the  Borough  Law, 
ii4,  5s..  od." 

The  first  demonstration  in  the  Revolutionary 
struggle  made  in  this  county  was  at  a  meeting  held 
at  the  court  house  on'  Wednesday,  June  15,  1774,  in 
pursuance  to  a  call  received  from  Philadelphia  by 
Mr.  Atlee,  and  published  by  him.  Strong  sentiments 
against  further  imports  from  and  exports  to  Britain 
•were  expressed,  and  he  with  a  number  of  other 
prominent  citizens  were  constituted  a  committee  to 
further  these  aims.  He  was  one  of  the  deputies  sent 
from  Lancaster  countv  to  the  convention  called  at 
Philadelphia  on  July  15th,  and  he  was  one  of  the 
members  of  the  committee  appointed  by  that  con- 
vention to  prepare  a  long  and  elaborate  draft  of  in- 
structions to  the  Representatives,  which  were  soon 
to  meet  in  General  Assemblv  to  appoint  persons  to 
attend  a  congress  of  deputies  from  all  the  Colonies. 
The  Continental  Congress  assembled  soon  thereafter 
in  Carpenter's  Hall,  Philadelphia,  and  among  other 
things  recommended  the  election  of  "Committees 
of  Observation."  Mr.  Atlee  was  one  of  the  members 
of  the  Committee  elected  to  represent  Lancaster 

During  the  stirring  times  that  followed,  no  man 
was  more  active  in  the  good  cause  than  he.  He  had 
been  chosen  as  chairman  of  the  local  committee  of 
safety,  and  as  such  his  duties  were  both  arduous  and 
incessant.  He  was  in  constant  communication  with 
President  Reed  and  other  State  officials.  The  dan- 
gerous number  of  prisoners  kept  here,  their  plans  for 
escape,  the  condition  of  the'  barracks,  were  fruitful 
themes,  and  required  unremitting  care  and  attention. 
But  Mr.  Atlee  seems  to  have  been  the  right  man  in 

the  right  place,  and  to  have  discharged  the  duties 
of  his  position  in  a  way  to  deserve  the  approbation  of 
those  at  the  head  of  affairs. 

In  May,  1777,  he  was  one  of  the  committee  of 
thirteen  appointed  by  the  war  office  to  supply  the 
army  with  blankets  and  other  supplies,  for  Lancaster 
county.  On  Aug.  16,  1777,  he  received  from  the 
Supreme  Executive  Council  of  the  State,  the  ap- 
pointment of  second  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  o£ 
Pennsylvania,  his  associates  being  Thomas  McKean, 
who  later  was  thrice  elected  Governor  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, and  John  Evans.  During  the  years  1777 
and  1778  he  also  held  the  position  of  Commissary 
of  the  British  prisoners  confined  at  Lancaster,  an 
office  that  was  attended  with  many  cares  and  annoy- 
ances, and  required  unremitting  attention. 

But  the  State  and  county  had  still  further  need 
of  his  services  after  the  struggle  for  independence 
was  over.  On  Aug.  19,  1784,  he  was  reappointed  as 
a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court.  In  November,  1789, 
he  was  sent  from  this  county  as  a  delegate  to  the 
convention  held  in  Philadelphia,  to  amend  the  State 
Constitution  framed  in  1776.  On  Aug.  17,  1791,  he 
was  appointed  the  President  Judge  of  the  newly  es- 
tablished Second  Judicial  District,  composed  of  the 
counties  of  Chester,  Lancaster,  York  and  Dauphin, 
a  position  he  held  imtil  the  day  of  his  death,  Sept.  9, 
1793.  P'ew  names  in  our  local  history  stand  forth 
more  conspicuously  or  more  deservedly  than  that  of 
Judge  William  Augustus  Atlee.  He  was  equally 
distinguished  as  a  citizen,  a  lawyer,  a  patriot  and  a 
Judge.  Like  his  illustrious  brother.  Colonel  Samuel 
J.  Atlee,  he  was  an  ardent  advocate  of  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Colonies,  and  his  services  to  the 
cause  were  many  and  continuous  throughout  the 
entire  war.  The  numerous  public  positions  to  which 
he  was  elected  and  appointed  show  the  confidence  and 
esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  his  fellow  citizens. 
He  deserved  tliat  confidence  for  he  was  a  man  of 
the  highest  integrity.  His  career  on  the  Bench  was 
both  able  and  successful.  He  appears  to  have  been 
endowed  with  many  of  the  requirements  for  that 
exalted  position,  integrity,  legal  learning  and  sound 
judgment.  In  his  capacity  as  a  member  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  the  State  during  the  formative  period 
of  our  jtidicial  history,  he  rendered  most  efficient 
service  in  laying  its  foundations  deep  and  strong, 
and  it  has  been  noted  that  the  opinions  pronounced 
during  his  term  of  service  on  the  Bench  show  a 
v/onderful  unanimity  on  the  part  of  the  incumbents ; 
so  much  so  that  Lord  Mansfield,  one  of  the  most 
eminent  of  English  Judges,  in  referring  to  the  Courts' 
decisions  as  recorded  in  the  official  reports  of  that 
period,  remarked  that  "They  do  credit  to  the  Court, 
the  Bar  and  the  Reporter.  They  show  readiness  in 
practice,  liberality  in  principle,  strong  reason  and 
legal  learning."  Judge  Atlee  is  said  to  have  been 
a  man  of  great  affability,  of  an  attractive  and  win- 
ning personality,  in  whom  the  sense  of  right  and 
duty  was  strongly  developed,  and  of  unquestioned 
integrity.    He  also  appears  to  have  escaped  the  carp- 



ing  censure  of  political  enemies  and  critics  to  a  de- 
gree quite  unusual  in  those  days.  From  his  first 
entrance  into  public  life  in  1770,  until  his  death,  a 
period  of  almost  a  quarter  of  a  century,  he  possessed 
the  respect  and  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens,  in 
an  unusual  degree.  It  is  highly  gratifying  to  reflect 
that  the  same  confidence  has  in  a  long  measure  been 
enjoyed  by  his  successors. 

JUDGE  JOHN  JOSEPH  HENRY,  the  second 
of  the  President  Judges  of  this  district,  was  born  in 
Lancaster  Nov.  4,  1758.  His  father,  William  Henry, 
was  a  celebrated  inventor  and  a  gunsmith  by  profes- 
sion, holding  a  number  of  important  positions  on  the 
patriot  side  during  the  Revolutionary  war.  Young 
Henry  was  early  brought  into  close  relations  with 
men  eminent  in  that  struggle,  and  his  military  ardor 
was  so  aroused  at  being  denied  the  privilege  of  en- 
listing as  a  soldier,  that  while  still  a  youth  of  seven- 
teen, he  ran  away  and  made  his  way  to  Boston,  where 
the  first  Continental  Army  was  assembling.  Here 
he  joined  the  fatal  expedition  of  General  Arnold 
against  Quebec,  and  went  through  all  the  sufiEerings 
and  horrors  of  that  campaign,  and  here  were  sown 
the  seeds  of  disease  which  later  made  him  an  invalid 
for  life.  He  wrote  a  very  full  history  of  that  expe- 
dition, which  was  published  the  year  after  his  death. 
Being  exchanged  he  returned  home,  after  a  long  im- 
prisonment, still  longing  to  be  a  soldier,  but  his  health 
would  not  permit.  He  bound  himself  as  a  clerk  in 
the  oflice  of  John  Hubley,  Esq.,  prothonotary,  mean- 
while reading  law  and  improving  a  defective  edu- 
cation. In  1785  he  was  admitted  to  the  Bar,  and  at 
once  began  the  practice  of  his  profession.  In  1793, 
upon  the  death  of  Judge  Atlee,  he  was  appointed 
President  Judge  of  this  district,  being  only  thirty- 
five  years  old.  But  while  bright  prospects  opened 
•for  him  professionally,  disease  laid  its  hand  heavily 
upon  him,  and  sometimes  rendered  him  incapable 
of  holding  the  regular  terms  of  his  Court.  He,  how- 
ever, continued  to  hold  his  commission  until  18 10, 
when  he  resigned  it,  after  having  been  on  the  Bench 
seventeen  years.    He  died  April  15,  181 1. 

WALTER  FRANKLIN,  third  President  Judge 
of  this  district,  although  born  a  few  years  prior  to  the 
outbreak  of  the  struggle  with  the  mother  country, 
was  still  too  young  to  share  in  the  war  of  independ- 
ence. He  was  born  in  the  city  of  New  York,  at  which 
place  his  father  was  living  at  the  time,  in  February, 
1773.  His  father  having  removed  to  Philadelphia 
while  Walter  was  still  in  his  minority,  he  began  his 
career  in  the  latter  place  by  entering  a  law  office,  and 
was  admitted  to  practice  in  1794,  at  the  early  age  of 
twenty-one  years.  He  must  have  attracted  attention 
from  the  beginning,  as  in  1809  he  received  the  ap- 
pointment of  Attorney  General  of  Pennsylvania  from 
Gov.  Simon  Snyder.  He  held  that  office  two  years, 
until  181 1,  when.  Judge  Henry  having  died,  he  was 
raised  to  the  Bench  by  an  appointment  as  President 
Judge  of  the  Second  Judicial  District  of  Pennsyl- 

vania, consisting  at  that  time  of  the  counties  of  Lan- 
caster, York  and  Dauphin,  and  to  which  Cumberland 
and  Lebanon  were  subsequently  added.  He  held  this 
position  until  his  death,  Feb.  7,  1838,  after  a  con- 
tinuous service  of  twenty-seven  years. 

Judge  Franklin  was  thoroughly  identified  with 
all  the  interests  of  his  adopted  city  He  did  not  con- 
fine his  attention  to  the  affairs  of  his  office  only,  but 
took  part  in  all  that  was  going  on  around  him.  He 
was  an  early  advocate  of  the  liberation  of  slaves, 
and  presided  at  an  anti-slavery  meeting  held  in  this 
city  in  November,  1819.  His  rank  among  his  judi- 
cial brethren  in  the  State  was  high.  As  a  citizen  he 
was  correct  in  his  deportment,  courteous  and  digni- 
fied in  his  bearing,  and  a  favorite  with  the  people 
among  whom  his  lot  was  cast.  He  was  the  founder 
of  a  family  of  lawyers,  and  some  of  them,  are  with 
us  still. 

JUDGE  ORESTES  COLLINS,  of  whom  but 
little  is  known  or  remembered,  became  President 
Judge  of  the  District  by  the  appointment  of  Governor 
Joseph  Ritner,  Aug.  8,  1836.  He  resigned  on  Dec. 
26,  1838,  and  was  re-commissioned  on  Dec.  27th  of 
the  same  year,  and  was  removed  by  a  decision  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania  in  July,  1839. 

the  President  Judges  of  the  Second  Judicial  District 
of  this  State,  was  a  native  of  Bridgeton,  Cumberland 
Co.,  N.  J.,  born  in  1800.  His  ancestors  emigrated 
from  England  to  New  Jersey  along  with  John  Fen- 
wick,  the  grantee  of  that  province,  in  1675,  and  played 
an  important  part  in  its  early  history.  Judge  Champ- 
neys's  father  removed  to  this  State,  was  educated  at 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and  was  a  surgeon, 
on  the  frigate  "Philadelphia,"  while  that  vessel  was 
commanded  by  Commodore  Decatur. 

Benjamin  Champneys  was  prepared  for  college 
by  private  tutors,  and  ent  ed  the  Sophomore  class 
at  Princeton,  passing  through  the  Junior  year,  and 
leaving  upon  his  father's  death.  Upon  leaving  col- 
lege he  entered  upon  the  sttidy  of  the  law  in  the  office 
oi  Chief  Justice  Ewing,  of  New  Jersey,  but  subse- 
quently came  to  Lancaster,  where  he  entered  the  law 
office  of  George  B.  Porter,  Esq.,  who  afterward  be- 
came Governor  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan.  At 
the  conclusion  of  his  student  days  he  was  admitted 
to  the  Lancaster  Bar  April  2,  1818,  at  the  early  age 
of  eighteen  years.  Owing  to  several  important  cases 
conducted  by  him,  he  at  once  assumed  an  important 
position  at  the  Bar.  Being  then  a  stanch  Democrat, 
he  was  nominated  by  that  party  for  the  State  Legis- 
lature in  1825  and  elected,  and  re-elected  in  1828. 

Governor  David  R.  Porter  appointed  him  Presi- 
dent Judge  of  the  Courts  of  this  county  July  8, 
1839,  ^nd  he  remained  on  the  Bench  three  and  a  half 
years,  when,  having  been  nominated  by  the  Demo- 
cratic County  Convention  for  the  place  of  State 
Senator,  he  resigned  in  order  to  enter  upon  his  can- 
vass.    Pie  was  elected  in  1842,  and  served  the  full 



period  of  three  years.  In  1846  Governor  Shenk  ap- 
pointed him  Attorney  General  of  the  State,  and  he 
discharged  the  duties  of  the  office  until  1848. 

Judge  Champneys  continued  his  affiliations  with 
the  Democratic  party  until  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 
war,  when  his  patriotism  led  him  to  range  himself 
with  the  friends  of  the  Union,  and  thereafter  he 
was  a  sturdy  Republican.  His  new  political  friends 
sent  him  to  the  State  Legislature  in  1863,  and  to  the 
State  Senate  in  1864,  1865  and  1866.  That  was  the 
last  public  positon  held  by  him.  Judge  Champneys 
is  the  earliest  of  our  President  Judges  remembered 
by  the  present  generation.  His  well  known  face 
and  figure,  his  genial  personality  and  his  courtly 
manners  are  well  remembered  by  men  of  middle  age. 
As  an  advocate  he  was  eloquent,  as  a  Judge,  able  and 
upright,  and  as  a  citizen,  everything  that  is  best  in 

JUDGE  ELLIS  LEWIS,  sixth  in  the  regular  or- 
der of  succession  of  the  President  Judges  of  this  dis- 
trict, was  a  native  Pennsylvanian,  born  in  Lewisber- 
ry,  York  county.  May  16,  1798.  He  was  of  Welsh 
descent,  his  ancestors  having  come  from  Wales  in 
1 708.  Although  at  one  time  in  affluent  circumstances, 
his  father  lost  his  estate,  and  young  Ellis 
was  thrown  on  his  own  resources.  He  became  a 
printer's  apprentice,  and  studied  law  while  learning 
his  trade.  At  the  age  of  twenty-four  he  was  admitted 
to  practice,  and  rose  rapidly  in  his  profession.  He 
was  twice  elected  to  the  State  Legislature,  in  1828 
and  1832.  In  1833  he  received  the  appointment  of 
Attorney  General  of  the  Commonwealth  from  Gov- 
ernor Wolf,  and  in  the  same  year  was  tendered  and 
accepted  the  positon  of  President  Judge  of  the  Eighth 
Judicial  District  (Northumberland  county).  In  1843 
he  was  appointed  to  the  same  office  in  the  Second 
District,  which  place  he  held  until  1851,  when  he 
was  elected  a  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
State,  and  was  Chief  Justice  from  1854  to  1857.  He 
was  renominated  by  the  Democratic  party,  but  de- 
clined the  honor.  Judge  Lewis  was  a  sound  lawyer, 
noted  for  his  knowledge  of  Medical  Jurisprudence, 
which  won  for  him  the  degree  of  M.  D.,  from  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the  degree  of  LL.  D. 
from  several  other  institutions.  He  was  the  author 
of  a  legal  treatise,  and  his  decisions  while  on  the 
Bench  have  won  for  him  a  high  standing  among 
our  Judges.  He  died  at  Philadelphia  March  19, 

first  President  Judge  of  pure  German  ancestry.  His 
paternal  grandfather,  Nicholas  Long,  was  born  at 
Levenbrucken,  Bavaria,  and  came  to  America  in 
1754,  settling  in  Lancaster.  His  father  was  Jacob 
Long,  an  officer  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  a  suc- 
cessful business  man  of  this  city.  Judge  Long  was 
born  Aug.  23,  1804,  and  his  literary  education  was 
that  of  the  schools  of  the  day.  He  read  law  with 
George  B.  Porter,  who  was  one  of  the  leading  mem- 

bers of  the  Bar  of  the  State,  and  was  admitted  to  the 
practice  of  his  profession  in  1827.  He  was  elected 
county  solicitor  soon  after  he  began  his  career  at  the 
Bar,  and  was  re-elected  to  that  position  for  a  period 
of  twenty  years.  Almost  at  the  same  time  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  prothonotary  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  Pennsylvania,  assistant  prothonotary  for  the  Sec- 
ond Judicial  District,  then  comprising  the  counties 
of  Lancaster,  York,  Berks,  Dauphin,  Lebanon  and 
Schuylkill  counties.  In  the  fall  of  1838  he  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  State  Legislature. 

In  1857  the  Judiciary  of  the  State  became  elective, 
having  previously  been  selected  by  the  Governors. 
Mr.  Long  had  been  suggested  as  a  candidate,  con- 
trary to  his  desire,  by  his  friends,  but  he  desired  his 
name  not  to  be  considered.  At  the  Whig  convention 
in  185 1  he  was  unanimously  nominated  without  his 
consent.  He  served  the  ten  years  of  his  term'  most 
acceptably,  and  in  i86r,  political  changes  having  oc- 
curred, he  was  nominated  a  second  time  by  the  Peo- 
ple's party,  and  again  elected,  and  served  the  full 
term,  retiring  from  the  Bench  Dec.  4,  1871. 

Judge  Long  by  his  legal  earnings  and  by  inher- 
itance acquired  a  large  estate.  By  his  will  he  made 
provisions  in  certain  contingencies  for  the  erection 
of  a  Home  for  Needy  Women,  and  also  for  a  public 
park  for  the  city  of  Lancaster,  devoting  more  than 
$500,000  to  these  purposes.  The  death  of  his  only 
daughter,  Catharine  H.  Long,  a  few  years  ago,  has 
made  the  sum  left  to  these  public  benefactions  avail- 
able, and  both  projects  are  at  present  moving  for- 
ward to  their  consummation.  Judge  Long  died 
March  5,  1889. 

HENRY  GEIST  was  born  in  Bart  township, 
Lancaster  county,  Nov.  13,  1782,  son  of  Simon 
Geist,  who  emigrated  from  Germany  in  1750,  and  he 
died  June  29,  1858,  in  the  seventy-sixth  year  of  his 
age.  He  was  united  in  marriage  to  Agnes  Mc- 
Cready,  who  died  in  1832.  In  early  life  he  assisted 
his  father  in  managing  his  large  farm,  and  becoming 
overheated  in  the  harvest  field,  he  sat  down  in  the 
barn  "to  cool  off,"  during  a  shower,  contracted  a  cold 
which  settled  in  his  eyes,  resulting  in  total  blindness. 
His  case  was  a  remarkable  illustration  of  how  nature 
compensates  for  the  loss  of  one  sense  in  the  more 
exquisite  development  of  the  others.  When  this 
misfortune  overtook  him  he  had  a  wife  and  five 
small  children  depending  upon  him  for  support. 
Thus  thrown  upon  his  own  resources  his  future 
looked  discouraging  indeed,  but  he  did  not  despair. 
His  Christian  training  had  taught  him  to  believe, 
with  Laurence  Sterne,  that  "God  tempers  the  wind 
to  the  shorn  lamb."  His  parents  deeded  him  a  small 
farm  "in  consideration  of  the  natural  love  and  af- 
fection they  have  and  bear  unto  the  said  Henrv  Geist, 
their  son,"  on  which  they  built  a  modest  home,  the 
same  being  now  in  the  possession,  by  inheritance,  of 
his  grandson,  Henry  Martin  Geist. 

Nature  had  endowed  the  afflicted  man  with  rare 
musical  and  mechanical  instincts,  and  these  he  in- 



dustriously  cultivated.  He  was  an  expert  performer 
on  the  violin,  and  after  he  lost  his  sight  that  which 
had  been  indulged  in  merely  as  a  pleasure  became  one 
of  the  means  of  supporting  his  family.  In  those 
days  big  annual  fairs  were  held  in  "the  shire  town" 
of  Lancaster,  at  which  the  prominent  feature  was 
dancing,  continuing  for  several  days,  and  in  which 
every  section  of  the  county  was  represented.  Mr. 
Geist  became  the  leading  violinist  on  those  occasions, 
and  his  services  were  also  in  demand  at  dancing 
parties  held  in  other  sections  in  connection  with 
sleighing  carnivals,  then  more  common  than  now. 
The  musician  was  then  "paid  by  the  tune,"  the  cur- 
rency being  "fips,"  "levies"  and  "quarters."  His 
sense  of  touch  had  become  so  acute  that  it  was  im- 
possible to  impose  a  spurious  coin  upon  him,  although 
it  was  often  tried,  sometimes  by  friends  as  a  test,  but 
in  some  instances  by  those  mean  enough  to  try  to 
cheat  a  blind  man.  These  he  invariably  detected  and 
exposed,  and  they  were  generally  summarily  ejected 
from  the  room.  On  one  occasion  the  Farmers'  Bank 
of  Lancaster  received  a  counterfeit  half-dollar  which 
the  oii&cers  declared  was  calculated  to  deceive  the 
best  judges.  The  late  Joseph  McCIure,  who  chanced 
to  be  present,  said,  "We  have  a  blind  man  in  our 
neighborhood  upon  whom  you  couldn't  pass  that 
coin !"  The  bankers  were  incredulous  and  a  wager 
was  the  result.  Mr.  McClure  was  to  bring  his 
blind  expert  to  town,  and  the  party  losing  was  to 
bear  the  expenses  of  the  trip.  Several  genuine  coins 
were  placed  on  the  counter  with  the  counterfeit. 
Passing  several  as  genuine  he  detected  the  counter- 
feit as  soon  as  he  got  it  in  his  fingers.  This  sensitive 
touch  also  served  him  in  judging  the  quality  of 
textile  goods,  and  in  the  various  mechanical  occu- 
pations he  followed.  It  enabled  him  to  plane  a  board 
as  level  and  smooth  as  one  with  his  sight,  his  fingers 
following  the  rriovement  of  the  plane  each  backward 

In  those  days  thatched  roofs  were  in  vogue.  Mr. 
Geist  took  up  this  trade,  and  there  were  few  straw 
roofs  in  the  neighborhood  that  had  not  been  made  or 
lepaired  by  him.  The  late  Jacob  Eshleman,  passing  by 
one  day  when  he  was  working  on  the  roof  of  a  large 
barn,  begged  Eim  to  come  down,  fearing  he  might 
fall,  and  finally  offered  to  pay  him  the  price  of  the 
job  if  he  would  do  so.  But  he  assured  his  friend  that 
he  was  not  so  liable  to  fall  as  one  with  his  sight,  be- 
cause, conscious  of  his  danger,  he  was  more  cautious 
in  his  movements  and  was  not  liable  to  vertigo  from 
looking  down.  He  never  met  with  an  accident  in 
this,  or  in  any  of  the  occupations  in  which  he  had  oc- 
casion to  handle  all  kinds  of  edge  tools. 

Another  occupation  he  took  up  was  dressing  flax 
and  weaving  it  into  cloth.  All  the  farmers  raised 
flax  and  had  it  converted  into  cloth  for  everyday 
wear.  Mr.  Geist  built  for  himself  a  little  shop  in  front 
of  the  barn,  invented  a  rotarv  machine,  operated  by 
treadle,  for  "scutching"  the  flax  after  it  had  been 
■"broken,"  by  means  of  which  he  could  do  as  much 
work  in  a  dav  as  three  men  could  do  bv  the  old  hand 

process.  He  also,  with  the  aid  of  his  brothers-in- 
law,  Mark  Brooke  (wagonmaker)  and  George  Fogle 
(cabinet-maker),  erected  a  loom  for  weaving  carpets, 
and,  subsequently,  another  for  tow-cloth  and  linen 
and  taught  his  daughters  to  operate  them,  doing 
much  of  the  weaving  of  the  neighborhood.  Every- 
body then  wore  "tow"  or  "flax"  cloth  for  summer 
wear.  In  the  winter  season  he  took  up  shoemaking, 
a  trade  he  had  learned  in  his  youth.  When  he  had 
difficulty,  in  consequence  of  nervousness,  in  inserting 
the  "wax-ends"  in  sewed  shoe-work,  he  had  his 
youngest  son  sit  beside  him  with  his  lesson  book  in 
hand,  and  it  was  in  this  way  that  the  editor  of  The 
New  Era  got  most  of  his  primary  education.  He 
also  worked  at  carpentry,  and  built  a  frame  addition 
to  his  house  on  a  novel  plan  of  his  own  designing, 
which  attracted  much  attention  at  the  time.  While 
framing  this  building  under  the  shade  of  the  cherry 
trees,  his  son  pursued  his  studies  and  helped  his 
father  in  handing  him  the  tools  as  needed.  He  could 
build  as  good  a  post-and-rail  fence,  when  given  the 
starting  and  terminal  points,  as  most  men  having 
the  use  of  their  eyes,  and  when  a  two  or  three  rail 
fence  was  to  be  supplemented  with  a  base  of  dry  stone 
masonry  he  was  equal  to  the  task.  One  of  his  spe- 
cialties was  making  wheelbarrows,  which,  though 
not  as  highly  finished,  were  more  durable  than  those 
turned  out  of  the  modern  shops.  He  did  all  the 
work  on  them  except  the  ironing.  He  was  handy  in 
all  domestic  affairs.  Being  an  early  riser,  he  made 
the  fire,  fed  the  cow  and  pigs,  pared  the  apples  at 
the  annual  "butter  bee"  (on  a  machine  of  his  own 
construction),  dressed  the  sausage  skins  at  butcher- 
ing time,  and  did  many  other  chores  required  about 
a  country  home  in  those  days.  Those  who  saw  him 
about  his  work,  or  traveling  through  the  neighbor- 
hood, would  not  infer  that  he  was  blind,  so  natural 
were  his  movements. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Easton,  who  had  been  his  pastor 
for  over  thirty  years,  wrote  of  him  that  "in  the  loss 
of  one  of  the  noblest  sources  of  earthly  enjoyment 
he  ever  justified  God.  All  acquainted  with  him  were 
constrained  to  bear  witness  to  his  meekness  and  pa- 
tience. And  those  who  witnessed  will  never  forget 
his  emotions  when,  the  day  before  he  died,  the  pre- 
cious words  of  his  own  covenant  with  God  were  re- 
peated, how  feelingly  he  manifested  his  acquiescence 
in  their  truth." 

COL.  MATTHIAS  SLOUGH,  like  so  many  of 
the  influential  men  of  Lancaster  county,  came  of 
German  ancestry.  Whether  born  in  this  country 
or  abroad  is  not  known.  He  came  to  this  place  with- 
his  father  in  1747,  a  lad  of  fourteen  years  of  age. 
The  father,  J-acob  Slough,  bought  several  lots  in  the 
southeast  angle  of  Center  Square,  and  on  them  is 
thought  to  have  built  the  "Swan  Tavern,"  so  fa- 
mous in  the  after  history  of  the  city. 

As  early  as  1761  young  Slough  became  the  land- 
lord of  the  "Swan."  It  was  the  beginning  of  a  pub- 
lic career  that  lasted  during  the  succeeding  forty 



years,  making  Col.  Slough  one  of  the  most  prom- 
inent men  in  the  county  and  well  known  abroad. 
The  first  office  of  public  trust  held  by  him  was  that 
of  County  Coroner,  in  1755,  and  he  retained  it  un- 
til 1768.  In  1757  he  was  elected  as  assistant  bur- 
gess of  the  town,  and  was  re-elected  to  the  same 
position  in  1758,  1760  and  1761.  That  he  was  an 
intelligent  man,  and  a  patron  of  education,  is  shown 
by  his  having  been  a  charter  member  of  the  Lancas- 
ter Library  Co.,  in  1759.  Strange  as  it  may  seem, 
he  was  also  treasurer  of  the  county  from  1763  to 
1769,  holding  the  office  of  coroner  and  treasurer  at 
the  same  time.  It  was  in  1763,  while  he  was  cor- 
oner, that  the  massacre  of  the  friendly  Indians  took 
place  in  the  public  workhouse  by  the  "Paxton 
Boys,"  who  rode  into  the  town,  put  up  their  horses 
in  the  "Swan"  stables,  and  then  carried  out  their 
infernal  work.  It  was  also  at  the  "Swan"  that  the 
unfortunate  fracas  between  Capt.  Chambers  and  Dr. 
Reiger  occurred,  which  resulted  in  a  duel  and  the 
death  of  the  former. 

Col.  Slough  was  an  early  member  of  the  Union 
Fire  Co.,  in  1764.  In  1773  he  was  elected  to  the 
State  Legislature;  he  was  re-elected  in  1774,  1775, 
■  "^777 >  1780,  1 78 1,  1782  and  1783.  A  man  of  his 
local  prominence  was  certain  to  be  found  at  the 
front  when  the  Revolutionary  war  began.  He  was 
a  prominent  member  of  the  first  public  meeting 
called  in  the  county,  in  June,  1774,  to  protest  against 
the  offensive  acts  of  the  mother  country,  and  was 
one  of  the  committee  on  public  correspondence.  He 
was  one  of  the  eight  deputies  chosen  from  Lancas- 
ter county  to  represent  her  in  the  State  convention 
at  Philadelphia  July  15,  1775.  In  the  same  ySar  he 
placed  his  entire  stock  of  powder— four  quarter 
casks  and  200  pounds  of  lead — at  the  service  of  the 
State.  He  was  present  at  the  military  convention 
held  in  Lancaster  July  4,  1776,  to  vote  for  general 
officers  to  command  the  military  forces  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. He  was  elected  colonel  of  the  Seventh  Lan- 
caster County  Battalion,  one  of  the  thirteen  raised 
in  this  county.  He  joined  the  Flying  Camp  in  New 
Jersey  with  his  troops  in  the  summer  of  1776.  His 
command  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Long  Island,  on 
August  27th,  of  the  same  year.  Later  it  was  on 
duty  guarding  Hessian  prisoners  confined  at  Lan- 
caster and  Lebanon.  In  1777  he  was  appointed  by 
the  War  Office  one  of  the  commissioners  to  supply 
the  State  troops  with  shoes,  blankets  and  other  sup- 

At  the  close  of  the  war  for  Independence,  he  re- 
sumed his  former  occupations,  of  innkeeper  and 
general  merchant.  He  became  a  member  of  Lodge 
No.  43,  F.  &  A.  M.,  of  Lancaster,  in  1794.  He  was 
also  largely  interested  in  stage  lines  about  this  time, 
running  coaches  from  Lancaster  to  Philadelphia 
three  times  weekly,  and  westward  to  Shippensburg. 
In  1797  he  is  found  exercising  the  office  of  deputy 
postmaster  in  the  borough  of  Lancaster.  In  1782 
he  along  with  several  other  prominent  citizens,  was 

elected  a  curator  of  an  academy  which  had  been  es- 
tablished two  years  previously. 

Col.  Slough  was  a  man  of  considerable  wealth. 
In  addition  to  being  the  owner  of  the  "Swan  Tav- 
ern," he  held  much  other  real  estate.  His  lands  be- 
gan at  Witmer's  Bridge  over  the  Conestoga,  and 
extended  along  that  river  a  considerable  distance 
toward  Graeff's  landing.  He  had  a  mill  on  the  site 
of  the  old  water  works,  southeast  of  the  city.  In 
1799  he  sold  to  the  directors  of  the  Poor  of  the 
County  what  is  today  known  as  the  Poor  House 
Farm,  for  £3,129,  7s,  i6d.  During  the  Revolution- 
ary war  he  was  the  agent  for  the  purchase  of  horses 
for  the  French  atjxiliary  forces  serving  in  this 
country.  He  was  also  one  of  the  projectors  of  the 
Philadelphia  &  Lancaster  turnpike,  the  first  turn- 
pike built  in  this  country,  and  superintended  the 
construction  of  the  most  western  section. 

Col.  Slough  was  the  father  of  a  large  family, 
seven  sons  and  four  daughters.  His  wife  was  Mary 
Gibson,  daughter  of  Col.  George  Gibson.  This 
George  Gibson  was  the  son  of  the  Gibson  who  kept 
the  first  public  tavern  in  Lancaster,  with  the  noted 
hickory  tree  before  the  door.  One  of  Col.  Slough's 
daughters,  Mary,  became  the  wife  of  Gov.  Simon 
Snyder,  of  Pennsylvania.  Most  of  his  children 
having  removed  to  Harrisburg  he  joined  them  there 
in  1806.  He  died  in  that  city  Sept.  12,  1812,  in 
the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age.— [F.  R.  D. 

born  in  Colerain  township,  Lancaster  county,  March 
7,  1843,  on  the  western  bank  of  the  East  Branch  of 
the  Octoraro.  The  old  homestead  yet  retains  the 
dignity  of  the  farmhouse  and  is  now  a  place  of  his- 
toric interest,  where 

By  sylvan  dell,  through  meadows  green, 
The  flood  of  the  East  Branch  is  seen, 
Around  the  brae,  through  painted  lea, 
Seeking  a  passage  to  the  sea, 
The  swelling  tide  flows  ever  on. 
By  glen  and  brake  till  race  is  won; 
Where,  mingling  with  the  salted  wave, 
Returns  unto  the  springs  which  gave. 

There,  in  one  of  the  richest  agricultural  districts 
in  southern  Lancaster  county,  in  a  community  com- 
posed largely  of  Friends  and  Free  Presbyterians, 
all  of  whom  were  intensely  anti-slavery  in  sentiment, 
the  boyhood  days  of  Mr.  Brosius  were  passed. 
During  these  years  he  acquired  the  habit  of  industry 
and  developed  a  love  for  knowledge  which  continued 
with  him  during  his  entire  life,  often  burning  the 
midnight  oil  when  preparing  for  some  great  effort. 

Henry  Brosius,  his  paternal  great-grandfather, 
came  from  England  and  settled  near  Philadelphia 
in  1780.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends. 
His  son  Mahlon,  the  paternal  grandfather  of  Mar-_ 
riott  Brosius,  settled  on  the  east  bank  of  the  East' 
Branch  of  the  Octoraro  and  established  a  pottery. 
He  was  an  upright,  conscientious    gentleman,  and 




exemplified  the.  teachings  of  Georg'e  Fox  in  his  -daily 
walk  and  life. 

Clarkson  Brosius,  father  of  the  late  Congressf 
man  Marriott  Brosius,  was  a  leader  in  his  com- 
munity, and  although  for  years  incapacitated  phy- 
sically yet  he  was  foremost  in  every  good  work  for 
the  elevation  of  his  fellowmen.  He  was  a  thorough 
gentleman,  and  devoted  to  his  calling,  that  of  farm- 
ing. He  was  methodical,  scientific  and  enterprising, 
and  ranked  high  as  a  model  farmer.  He  was  largely 
instrumental,  in  1856,  in  organizing  the  Octoraro 
Farmers'  Club,  which  gaye  an  impetus  to  higher 
farming  in  soutbern  Lancaster  and  Chester  counties. 
Clarkson  Brosius  died  Oct.  8,  1863.  His  last 
thoughts  were  of  his  boy  far  away  on  the  firing  line. 
The  entire  community  was  grief  stricken  at  his  un- 
timely death. 

On  the  matarnal  side  Mr.  Brosius's  great-grand- 
father was  Samojel  Hambleton,  a  consistent  reforma- 
tory Friend.  His  sons  were  Samuel,  Charles,  Eli 
and  Thomas.  Samuel  was  the  father  of  Rachel,  the 
mother  of  Mr.  Brosius.  Each  of  the  other  sons  of 
Samuel,  Sr.,  offered  their  only  sons  to  their  country's 
cause.  Gerrit  Smith,  son  of  Thomas,  died  in  the 
service.  Charles  Burleigh,  son  of  Charles,  was  seri- 
ously wounded ;  he  now  resides  in  Atglen,  Chester 
Co.,  Pa.  Benjamin  Kent,  uncle  of  Mr.  Brosius, 
tendered  three  sons  that  our  nation  might  live. 
Mahlon  G.  Brosius,  yoimger  brother  of  Clarkson 
Brosius,  was  also  in  the  service ;  he  is  now  one  of  the 
most  enterprising  citizens  of  Chester  county.  From 
the  above  we  may  learn  that  Mr.  Brosius's  patriot- 
ism was  not  only  cultivated  but  hereditary. 

The  mother  of  Mr.  Brosius  died  when  he  was 
seven  years  old,  and  two  years  afterward  Mary  Ann 
Brinton  became  his  stepmother,  and  how  well  she 
performed  a  mother's  part  is  attested  on  every  side. 
Her  testimony  is  that  Marriott  was  ever  dutiful  and 
self-denying  for  the  happiness  of  the  other  members 
of  the  family.    Mr.  Brosius's  early  school  days  were 
passed  in  Octoraro  and  Chestnut  Hill  Academies, 
under  the  tutorage  of  the  veteran  teacher,  Thomas 
Baker,  who  early  predicted  him  a  glorious  future. 
His  summers  were  passed  in  manual  farm  labor, 
and  under  his  father's  direction  superintending  the 
hands  employed.   With  a  dictionary  in  his  pocket  and 
some  favorite  classical  author  in  his  hand,  his  time 
for  rest  was  spent  in  study.    The  study  of  political 
economy  had  a  decided  fascination  for  him,  and  he 
was  authority  on  all  national  issues.    When  the  war 
of  the  Rebellion  was  inaugurated  then  our  young 
student  farmer  became  restless.     A  conflict  raged 
within  his    bosom,    between    his  duty    to    his    in-, 
valid  parents  and  his  duty  to  his  country.    The  su- 
premacy was  won  by  his  unqualified  patriotism,  and 
he  obtained  his  parents'  permission  to  enlist  at  a 
heart-breaking  cost.     He  was  enrolled  in  Co.  K, 
97th  Regiment  Pa.  Vols.,  recruited  by  Capt.  Wayne, 
grandson  of  "Mad  Anthony"  Wayne,  the  celebrated 
major  general  in  the  Revolutionary  army.    He  was 
of  Irish-Quaker  ancestry.    Mr.  Brosius's  history  in 

the  service  is  summed  up  by  his  colonel,  Henry  R.- 
Guss,  afterward  Gen.  Guss,  who  says :  "Mr.  Bros- 
ius's record  is  linked  and  written  with  the  97th  Regt.,. 
in  whose  rolls  his  name  was  inscribed  in  1861.  Its- 
history  is  his  history  and  its  fame  is  his  fame  and  its- 
glorious  deeds  are  the  sum  of  the  faithful  brave  deeds 
of  the  men  who  with  him  went  forth  at  the  call  of 
this  country  to  do  battle  for  the  preservation  of  the 
life  of  the  nation.  Among  the  most  earnest  yet  quiet 
and  unobtrusive  in  all  his  actions  was  Marriott 
Brosius.  From  the  day  of  his  enlistment  in  the  ser- 
vice until  stricken  down  by  the  bullet  of  the  enemy  he 
was  ever  at  his  post  of  duty,  active  and  vigilant  as 
a  sentinel,  brave  and  courageous  in  line  of  battle. 
He  was  regarded  as  a  model  soldier  as  well  from 
the  force  of  culture  that  indicated  the  perfect  gentle-: 
man  as  from  the  exact  fulfillment  of  duty  that  indi- 
cated the  trained  veteran  soldier."  In  the  above  few 
lines  his  war  record  is  summed  up.  Aside  from 
special  acts  it  is  complete.  During  the  terrible  charge 
on  May  20,  1864,  at  Bermuda  Hundred,  which 
rivaled  Pickett's  charge  at  Gettysburg,  the  97th 
Regiment,  300  strong,  charged  across  the  wheat- 
fields  upon  2,000  Confederates,  Pickett's  Division, 
protected  by  rilie  pits.  Mr.  Brosius  was  struck  in 
the  breast  by  a  rifle  ball  which  imbedded  itself  in  his 
diary.  After  charging  up  to  within  twenty-five  yards 
of  the  rifle  pits  and  losing  237  men,  killed,  wounded 
and  missing,  the  recall  was  sounded.  In  the  retreat 
Mr.  Brosius  stooped  to  assist  a  fallen  comrade  from 
the  field,  when  a  minie  ball  entered  near  the  spine, 
and,  passing  between  the  ribs  and  shoulder  blade, 
crashed  through  the  right  shoulder  joint.  Sergt. 
Brosius  was  confined  to  the  hospital  for  eight  months, 
three  months  of  which  time  he  could  not  be  moved 
in  bed.  After  the  removal  of  the  shoulder  joint  and 
a  portion  of  the  arm  bone  the  wound  healed  but  his 
arm  ever  after  was  comparatively  useless.  During 
all  these  months  he  bore  his  sufi^'erings  with  Chris- 
tian fortitude — no  murmuring,  no  repining,  he  was 
ever  cheerful  and  resigned.  In  February,  1865, 
Sergt.  Brosius  was  promoted  to  a  lieutenancy,  al- 
though he  had  been  mustered  out  of  service  for  dis- 
ability the  previous  December. 

After  his  return  to  civil  life  Lieut.  Brosius  en- 
tered Millersville  State  Normal  School,  where  he  re- 
mained two  sessions.  After  teaching  a  short  time  in 
Chester  county,  he  entered  the  office  of  the  late  Hon. 
Thomas  E.  Franklin  to  study  law.  He  also  matricu- 
lated in  the  Law  Department  of  Ann  Arbor,  and 
graduated  therefrom  m  April,  1868,  and  was  imme- 
diately admitted  to  the  Lancaster  County  Bar.  For 
two  years  he  was  State  lecturer  for  the  I.  O.  G.  T., 
after  which  term  he  devoted  his  time  exclusively  to 
the  practice  of  law.  When  attending  the  Millers- 
ville Normal  School  he  became  acquainted  with  Miss 
Elizabeth  Jackson  Coates,  a  daughter  of  Simmons 
Coates,  of  West  Grove,  Chester  county.  Mr.  Coates 
was  of  the  distinguished  Coates  family  of  Chester 
county ;  he  was  a  man  of  high  standing  in  his  com- 
munity, educated  and  cultivated  and  prominent  in 



the  Society  of  Friends.  The  acquaintance  of  Mr. 
Brosius  and  Miss  Coates  soon  ripened  into  the 
strongest  mutual  attachment,  with  the  usual  result, 
and  shortly  after  he  was  admitted  to  the  Lancaster 
Bar  she  became  his  wife,  and  no  more  congenial 
union  was  ever  formed.  Four  daughters  blessed 
their  union,  two  of  whom  are  living:  Gertrude, 
wife  of  Herbert  B.  Coho,  of  New  York  (they  have 
two  children,  Gertrude  and  Helen  Elisabeth)  ;  and 
Grace,  who  married  Clement  Biddle,  Jr.,  of  the 
Carnegie  Iron  Works,  Pittsburg,  Pa.  Luretta  R. 
died  aged  six  years,  and  Florence  died  aged  nineteen 
months.  Mrs.  Brosius  contributed  largely  to  her 
husband's  successful  career.  His  modest,  retiring, 
unassuming  nature  required  some  one  to  lean  upon 
m  his  many  trials  and  tribulations,  and  at  these  times 
she  cheered  and  comforted  him  and  he  learned  to' 
rely  upon  her  wise  counsel.  She  never  doubted  her 
husband's  ability  to  distinguish  himself.  She  knew 
his  capabilities  better  than  anyone  else,  and  had 
fondly  hoped  for  the  realization  of  her  waking- 
dreams..  The  home  life  of  the  Brosius  family  at  No. 
419  West  Orange  street,  Lancaster,  was  happiness 
personified,  each  member  of  the  household  contrib- 
uting to  the  happiness  of  the  others ;  gentleness  and 
love  permeated  the  entire  atmosphere.  The  love 
for  the  good  and  beautiful  was  promoted  by  the 
esthetic  surroundings.  Mr.  Brosius  once  said  to  a 
friend  of  his  youth  that  the  highest  encomium 
ever  paid  to  him  was  by  his  daughter,  who  said, 
"Papa,  we  never  saw  you  angry." 

Mr.  Brosius's  career  at  the  Bar,  and  the  high 
esteem  in  vv^hich  he  was  held  by  his  associates,  has 
been  so  beautifully  portrayed  in  authoritative  classic 
language  that  we  introduce  in  this  place  the  address 
of  W.  F.  Beyer,  Esq.,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Lancaster 
Bar  to  adopt  memorial  resolutions  regarding  the 
death  of  Mr.  Brosius,  which  occurred  on  the  17th  of 
March,  1901.     Mr.  Beyer  in  part  said: 

Mr.  Chairman :  In  common  with  other  of  hia  as- 
sociates, I  desire  to  add  the  testi.tnony  of  my  appreciation 
of  the  life  and  manly  qualities  of  our  late  associate,  the 
Hon.  Marriott  Brosius. 

We  were  born  on  adjoining  farms  that  our  respective 
fathers  owned,  in  Colerain  township,  and,  although  he  was 
a  dozen  years  my  senior,  I  knew  him'  and  his  family  from 
earliest  childhood.  When  I  camie  to  Lancaster,  leaving  the 
Laiw  School,  he  took  me  into  his  office  for  the  few  weeks 
preceding  my  examination  and  admission  to  the  Bar,  and 
afterward  aided  me  in  my  early  practice.  For  twenty 
years  our  'homes  have  been  on  the  same  side  of  the  same 
square  in  this  city,  where  our  families  have  met  and  grown 
up  together.  Never  once  during  these  more  than  forty 
years  has  a  single  unpleasant  incident  strained  the  chain 
of  early  friendship,  but  its  links  have  rather  grown  brighter 
with  the  constant  social  intercourse  of  recurring  years. 

I  will  not  rehearse  the  story  of  his  army  life,  which 
has  frequently  been  printed,  and  is  a  matter  of  history. 
Let  us  pass  to  his  career  at  this  Bar,  where  his  industry 
and  ability,  the  thoroughness  with  which  he  prepared  his 
cases,  his  uniform  courtesy  and  fairness,  will  long  be  re- 
miembered.  He  loved  public  questions^,  but  'he  was  not  a 
politician  in  the  miodern  sense.  Those  of  us  who  were 
with  him  in  his  first  campaign  for  Congress  at  the  primary 
election  in  1888  know  that  he  had  no  combination  back  of 
him,  as   we  now  understand  the  word,  but  that  he  went 

before  the  people,  and  the  people  of  this  great  county  chose 
him  gladly,  and  they  have  chosen  him  ever  since.  There 
have  been  many  vile  stories  of  our  local  politics,  some  true 
and  some  false,  in  the  past  thirteen  years,  but  none  of 
them'  in  the  remotest  degree  has  ever  been  associated  with, 
his  good  name.  The  bitterness  of  defeat  often  moves  the 
tongue  to  slander,  but  in  this  case  no  sound  has  'been  heard. 
As  a  member  of  Congress,  he  rapidly  rose  to  promi- 
nence, and  it  may  truly  be  said  that  this  county  never  had 
a  more  industrious,  careful  and  conscientious  representa- 
tive. For  some  years  he  has  held  the  chairmanship  of  the 
Committee  on  Banking  and  Currency,  one  of  the  most 
important  commuttees  in  the  House,  and  there,  as  at  home, 
he  has  proven  himself  a  thoroughly  honest  man.  It  fell 
to  his  lot  to  shape  the  legislation  affecting  the  money  of  a 
nation  of  70,000,000  people,  under  which  a  large  portion  of 
the  Government  bonds  were  refunded  at  a  lower  rate  and 
the  National  banking  system  practically  reorganized,  the 
■whole  involving  hundreds  of  millions',  yet  not  a  dishonest 
dollar  stuck  to  his  fingers.  And  now  the  end  has  come  in 
the  miidst  of  his  usefulness.  He  was  one  of  the  people, 
and  the  whole  people  mourn  him,  while  we,  his  intimate 
associates,  will  dherish  his  memory  as  that  of  the  noblest 
type  of  man. 

Justice  J.  Hay  Brown,  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Pennsylvania,  said : 

The  virtues  of  our  dead  friend  and  brother  have 
been  justly  extolled  by  those  who  have  spoken  and  it 
is  not  needful  that  I  should  longer  dwell  upon  them.  But 
if  I  do  not  speak  of  them  it  is  not  because  any  other  man's, 
appreciation  of  them'  was  higher.  In  every  relation  of  life 
he  was  exemplary  and  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  he 
was  pure  and  his  hands  were  clean.  His  good  qualities 
ought  to  be  remembered  here  and  recalled  from  time  to 
time  in  order  that  they  may  be  emulated.  As  a  citizen, 
soldier,  lawyer,  statesman,  husband  and  father  he  was  pure, 
brave,  successful,  able,  affectionate  and  God  fearing.  More 
than  this  cannot  'be  said  of  mortal  being,  and  though  he  fell 
at  his  work  w'hen  the  rays  of  the  day's  sun  were  still 
shining  upon  him  and  before  the  shades  of  eventide  had 
gathered  about  him,  his  life  was  not  lived  in  vain. 

In  1882  Mr.  Brosius,  a  delegate  in  the  Republican 
State  Convention,  in  the  midst  of  a  factional  con- 
test, made  a  speech  in  favor  of  harmony  in  which  he 
said :  "I  love  my  party  better  than  any  wing  or 
faction  of  it  and  only  less  than  my  country,"  which 
so  carried  the  convention  that  he  was  by  acclaim 
nominated  for  a  Congressman  at  large,  but  was  de- 
feated, although  he  ran  seventy-six  hundred  ahead 
of  the  others  on  the  Republican  ticket.  In  1888,  after 
an  exciting  contest,  he  was  elected  as  the  Republican 
candidate  to  represent  the  Tenth  District  in  Con- 
gress :  almost  without  opposition  he  was  nominated 
and  elected  in  1890,  1892,  1894,  1896,  1898,  1900. 
His  death  left  a  vacancy  in  the  LVIIth  Congress, 
where  he  had  only  entered  upon  his  term  a  few  days 

It  was  no  easy  task  to  follow  Stevens  and  Smith 
as  the  representatives  of  Lancaster  county  in  the 
National  Congress — the  grandest  district  in  our  na- 
tion, and  whose  representatives  had  always  taken  a 
leading  part  in  shaping  National  legislation,  yet  Mr. 
Brosius  soon  secured  respectful  consideration 
from  that  body  and  was  frequently  selected  by  his 
party  members  to  lead  the  discussion  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  in  consequence  of  his  clear  con- 
ception, persuasive  rhetoric  and  faultless  diction  in 



presenting  the  subject  under  consideration.       His 
fame  as  an  orator  was  not  confined  to  Congressional 
halls,  it  was  only  bounded  by  our  National  confines, 
and  he  was  eagerly  sought  for  to  deliver  memorial 
addresses  in  our    National    cemeteries    and    other 
places.    In  1876  he  delivered  the  Centennial  address 
in  Lancaster.     On  Sept.  18,  1888,  he  delivered  the 
oration  at  the  unveiling  of  the  monument  on  the 
Antietam  battlefield.    He  also  delivered  the  oration 
on  the  dedication  of  the  Ross  monument,  in  Lancas- 
ter City ;  the  address  on  the  occasion  of  the  dedica- 
tion of  the  monument  in  memory  of  the  Revolution- 
ary patriots  who  lie  buried  at  Donegal,  Pa. ;  on  the 
battlefield  of  Gettysburg,  1896;  and  many  others, 
but  space  will  not  permit  the  enumeration.  On  two 
occasions  he  delivered  the  memorial  addresses  at  Ar- 
lington— a  compliment  never  as  yet  paid  to  any  other 
orator.    As  a  political  speaker,  Mr.  Brosius  was  sent 
by  the  National  Republican  committee,  at  solicitation 
of  candidates  in  closely  contested  districts — the  in- 
spiration of  his  presence,  his  fluent,  convincing  reas- 
oning, M'inning  many  to  his  party  standard.     But 
his  great  ability  to  sway  people  consisted  not  alone 
in  his  eloquence.     His  sterling  integrity,  unimpeach- 
able honesty  and  unqualified  veracity  were  important 
factors  in  directing  the  general  consensus  of  public 
opinion.     In  consequence  of  Mr.  Brosius's  diversi- 
fied learning  Ursinus  College  conferred  upon  him  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws. 

During  his  Congressional  career  Mr.  Brosius 
served  on  a  number  of  important  House  committees, 
including  Agriculture,  Civil  Service  (of  which  he 
was  chairman),  Pension  Bureau  and  Banking  and 
Currency  (of  which  he  was  chief).  He  was  an 
acknowledged  authority  on  National  financial  legis- 
lation. At  the  last  meeting  of  the  committee  on 
Banking  and  Currency  resolutions  strongly  com- 
mending Mr.  Brosius's  impartial  and  courteous  rul- 
ings were  adopted,  and  the  members  of  the  commit- 
tee, regardless  of  party  affiliations,  paid  him  high 
complirrients  for  efficiency,  little  thinking  they 
should  never  on  earth  meet  him  again. 

Mr.  Brosius  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Friends,  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  trustee  of  Lan- 
caster General  Hospital,  member  of  Lancaster  Coun- 
ty Historical  Society,  of  the  Young  Men's  Chris- 
tian Association,  and  of  other  organizations. 

Mr.  Brosius  died  on  the  morning  of  the  17th  of 
March,  1901.  The  arrangements  for  the  interment 
were  made  by  Col.  E.  F.  Pierce,  Sergeant  at  Arms 
of  the  House  of  Representatives,  and  Mr.  Fishback, 
Mr.  Brosius's  orivate  secretary,  the  time  appointed 
being  2  p.  m.,  March  20.  Mr.  Brosius's  body  lay  in 
state  at  his  home  on  the  above  date,  and  for  hours  a 
constant  procession  passed  the  casket,  all  anxious, 
through  their  tear-dimmed  eyes,  to  have  a  last  fond 
look  on  their  beloved  friend.  The  Congressional 
committee,  composed  of  senators  and  members  of 
the  House  of  Representatives,  arrived  in  Lancaster 
the  morning  of  the  funeral  to  take  part  in  the  funeral 

obsequies.  Rev.  Dr.  Alleman  delivered  an  eloquent 
sermon,  after  which  the  body  was  borne  to  Green- 
wood cemetery,  where  the  interment  took  place,  in 
the  midst  of  a  large  concourse  of  friends. 

REV.  WILLIAM  EASTON,  D.  D.,  for  over 
fifty  years  pastor  of  the  Octoraro  United  Presby- 
terian Church,  was  born  in  Ancrum,  Parish  of  Max- 
ton,  County  of  Roxburgh,  Scotland,  Oct.  2,  1804. 
His  parents  emigrated  to  this  country  in  1816,  and 
settled  in  Washington  county,  N.  Y.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  the  Cambridge  Academy,  New  York, 
taught  by  Dr.  Alexander  Bullions,  and  afterwards 
at  Union  College,  same  State,  whence  he  gradu- 
ated in  1822.  He  received  his  theological  training 
under  Dr.  Banks  in  the  Associate  Theological  Sem- 
inary, Philadelphia,  was  licensed  by  the  Associ- 
ate Presbytery,  June  7,  1826,  and  ordained  and  in- 
stalled pastor  of  the  United  congregations  of  Octo- 
raro, East  Nottingham  (now  Oxford),  and  Muddy 
Run,  June  7,  1827,  preaching  one-half  the  time  in 
Octoraro,  one-fourth  in  Oxford  and  the  other 
fourth  in  Muddy  Run.  He  resigned  the  Oxford 
portion  of  his  charge  in  1854,  "on  account  of  the  dis- 
tance and  his  own  disability  fully  to  attend  to  all 
the  duties  as  he  could  wish,"  but  continued  to 
preach  in  Octoraro  until  1878,  when  the  infirmities 
of  age  compelled  him  to  ask  for  a  dissolution  of  the 
pastoral  relation,  which  was  granted  Oct.  22nd,  of 
the  same  year.  On  June  12,  1879,  the  life  which 
began  in  Scotland  three-quarters  of  a  century  be- 
fore, which  had  continued  for  over  half  a  century 
in  the  congregation  of  Octoraro,  through  the  vigor 
of  youth,  the  prime  of  manhood,  and  the  maturity 
of  years,  had  drawn  to  a  close,  and  the  weary  body 
laid  down  to  rest  in  Jesus.  His  mortal  remains  re- 
pose in  the  cemetery  adjoining  the  church  where 
his  lifework  had  been  performed,  and  where  also 
repose  the  dust  of  the  sainted  Gellatley  and  Cuth- 
'bert,  the  founders  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
Church  in  America. 

The  semi-centennial  of  Dr.  Easton's  pastorate, 
June  7,  1877,  was  a  notable  occasion.  It  was  largely 
attended  by  those  who  had  been  brought  up  under 
his  faithful  ministry,  and  by  citizens  of  the  sur- 
rounding country  who  had  learned  to  respect  and 
love  him;  and  at  his  funeral,  two  years  later,  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Cooper  paid  this  just  tribute  to  his  mem- 
ory: "As  a  man,  Dr.  Easton  was  distinguished 
for  the  great  gentleness  of  his  disposition.  His 
heart  was  overflowing  with  kindness.  Sometimes, 
it  is  true,  he  rebuked  sin  in  a  manner  calculated  to 
give  ofi^ense,  but  he  was  prompted  to  do  so  by  such 
a  deep  conviction  of  divine  truth  that  no  consider- 
ation of  expediency  seemed  to  him  to  justify  sur- 
rendering its  claims.  He  was  unflinching  in  his 
fidelity  to  the  cause  of  his  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus 
Christ.  He  was  a  man  of  remarkable  candor,  de- 
spised time-serving,  and  lived  in  open  antagonism 
to  all  phases  of  sham,  duplicity  and  darkness.  He 
could  say  with  the  Apostle,  that  'in  simplicity  and 



godly  sincerity,'  he    had    his    conversation  in  the 

When  Dr.  Easton  came  to  Lancaster  county  it 
was  the  prevailing  custom  among  farmers  to  furnish 
liquor  to  their  help  in  harvest  time.  There  was  a 
small  farm  attached  to  his  residence  in  Smyrna.  At 
his  first  harvest,  when  the  men  asked  for  their 
"morning  bitters"  and  were  refused,  they  laid  down 
their  scythes,  declaring  they  would  not  work  with- 
out it,  uitimating  that  his  refusal  was  prompted  by 
meanness.  Ascertaining  the  cost  of  the  liquor  they 
were  accustomed  to  receive,  he  said  he  would  gladly 
add  double  its  cost  to  their  daily  wages,  rather  than 
place  temptation  in  the  path  of  his  fellow  men.  His 
offer  was  accepted  by  some,  but  others  preferred 
whiskey  and  left.  The  following  harvest  Dr.  Easton 
had  his  pick  of  harvest  hands,  and  in  a  few  years 
the  custom  was  entirely  abolished,  while  the  in- 
creased wages  he  paid  had  become  the  standard  in 
that  neighborhood.  At  that  period  the  prevailing 
sentiment  was  decidedly  pro-slavery.  One  Sunday 
Dr.  Easton  created  quite  a  sensation  by  preaching 
what  his  critics  denounced  as  an  "abolition  lec- 
ture." It  was,  however,  a  vindication  of  the  Bible 
against  those  who  claimed  that  it  justified  slavery, 
which  he  indignantly  repudiated.  He  lived  to  see 
the  public  sentiment  of  the  nation  reversed  on  the 
slavery  question,  from  what  he  found  it  when  he 
came  to  Pennsylvania  fifty  years  before. 

retired  from  the  active  pursuits  of  a  marble  manu- 
facturer in  March,  1901,  the  Major  finds  plenty  to 
do,  for  he  still  serves  as  secretary  to  the  board  of. 
trustees  of  the  "Home  for  Friendless  Children"  for 
the  city  and  county  of  Lancaster,  Pa.,  a  position  he 
has  held  continuously  since  May,  1876,  besides  be- 
ing interested  in  other  affairs.  Major  Howell  is  of 
Welsh-Scotch  extraction.  His  paternal  great-grand- 
father, the  progenitor  of  the  family  in  New  Jersey, 
was  a  native  of  Wales,  Great  Britain.  He  settled  in 
Lambertville,  N.  J.,  where  he  married  Miss  Julia  Ann 
Holcombe,  daughter  of  John  Holcombe,  about  the 
year  1740.  An  old  relic,  a  cane  with  ivory  top  and 
brass  ferrule,  owned  by  Prince  Howell  the  Good,  of 
Wales,  in  the  ninth  century,  was  owned  by  his 
descendant  in  1883 ;  and  this  relic  of  "High-born 
Howell"  was  exhibited  at  the  centennial  at  Phila- 
delphia in  1876. 

Amos  Howell,  Sr.,  grandfather  of  Charles  M. 
Howell,  was  born  near  Trenton,  N.  J.,  May  22, 
1754,  and  died  Dec.  14,  181 1,  aged  fifty-seven  years, 
six  months,  and  twenty-three  days.  He  married 
Martha  Jones,  who  died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Dec. 
19,  1821,  aged  about  sixty-eight  years.  It  has  been 
handed  down  as  an  incident  in  the  life  of  Amos 
Howell,  Sr.,  that  at  the  crossing  of  the  Delaware 
river  by  Gen.  Washington  and  his  army  on  the  night 
of  Dec.  25,  T776,  he  was  the  owner  of  the  "Howell's 
ferry"  (now  called  "Stockton"),  where  the  crossing 
was  made,  on  the  New  Jersey  side,  and  the  services 

and  assistance  rendered  by  him  on  this  occasion  were 
of  such  a  nature  as  to  call  forth  the  acknowledg- 
ments of  Gen.  Washington,  who  in  token  of  his  ap- 
preciation presented  him  with  a  horse. 

Amos  Howell,  Jr.,  father  of  Charles  M.  Howell, 
was  born  at  Lambertville,  N.  J.,  July  31,  1792.  He 
removed  to  Philadelphia  when  a  young  boy,  and 
learned  the  trade  of  coachmaking,  which  he  after- 
ward carried  on  extensively  in  all  its  various  branches 
until  his  death,  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Arch  and 
Eighth  streets.  He  served  in  the  war  of  1812-14, 
and  died  in  Philadelphia  April  11,  1832.  His  wife, 
Sarah  (Provost),  was  born  in  Philadelphia  Jan.  21, 
1799,  and  died  at  Buckingham  C.  H.,  Va.,  Aug.  30, 
1863.  Her  mother,  Hannah  Provost,  grandmother 
of  Charles  M.  Howell,  was  born  at  Inverness,  Scot- 
land, and  died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  March  13,  1820. 
By  his  marriage  with  Sarah  Provost  Amos  Howell 
had  eight  children,  of  whom  Charles  Miller  was  the 
eldest;  the  others  were  Henry  Provost,  Elizabeth 
Prentice,  Martha  Jones,  Emeline  Margaretta,  George 
Hocker,  John  Martin  and  Paul  Alexander. 

Charles  Miller  Howell  was  born  at  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  at  8 :30  a.  m.,  Sunday  morning,  April  24,  1814, 
and  obtained  his  early  education  in  the  private  schools 
of  his  native  city,  which  he  attended  until  he  was 
twelve  years  old.  He  was  then  sent  to  the  academy 
in  Plainfield,  Conn.,  where  he  remained  two  years. 
Upon  his  return  to  Philadelphia  he  was  indentured 
an  apprentice  with  Gen.  Peter  Fritz,  a  marble  manu- 
facturer, in  that  city.  After  his  term  of  apprentice- 
ship he  worked  several  years  for  Mr.  Fritz  as .  a 
journeyman.  In  the  spring  of  1838  he  began  busi- 
ness for  himself,  and  carried  on  the  trade  until  Sep- 
tember, 1843,  when  he  moved  to  Lancaster, and  estab- 
lished his  business  on  the  south  side  of  East  King 
street,  three  doors  east  of  Christian  street.  In  1850 
he  purchased  the  Gompf  property,  on  the  east  side 
of  North  Queen  street,  between  Chestnut  and  Orange 
streets,  in  Lancaster,  where  he  continued  to  do  a 
flourishing  trade  for  a  period  of  fifty-eight  years. 
In  1864  he  built  the  two  handsome  brick  houses  at 
Nos.  133  and  135  North  Queen  street,  this  being  the 
first  notable  modern  building  improvement  on  North  • 
Queen  street;  the  three  story  back-building  at  No. 
135,  where  he  resides,  he  erected  in  1850.  Mr.  Howell 
has  been  one  of  Lancaster's  most  active  business- 
men,  closely  identified  with  the  material  interests 
and  worthy  local  enterprises  of  the  city,  and  as  a 
member  of  both  branches  of  city  council,  as  a  member 
of  the  city  school  board,  and  as  city  treasurer,  he  did 
efficient  service  for  the  public.  In  1856  he  was  elected 
county  treasurer  on  the  Democratic  ticket,  and  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  that  office  with  entire  satisfac- 

Mr.  Howell  was  noted  in  his  boyhood  days  as 
a  lad  of  refined  tastes  and  accomplishments,  and  as 
an  apt  scholar.  He  was  especially  gifted  as  a  pen- 
man, and  became  famed  for  his  chirography,  as  well 
as  for  his  skill  in  making  pens,  those  being  the  days 
when  pens  were  made  of  the  gray-goose  quill,  and 

r^_  dn./^^^ 



copy-books  of  plain  white  paper  sewed  together.  He 
became  so  skilled  with  the  pen-knife,  as  well  as  pen. 
that  the  school  master  imposed  on  him  the  duty  of 
making-  pens  for  the  school,  and  of  setting  the  copy 
at  the  head  of  the  page.  These  duties,  requiring  so 
delicate  manipulation  of  touch,  no  doubt  had  much 
to  do  with  the  Major's  subsequerit  proficiency  with 
the  mallet  and  the  chisel.  Although  now  in  his  eighty- 
ninth  year,  he  still  writes  visiting  cards  for  his  friends 
and  no  professional  pen-writer  ever  wrote  a  steadier 
or  more  graceful  hand,  and  he  is  grateful  that  this 
faculty  is  retained.  As  a  marble  manufacturer  and 
monument  builder  Mr.  Howell  was  at  the  head  of 
his  profession.  Many  of  the  finest  works  in  granite 
and  marble  that  adorn  the  local  cemeteries  were  de- 
signed, executed  and  erected  by  him,  or  under  his 
immediate  supervision; 

As  a  Free  and  Accepted  Mason  Mr.  Howell  has 
attained  exalted  positions.  As  soon  as  his  apprentice- 
ship under  Gen.  Fritz  had  closed,  the  old  veteran,  who 
was  P.  G.  M.  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  who  took  a  natural  pride  in  the  skill  and  ability  of 
his  apprentice  in  marble-masonry,  proposed  him  for 
membership  in  Mount  Moriah  Lodge,  No.  155,  F.  & 
A.  M.,  in  June,  1839.  In  due  course  he  was  made  a 
Mason  in  that  lodge,  and  remained  a  member  until 
1843,  when  he  withdrew,  came  to  Lancaster,  and 
was  for  a  few  years  a  regular  visitor  at  the  meetings 
■of  Lodge  No.  43.  He  was  admitted  to  membership 
June  14,  1848,  and  filled  several  positions  during  that 
year.  At  the  December  meeting  he  was  'elected 
Junior  Warden,  in  1849  Senior  Warden,  and  in  1852 
Worshipful  Master.  In  1854  he  was  again  elected 
Worshipful  Master.  On  Dec.  27,  1856,  he  was  ap- 
pointed District  Deputy  Grand  Master  for  Masonic 
District  No.  i,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Chester, 
Lancaster,  Lebanon  and  York,  and  was  continuously 
re-appointed  for  twenty  years,  when  he  declined  a 
re-appointment.  Upon  the  establishment  of  the  rep- 
resentative system  he  was  appointed  Representative 
■of  I,odge  No.  43,  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  continued 
in  that  position  until  1879.  He  is  Past  High  Priest 
of  Chapter  No.  43,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  was  ap- 
pointed District  Deputy  Grand  High  Priest  in  1856, 
and  filled  that  office  for  twenty  years.  He  is  P.  T. 
T.  G.  M.  of  Goodwin  Council,  No.  19,  and  was  Dis- 
trict Deputy  M.  P.  G.  M.  for  several  years.  He  is 
a  member  of  Harrisburg  Lodge  of  Perfection,  and 
of  Harrisburg  Consistory,  32d  degree,  A.  A.  S.-  R. 
He  was  one  of  the  charter  members  of  Lancaster 
Commandery,  No.  13,  M.  K.  T.,  was  its  first  Eminent 
Commander^  and  was  continuously  elected  to  that 
office  for  eight  years.  He  was  appointed  Division 
Commander  of  his  Templar  district  in  1865,  and 
served  until  1884.  He  served  in  all  of  the 
elective  ofiices  and  was  elected  R.  E.  Grand 
Commander  in  1871.  In  honor  of  his  valu- 
able Masonic  services  the  following  Masonic 
lodges  and  chapters  have  been  named  after  him: 
Howell  Lodge,  No.  405,  Honeybrook,  Chester 
county ;  Charles  M.  Howell  Lodge,  No.  496,  Millers- 

ville,  Lancaster  county;  Howell  Chapter,  No.  499, 
York,  York  county;  and  Howell  Chapter,  No.  202, 
West  Chester,  Chester  county.  In  appreciation  of 
his  services  his  Masonic  brethren  in  difiFerent  parts 
of  the  State  have  presented  him  with  testimonials 
and  many  elegant,  costly  presents. 

Although  Major  Howell  was  not  a  soldier  in  ac- 
tive service  in  the  field,  he  has  a  military  record  of 
which  he  may  well  be  proud.  His  grandfather,  Amos 
Howell,  Sr.,  as  before  stated,  owned  the  Howell's 
ferry,  on  the  New  Jersey  side  of  the  Delaware  river, 
and  greatly  assisted  Gen.  Washington  with  his  arrny, 
in  crossing  on  the  night  of  Dec.  25,  1776,  and  his 
father,  Amos  Howell,  Jr.,  was  a  soldier  in  the  war 
'of  1812-14.  With  these  patriotic  examples  it  is  not 
to  be  wondered  that  young  Howell  also  should  feel 
some  military  aspirations,  even  during  the  piping 
times  of  peace.  In  the  twenty-third  year  of  his  age 
lie  was  elected  captain  of  the  8th  Company,  74th  Regi- 
ment, Militia  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania, 
in  the  1st  Brigade,  composed  of  the  militia  of  the 
city  and  county  of  Philadelphia;  he  was  duly  com- 
missioned by  Gov.  Joseph  Ritner,  his  commission 
bearing  date  April  17,  1837.  In  1838,  when  the 
Buckshot  war  broke  out  in  Harrisburg,  Major 
Howell  was  a  sergeant  in  Capt.  Fritz's  Company  of 
National  Grays  of  Philadelphia.  That  company,  with 
other  troops,  were  sent  to  the  State  capital  to  sup- 
press the  insurrection.  The  troops  left  Philadelphia 
about  8 130  A.  M. ,  during  a  snowstorm,  on  a  very  cold 
day,  and  reaching  Lancaster  at  night  were  quartered 
at  the  "Franklin  House"  for  the  night.  The  next 
morning  they  took  the  cars  for  Harrisburg,  formed 
a  line  on  the  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  river  and 
marched  to  the  capitol  with  colors  flying  and  drurns 
beating.  During  this  trip  and  bloodless  campaign 
Major  Howell  was  chosen  sergeant  of  Major  Gen. 
Robert  Patterson's  bodyguard — the  General  being  in 
command  of  the  entire  forces.  At  the  Encampment 
of  Volunteers  at  Camp  Wayne,  Paoli,  Sept.  10,  1840, 
of  which  Col.  John  K.  Murphy,  of  Philadelphia,  was 
commandant  of  the  right  wing  and  Gen.  Frederick 
Hambright,  of  Lancaster,  of  the  left  wing,  Major 
Howell  was  sergeant-major  of  the  right  wing.  In 
1842  Major  Howell  was  elected  major  of  the  ist  Reg- 
iment, Volunteer  Artillery,  ist  Brigade,  ist  Division, 
composed  of  the  militia  of  the  city  and  county  of 
Philadelphia,  and  was  duly  commissioned  by  Gov. 
David  R.  Porter,  his  commission  bearing  date  Aug.  3, 
1842,  and  running  for  seven  years. 

Major  Howell  was  also  an  active  fireman  under 
the  volunteer  service,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Col- 
umbia Hose  Company,  of  Philadelphia,  when  he  was 
but  eighteen  years  old,  serving  seven  years.  He  was 
then  placed  on  the  Honorary  Roll,  which  constituted 
him  a  life  member.  He  then  became  an  active  mem- 
ber of  the  Phoenix  Hose  Company,  to  which  his 
father  belonged,  and  remained  with  them  until  the 
volunteer  service  gave  place  to  the  paid  department. 
After  coming  to  Lancaster  he  continued  to  take  ac- 
tive interest  in  fire  matters,  and  his  long  service  in 



Philadelphia  made  him  a  safe  worker  and  wise  coun- 
selor. He  was  one  of  the  chief  organizers  of  the 
Empire  Hook  and  Ladder  Co.,  and  its  president  from 
185S  to  1884,  when  it  was  disbanded  to  give  place 
to  the  paid  department.  In  1872  he  was  appointed,  by 
Hon.  F.  S.  Pyfer,  mayor  of  Lancaster,  chief  engineer 
of  the  fire  department,  and  subsequently  elected  by 
the  firemen  themselves  to  the  same  office,  and  served 
with  great  diligence  and  efficiency. 

Major  Howell  declares,  jokingly,  that  he  sup- 
poses he  has  been  a  church  and  Sunday  school  worker 
for  so  many  years  because  he  was  born  at  8 :30  a.  m., 
on  a  certain  Sunday.  His  connection  with  and  at- 
tendance upon  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  and  its 
Sunday-school,  of  Lancaster,  commenced  in  Septem- 
ber, 1S43.  He  was  elected  a  trustee  of  the  church  at 
that  time,  and  served  for  twenty-five  years.  He  is 
still  an  elder  in  the  church.  He  was  elected  secretary 
and  treasurer  of  the  Sunday-school  and  served  in 
both  offices  until  1888 — a  period  of  forty-five  years, 
when  he  resigned  these  offices  for  the  purpose  of 
separating  them,  and  placing  younger  persons  in 
the  two  positions.  He  then  became  a  teacher  of 
Class  No.  15,  composed  of  young  ladies.  He  served 
as  teacher  until  Jan.  6,  1896,  and  then  resigned  the 
position  and  became  a  scholar  in  the  same  class,  per- 
forming the  duties  of  secretary  up  to  Jan.  5,  1902, 
making  a  continuous  membership  of  fifty-nine  years. 
During  the  first  fifty-six  years  he  was  absent  from 
Simday-school  but  fourteen  times,  and  can  give  rea- 
sons for  the  absent  days,  and  since  then  has  attended 
quite  regularly.  Twice  in  succession  he  was  absent 
but  once  during  terms  of  thirteen  years  each.  His 
atendance  upon  the  church  services  will  compare  with 
the  school  attendance. 

On  Dec.  28,  1841,  Major  Howell  was  married 
to  Miss  Elizabeth  Michael,  daughter  of  John  and 
Elizabeth  Michael,  who  for  half  a  century  owned  and 
controlled  "Michael's  Hotel"  (or  the  "Grapes,"  as  it 
was  called),  now  known  as  the  "American  House," 
in  North  Queen  street.  Mrs.  Howell  died  Oct.  22, 
1877.  Their  children  were  Sarah  Provost,  wife  of 
Rev.  William  D.  LeFevre;  Elizabeth  Michael,  de- 
ceased ;  Charles  May,  deceased ;  Henry  N.,  ex-chief 
of  the  Lancaster  Fire  Department,  who  married  Anna 
M.  Burger;  and  they  reside  with  his  father  at  No. 
13s  North  Queen  street,  where  he  conducts  a  very 
successful  fire  insurance  business,  representing  six 
of  the  best  companies  in  the  world ;  and  Frank  Roder- 
ick, a  marble  mason,  who  married  Miss  Susan  Ann 
Baumgardner,  and  died  Jan.  9,  1899.  Major  Howell 
has  nine  grandchildren  and  eight  great-grandchil- 
dren, whose  voices  gladden  his  heart  and  make 
merry  music  in  his  home. 

It  would  be  like  the  play  of  "Hamlet"  with  Ham- 
let out  if  we  closed  this  sketch  without  reference  to 
a  matter  with  which — even  more  than  with  his  prom- 
inence in  Masonic  affairs,  his  remarkable  record  in 
church  and  Sunday-school  work,  and  his  long  and 
successful  career  as  a  monument  builder — the  people 
of  Lancaster  are  familiar,  and  that  is  Major  Howell's 

reputation  as  a  skater  on  the  ice,  for  the  entire  com- 
munity of  Lancaster  knows  of  this.  For  an  ordinary 
lifetime  he  was  not  only  the  champion  skater  of  this 
section,  but  had  no  superior  in  the  State,  if  indeed, 
in  the  country.  Time  and  again  have  the  papers  of 
Lancaster  made  complimentary  notes  of  his  per- 
formances on  the  ice,  and  the  last  of  these  notices 
was  written  and  published  when  he  was  eighty  years 
old.  His  last  appearance  on  the  ice  was  three  years 
ago,  when  he  was  eighty-five  years  old,  and  the  only 
reason  he  has  not  indulged  in  the  sport  since  was 
because  there  was  not  ice  on  the  Conestoga  river  fit 
to  skate  on.  He  still  feels  anxious  to  skate,  and  the 
wish  and  hope  of  the  entire  community  is  that  he  may 
be  spared  to  skate  and  gladden  many  with  his  smiles 
until  he  has  rounded  out  a  full  century  nf  time. 

[Smce  the  above  was  written  Major  Howell  has 
died,  passing  away  April  10,  1903.] 

REV.  DR.  THEODORE  APPEL,  author, 
teacher,  and  minister,  was  born  April  30,  1823, 
within  the  present  limits  of  the  borough  of  Easton, 
Pa.,  on  the  west  side,  along  the  Bushkill.  He  was 
one  of  the  thirteen  children  of  Andrew  and  Eliza- 
beth (Gilmore)  Appel.  His  ancestors  on  his  fa- 
ther's side  were  of  German  stock,  while  from  his 
mother  he  derived  a  mixture  of  Irish  and  Quaker 
blood.  Andrew  Appel  was  ambitious  for  his  chil- 
dren, and  gave  them  the  best  education  his  limited 
means  and  the  times  allowed. 

WRen  Theodore  Appel  was  eight  years  old  he 
was  sent  to  school,  where  he  pursued  his  studies 
for  four  years,  becoming  then  a  clerk  in  a  store  at 
Easton.  However,  he  kept  up  his  mathematical 
studies,  of  which  he  was  very  fond,  and  also  pur- 
sued other  branches,  with  a  view  of  somehow  ob- 
taining a  college  course,  and  of  eventually  fitting 
himself  for  the  ministry.  His  zeal  and  persever- 
ance met  with  gratifying  success.  After  two  years 
spent  in  Dr.  John  Vandevere's  Academy,  he  was  in 
1839  admitted  to  the  Sophomore  class  at  Marshall 
College,  in  Mercersburg.  Under  the  influence  of 
Drs.  Nevin  and  Rauch"  his  tendencies  toward  the 
ministry  were  strengthened,  and  he  became  thor- 
oughly permeated  with  religious  thought.  On  grad- 
uating, in  the  class  of  1842,  when  he  delivered  the 
Latin  Salutatory,  he  immediately  entered  the  Sem- 
inary of  the  Reformed  Church,  where  Drs.  Nevin 
and  Schaff  became  his  mentors.  During  his  sem- 
inary course  he  acted  as  tutor  in  Greek  in  the  col- 
lege. In  1845  he  graduated  from  the  Seminary, 
and  received  a  call  to  Cavetown,  Md.,  which  he  ac- 
cepted, and  had  charge  of  four  congregations  em- 
bracing the  country  along  the  South  Mountain 
from  Cavetown  to  Waynesboro.  During  his  pas- 
torate he  organized  a  fifth  congregation,  which  be- 
came the  Harbaugh  Church.  In  1847  the  charge 
was  divided,  and  he  remained  oastor  of  the  Cave- 
town  section. 

In  1851  Rev.  Mr.  Appel  removed  to  Mercers- 
burg, to  become  pastor  of  the  Mercersburg  Church 



and  professor  of  mathematics  in  his  Alma  Mater. 
When  Marshall  College  was  removed  to  Lancas- 
ter, in  1853,  Rev.  Mr.  Appel  came  with  it,  and  con- 
tinued in  his  professorship  in  the  college  under  its 
combined  name  until  1877.  Dr.  Appel  was  ever  a 
man  of  energy  and  untiring  industry.  In  addition 
to  his  educational  and  pastoral  work,  from  1873 
to  1888  he  delivered  several  series  of  popular  lec- 
tures on  astronomy  throughout  the  Reformed 
Church,  and  during  the  same  period  he  became  sec- 
retary of  the  Board  of  Home  and  Foreign  Missions, 
and  also  secretary  of  the  board  of  visitors  of  the 
Theological  Seminary.  In  1872  he  was  honored 
with  the  degree  of  D.  D.,  conferred  by  the  Univer- 
sity of  Pennsylvania. 

Dr,  Appel  is  also  an  author  of  more  than  com- 
mon note.  During  1886  he  published  three  books : 
"College  Recollections,"  "The  Beginnings  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  of  the  Reformed  Church"  (a 
comprehensive  doctrinal  work  of  the  greatest  re- 
ligious and  historical  value)  and  "Letters  to  Boys 
and  Girls  about  the  First  Christmas  at  Bethlehem." 
In  i88q  appeared  "The  Life  and  Work  of  Dr.  John 
W.  Nevin,"  and  in  1895  he  edited  "Lectures  on 
English  Literature  of  Dr.  W.  M.  Nevin."  From 
1878  to  1886  Dr.  Appel  was  missionary  superin- 
tendent and  edited  the  Reformed  Missionary  Her- 
ald, and  from  1889  to  1893  he  had  charge  of  the  edi- 
torial department  of  the  Reformed  Church  Messen- 
ger. In  addition  to  these  labors  Dr.  Appel  still 
found  opportunity  to  contribute  frequently  to  the 
Mercersburg  Review,  his  articles  covering  the  per- 
iod from  1849  until  1895.  Since  1897  he  has  lived 
quietly  at  his  'home  in  Lancaster.  Although  the 
vigor  of  youth  is  gone,  he  is  still  interested  in  the 
Reformed  Church. 

In  1854  Rev.  Dr.  Appel  was  united  in  marriage 
with  Miss  Susan  Burton  Wolff,  daughter  of  Rev. 
Dr.  B.  C.  Wolff,  professor  in  the  Reformed  Theo- 
logical Seminary.  They  had  a  family  of  four  chil- 
dren, namely :  Miss  Charlotte,  at  home ;  Elizabeth, 
wife  of  Theodore  W.  Nevin,  of  Pittsburg;  Ber- 
nard W.,  now  deceased ;  and  Theodore  B.,  a  prac- 
ticing physician  of  Lancaster. 

THEODORE  B.  APPEL,  M.  D.,  one  of  the 
younger  physicians  of  Lancaster,  was  born  in  that 
city  Sept.  8,  1871,  son  of  Rev.  Dr.  Theodore  Appel 
and  his  wife  Susan  Burton  Wolff. 

After  completing  the  course  of  study  in  the  com- 
mon schools,  Theodore  B.  Appel  graduated  from 
the  Lancaster  High  School,  in  1885.  He  then  en- 
tered Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  and  received 
the  degree  of  A.  B.  there  with  the  class  of  1889. 
Immediately  following  his  graduation  he  was 
elected  vice-principal  of  the  Berwick  High  School, 
but  after  one  year  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  M.  L. 
Herr  to  prepare  for  his  professional  career.  In 
1894  he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine 
from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  For  the  two 
years  following  he  was  resident  physician  at  the 

Presbyterian  Plospital  in  Philadelphia,  where  he 
pursued  a  practical  course  of  great  value  in  his  la- 
ter work,  and  in  1896  he  entered  upon  the  private 
practice  of  his  profession  in  Lancaster,  where  he  has 
practiced  successfully  since.  He  is  now  senior  sur- 
geon at  the  Lancaster  General  Hospital,  and  is  as- 
sistant surgeon  of  the  Pennsylvania  National  Guard, 
being  attached  to  Battery  C,  at  Phoenixville,  Pa. 
Dr.  Appel  has  paid  especial  attention  to  surgery, 
and  has  won  a  reputation  in  that  line  not  bounded 
by  the  confines  of  his  own  county. 

Professionally  Dr.  Appel  is  a  member  of  the 
Lancaster  City  and  County  Medical  Society,  the 
Lancaster  Pathological  Society,  the  Columbia  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  the  Medical  So- 
ciety of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the  Ameri- 
can Medical  Association.  He  also  belongs  to  the 
Hamilton  Club  of  Lancaster,  and  to  the  University 
Club  of  Philadelphia. 

On  June  18,  1900,  Dr.  Appel  was  united  in  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Mary  Calder,  a  daughter  of  the  late 
George  Calder,  of  Lancaster.  Two  daughters  have 
been  born  of  this  union.  In  religious  belief  Dr. 
Appel  follows  the  faith  of  his  fathers,  and  is  affili- 
ated with  the  First  Reformed  Church. 

JOSEPH  WALKER  FAWKES,  inventor,  was 
born  in  the  village  of  Christiana  Sept.  25,  1815.  He 
was  the  youngest  son  of  Joseph  and  Eliza  Walker 
Fawkes,  who  purchased  and  removed  to  the  old 
McKnight  farm,  near  Georgetown,  in  the  spring 
of  1835.  The  farm  had  been  neglected,  and  was 
overgrown  with  sumach,  thistles  and  mulleins,  but 
Mr.  Fawkes  was  a  progressive  farmer,  and  with  his 
three  sons  in  a  few  years  made  it  the  most  fertile 
tract  in  the  district.  He  erected  a  new  dwelling, 
barn  and  other  outbuildings,  and  sold  a  portion  of 
the  original  for  more  than  he  originally  paid  for  the 

Joseph  W.  Fawkes  in  boyhood  developed  a  taste 
for  mechanics,  his  principal  amusements  being  the 
construction  of  waterwheels,  tilt-hammers,  boats  and 
other  devices,  operated  on  the  small  stream  which 
flowed  through  the  farm.  He  served  an  appren- 
ticeship to  Benjamin  Simmons,  of  Sadsbury  town- 
ship, and  when  free  took  contracts  on  his  own  ac- 
count. He  built  the  new  house  and  barn  for  his 
father,  and  erected  a  machine  shop  in  order  to.  in- 
dulge his  taste  for  mechanics.  One  of  his  earliest 
inventions  was  a  rotary  lime  spreader,  the  pioneer 
in  that  line.  But  his  most  important  essay  was  the 
designing  and  construction  of  the  traction  steam 
plow,  in  which  the  engine  derived  its  traction  from 
a  large  driving"  drum  instead  of  wheels,  driving  a 
gang  of  half  a  dozen  plows.  This  was  exhibited 
at  the  agricultural  fair  in  Lancaster  in  1858,  attract- 
ing much  attention,  and  the  inventor  was  awarded 
a  medal  of  honor.  .  In  1861  it  was  exhibited  at  the 
"United  States  Fair"  in  Chicaeo,  in  competition 
with  another  steam  plow,  which  derived  its  traction 
from  two  immense  driving-wheels,  ten  or  twelve 



feet  in  diameter.  The  practical  test  in  the  prairie 
soil  demonstrated  the  superiority  of  Fawkes  drum 
cylinder  device,  as  it  rode  on  the  surface  while  the 
big  drivers  sank  and  stalled  the  machine,  and 
Fawkes  was  awarded  the  premium.  Lack  of  capital 
prevented  him  from  profiting  by  his  invention.  He 
moved  on  a  farm  at  Moline,  111.,  and  subsequently 
to  Spring  Lake,  Iowa.  Returning  to  Chicago,  he 
turned  his  inventive  genius  to  account  in  the  manu- 
facturing of  rotary  electric  goods,  formed  a  com- 
pany, and  was  doing  a  prosperous  business  when  the 
factory  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  failure  of 
some  of  the  insurance  companies  and  litigation  re- 
sulting therefrom  greatly  depleted  his  savings.  In 
1887  he  moved  to  Burbank,  Cal.,  where  he  engaged 
in  fruit  culture,  in  which  he  was  quite  successful, 
continuing  in  that  occupation  until  his  death,  which 
occurred  March  14,  1892,  in  the  seventy-seventh 
year  of  his  age. 

Before  leaving  .Lancaster  county  Mr.  Fawkes 
married  Anna  Eliza  Baughman,  born  Oct.  25,  1825, 
who  survives,  with  seven  children,  all  married  and 
living  in  Los  Angeles  and  vicinity. 

was  the  fourth  son  of  Samuel  Bowman,  an  officer 
of  the  Revolutionary  army,  who  took  an  active  part 
in  the  battle  of  Lexington,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
war  settled  at  Wilkesbarre.  Samuel  Bowman  was 
born  there  May  21,  1800.  The  judicious  and  en- 
lightened views  of  his  patriotic  father,  supplemented 
with  the  refined  tastes  and  Christian  virtues  of  his 
mother,  nurtured  under  the  influence  of  the  Episco- 
pal Church,  were  the  environments  which  surrounded 
his  early  Hfe  and  molded  his  subsequent  distinguished 
career.  He  received  his  early  education  at  the  Wilkes- 
barre Academy,  at  that  time  an  institution  of  high 
repute.  He  was  destined  for  the  legal  profession, 
and  pursued  his  studies  in  that  line  for  some  time 
tmder  the  late  Charles  Chauncey,  Esq.,  of  Philadel- 
phia :  but  the  sudden  death  of  his  father,  by  accident, 
inipressed  him  with  an  invincible  desire  to  devote 
his  life  to  the  ministrv  of  the  Gospel.  Going  home 
from  the  funeral,  the  young  man  took  up  the  family 
Bible  and  conducted  family  prayer  in  the  afflicted 
household,  where  he  then  felt  a  large  weight  of 
responsibility.  He  applied  for  holy  Orders,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  Diaconate  by  Bishop  White,  Aug. 
25,  182.^,  and  to  the  Priesthood  by  the  same  bishop. 
Dec.  19,  1824.  In  182.^  be  began  his  ministrv  as 
deacon  in  the  parishes  at  Peuuea'and  Leacock,  where 
he  remained  two  years.  After  a  brief  residence  at 
Easton,  Pa.,  where  he  had  the  charge  of  Trinity 
Church,  and  where  he  met  Miss  Sitgreaves,  who 
became  his  wife,  he  returned  to  his  first  cures  in 
Lancaster  counti'.  which  he  held  until  September. 
1827,  when  he  was  invited  to  become  co-rector  with 
Rev.  Dr.  Clarkson.  of  St.  James'  Church,  Lancaster. 
After  the  death  of  Mr.  Clarkson,  in  1830,  Dr.  Bow- 
man became  sole  rector  and  filled  that  positon  until 
his  death ;  for  on  his  elevation  to  the  Episcopate  his 

parishioners,  dreading  to  sever  the  relations  so  long 
and  so  happily  sustained,  prevailed  upon  him  to 
retain  his  residence  in  the  old  parish,  electing  Rev. 
J.  Isidor  Mombert  co-rector.  In  1843  Dr;  Bowman 
received  from  Geneva  (now  Hobart)  College  the 
degree  of  S.  T.  D.  In  1845  the  Diocesan  Convention 
of  Pennsylvania,  against  his  own  protest,  placed  him 
in  nomination  for  the  Episcopate.  The  conservative 
clergy  elected  him  in  preference  to  Dr.  Tyng,  but 
the  laity  refusing  to  concur  he  cordially  supported 
the  nomination  of  Dr.  Alonzo  Potter,  who  was 
eventually  chosen.  In  1847  he  was  elected  Bishop 
of  the  Diocese  of  Indiana,  but  his  strong  attach- 
ment to  Lancaster  controlled  his  decision  to  decline. 
In  1858  he  was  elected  Assistant  Bishop  of  Pennsyl- 
vania over  Dr.  Alexander  H.  Vinton.  Dr.  Bowman, 
who  in  no  way  sought  the  office,  made  an  eloquent 
appeal  to  the  convention  to  elect  Dr.  Vinton.  This 
appeal,  so  full  of  sincere  humility  and  fervent  zeal, 
completely  disarmed  the  opposition  and  strikingly 
showed  his  own  fitness  for  the  office.  He  was  con- 
secrated the  same  year  in  Christ  Church,  Philadel- 

Dr.  Bowman  was  distinguished  for  purity  of  life, 
dignity  of  bearing,  with  suavity  of  manner,  and 
eloquence  of  speech.  The  church  service  when  read 
by  him,  in  his  silvery  yet  resonant  voice,  never  failed 
to  hold  his  auditors  spellbound,  and  when  he  arose 
to  speak  in  a  miscellaneous  audience  he  commanded 
the  closest  attention  and  held  it  to  the  close.  He  was 
a  central  figure  in  all  meetings  for  the  public  welfare, 
and  his  logical  presentation  of  facts  and  argument  de- 
termined the  convictions  of  his  hearers.  He  was 
deeply  interested  in  education,  for  niany  years  was 
an  active  member  of  the  Public  School  Board  and  a 
Trustee  and  Secretarv  of  the  Board  of  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College.  Dr.  Gerhart,  President  of  the  Col- 
lege, at  the  semi-centennial  of  the  Bishop  Bowman 
Church  Home,  said  of  him,  "I  knew  him  only  to 
respect,  to  honor  and  revere  him,  for  his  abilities,  the 
nobleness  of  his  Christian  character,  the  soundness 
of  his  judgment  and  his  fidelity  to  every  trust.  Dr. 
Bowman  stood  for  several  decades  as  one  of  the 
pillars  of  truth  and  righteousness  in  this  community. 
The  distinguishing  characteristic  of  his  hfe  was 
Christian  faith,  a  faith  that  was  firm  and  unshaken 
amid  all  trials,  a  faith  that  was  active  in  good  deeds, 
of  which  this  'Home'  is  one  of  many  illustrations." 

The  St.  James'  Orphan  Asylum,  the  Church 
Home,  the  Yeates  Institute,  and  St.  John's  Free 
Church,  bear  testimony  to  his  liberality  and  zeal  in 
educational,  Christian  and  charitable  works.  It  was 
through  his  influence  that  Miss  Yeates  endowed 
the  Institute  in  honor  of  her  father,  Hon.  Jasper 
Yeates,  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  warden  of 
St.  James'  Church ;  and  he  organized  St.  John's,  the 
pioneer  free  church  of  the  diocese,  to  vindicate  the 
practicability  of  his  long-cherished  ideal  of  a  church 
where  the  Gospel  should  be  as  free  as  any  other  gift 
of  God.  He  started  the  enterprise  bv  pledging  one- 
tenth  of  the  whole  cost  ($15,000)  out  of  his  limited 




income,  and  supplemented  this  after  he  became 
Bishop  by  pledging  one-tenth  of  the  cost  of  a  rectory 
which  he  urged  the  vestry  to  build.  The  last  sermon 
he  ever  preached  was  in  this  church,  on  Sunday  even- 
ing, July  28,  i86t,  from  the  text,  "For  I  determined 
not  to  know  anything  among  you,  save  Jesus  Christ 
and  Him  crucified."  On  the  following  Tuesday  he 
left  on  an  Episcopal  visit  to  the  oil  regions.  On  his 
way  to  Butler,  over  the  Allegheny  railroad,  owing 
to  a  landslide,  the  passengers  were  compelled  to 
walk  some  distance,  and,  being  unable  to  keep  up  with 
the  others,  he  was  found  lying  by  the  roadside,  his 
face  buried  in  his  hat,  stretched  out  at  full  length, 
"a  corpse  without  signs  of  bruise  or  struggle,  his 
watch  and  papers  untouched."  It  is  an  interesting 
coincidence,  that  Eranklin  Wright,  then  superintend- 
ent of  the  Allegheny  railroad,  was  the  one  who  identi- 
fied the  remains  of  the  Bishop.  He  had  spent  his  boy- 
hood days  in  Lancaster  and  was  presented  for  con- 
firmation in  St.  James'  Church.  He  escorted  the 
remains  to  Pittsburg,  whence  thev  were  brought  to 
Lancaster,  where  they  repose  in  the  shadow  of  the 
church  he  served  so  well.  St.  James'  Church,  Titus- 
ville,  was  built  as  a  memorial  to  this  saintly' man 
and  named  in  honor  of  his  old  parish. 

Bishop  Bowman  was  married  the  second  time 
to  Harriet  R.,  daughter  of  Rev.  Joseph  Clarkson,  a 
former  rector  of  St.  James.'  His  first  wife,  Susan 
Sitgreaves,  bore  him  three  children,  one  of  whom, 
Ellen,  became  the  wife  of  Bishop  Vail,  of  Kansas. 
Her  daughter,  Mrs.  Dr.  Hotter,  survives,  and  resides 
in  Washington,  D.  C. 

5,  182.S,  in  Newlin  township,  Chester  county,  died 
at  his  home  in  Lancaster  City  March  25,  1891,  after 
having  achieved  the  very  highest  distinction  in  the 
work  to  which  he  devoted  the  best  years  of  his  long 
and  useful  life. 

Born  of  an  honorable  ancestry,  brought  up  un- 
der the  influence  of  the  best  type  of  Friends,  he  laid 
early  the  foundations  of  a  strong  character  and  a 
great  career.  From  the  country  school  he  passed 
to  Unionville  Academy,  where  Bayard  Taylor  was 
one  of  his  fellow-studdnts.  At  fifteen  he  took  charge 
of  a  school,  and  in  1845  became  principal  of  Mari- 
etta Academy,  giving  up  his  intention  of  reading 
law  upon  advice  of  his  family.  From  twenty  pupils 
in  a  rented  room,  under  his  management  the  school 
had  grown  by  1852  to  over  a  hundred  pupils  in 
a  fine  building  owned  by  the  principal.  Meanwhile 
he  had  been  married  in  1847,  to  Emerine  I.  Taylor, 
a  former  schoolmate,  a  woman  of  rare  intelligence 
and  character.  In  1853  he  was  one  of  the  organ- 
izers of  the  State  Teachers'  Association,  and  was 
prominent  in  the  agitation  for  the  establishment  of 
the  County  and  State  Superintendency.  In  1854  he 
was  active  in  the  first  county  institute,  and  was  del- 
egate from  Lancaster  county  to  the  American  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Education.  Also 
in  1854.  the  county  superintendency  was  created  and 

he  was  chosen  for  the  place.  In  July  of  the  same 
year  we  find  him  active  in  the  first  meeting  of  the 
county  superintendents.  In  1855  he  held  a  Normal 
Institute  at  Millersville,  which  made  such  an  im- 
pression that  it  was  determined  to  make  it  a  per- 
manent institution,  and  Mr.  Wickersham  was  called 
to  be  its  head.  Resigning  the  superintendency  in 
the  fall  of  1856,  he  devoted  his  great  energies  to  de- 
veloping the  great  school  which  now  distinguishes 
the  First  Normal  District  of  Pennsylvania,  and  is 
perhaps  his  most  significant  monument.  When  the 
war  surged  northward  in  1863,  he  led  a  company 
(mostly  Millersville  students)  into  service,  and  was 
chosen  colonel  of  the  47th  Regiment.  During  these 
years  of  activity  he  filled  with  ability  the  Presi- 
dency of  the  State  Teachers'  Association,  and  other 
similar  places  in  the  line  of  his  work.  He  had  also 
found  time  to  write  several  books,  notably  his 
"School  Economy"  and  "Methods  of  Instruction," 
which  were  for  a  long  period  the  standard,  and  they 
have  been  translated  into  French,  Spanish  and  Jap- 

In  1866  Governor  Curtin  appointed  Dr.  Wick- 
ersham (having  meanwhile  been  recognized  by  a 
degree  from  Lafayette  College)  to  be  State  Super- 
intendent of  Schools,  which  place  he  filled  continu- 
ously for  the  next  fourteen  years,  being  successively 
reappointed  by  the  series  of  Governors,  all  agree- 
ing that  he  was  pre-eminently  the  man  for  the  place, 
and  the  Senate  confirming  him  by  unanimous  vote. 
In  the  educational  history  of  the  State,  these  years 
were  the  period  of  construction.  Receiving  from 
Dr.  Eurrowes  the  outlines  of  a  great  scheme  "in 
the  rough,"  he  adapted,  adjusted,  reconstructed  and 
perfected  it  in  every  part,  making  of  it  an  organ- 
ism which  his  successor  said  "could  almost  run 
itself."  There  was  no  legislation  in  school  matters, 
but  bore  the  impress  of  his  hand,  accepting  and 
improving  all  helpful  ideas,  and  preventing  errors 
and  retrograde  steps.  The  value  of  this  service  can 
only  be  estimated  fully  by  the  future;  but,  mean- 
while, it  has  not  been  forgotten  by  those  best  qual- 
ified to  judge.  William  T.  Harris,  first  of  American 
educators  and  philosophers,  said  at  the  Brooklyn 
meeting  of  the  N.  E.  A. :  "If  I  were  asked  to  name 
the  five  leading  educators  of  America,  I  would 
name  James  P.  Wickersham,  of  Pennsylvania,  as 
one."  And  in  Winship's  "Great  American  Educa- 
tor," that  keen  observer  and  critic  accompanies  his 
portrait  with  such  words  as  these :  "All  the  schools 
of  the  State  were  better  because  he  was  State  Su-, 
perintendent.  Good  laws  were  made  and  bad  prac- 
tices abolished  by  him.  A  million  children  have 
better  school  houses,  better  school  books,  better 
teachers  than  before.  Teachers  have  many  advant- 
ages because  of  him.  ...  No  State  Superintend- 
ent has  had  clearer  or  higher  ideals  of  what  the  Su- 
perintendent, the  teacher,  the  directors  and  the  peo- 
ple ought  to  do  for  the  schools.  .  .  .  Wickersham 
was  a  natural  leader,  and  to  the  people  of  the  United 
States  he  was  the  best  known  of  the  educators  of 



Pennsylvania  for  forty  years."  It  is  not  too  much 
to  say  that  Dr.  Wickersham  found  the  school  sys- 
tem a  brilliant  idea  in  the  experimental  stage  and 
left  it  a  successful  and  permanent  organism.  His 
little  "Digest"  became  the  foundation  of  the  body 
of  school  law  of  the  State,  and  none  of  his  de- 
cisions have  been  reversed. 
.  In  addition  to  the  onerous  duties  of  the  School 
Department,  the  Soldiers'  Orphan  work,  crippled 
and  discredited  by  the  ■  mismanagement  of  others, 
was  placed  in  his  hands,  and  at  once  reduced  to  or- 
der, and  so  remained  until  the  close  of  his  service, 
when  instead  of  the  old  history  of  deficit,  he  turned 
over  an  unexpended  balance  to  his  successor. 

From  1870  until  his  retirement  from  the  State 
Superintendency,  Dr.  Wickersham  was  editor  and 
part  owner  of  the  Pennsylvania  School  Journal,  and 
his  work  upon  it  added  greatly  to  its  circulation  and 
influence.  In  the  framing  of  the  Constitution  of 
1874,  his  carefully  prepared  statements  before  the 
committees  of  the  convention  were  most  useful  in 
adopting  the  educational  provisions.  In  1876,  he 
earned  wide  credit  for  his  unique  presentation  of 
the  educational  interest  of  his  State  at  the  Centen- 
nial Exhibition.  After  the  close  of  the  exhibition, 
he  visited  Europe*  to  study  their  systems  of  educa- 
tion, making  official  report  thereupon  in  1878. 
Along  with  official  duties,  his  face  was  known  all 
over  the  State  by  reason  of  frequerit  attendance  at 
educational  conventions  and  institutes,  where  his 
ringing  speeches  were  a  source  of  inspiration  and 

Soon  after  the  close  of  his  fourteen  years  serv- 
ice. President  Arthur  appointed  Dr.  Wickersham 
Minister  to  Denmark,  but  after  some  time  spent 
there  he  resigned  on  account  of  the  ill  health  of  his 

In  1886  was  issued  his  "History  of  Education 
in  Pennsylvania"  (printed  in  a  oublishing  house  es- 
tablished by  himself),  which  every  year  becomes 
more  and  more  valuable  as  a  reference  work,  quoted 
by  all  writers  on  its  subject.  His  voice  and  pen 
were  actively  influential  in  securing  the  adoption 
of  the  free  text-book  system,  which  has  been  so  val- 
uable an  aid  in  school  work.  He  was  also  a  trus- 
tee of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  in  his  home 

His  membership  and  activity  in  Post  84,  G.  A. 
R.,  were  worthy  of  special  mention.  The  soldiers' 
burial  place  in  Lancaster  cemetery  was  secured  by 
his  advocacy,  and  many  an  old  soldier  profited  by 
his  generous  help.  After  more  than  fifty  years  of 
intense  activity,  this  useful  man,  honest  and  capable 
public  oilficer,  model  citizen,  passed  away  at  his 
home  in  Lancaster,  after  a  brief  illness.  March  25, 

J.  Harold  Wickersham,  son  of  the  late  dis- 
tinguished educator,  Dr.  James  P.  Wickersham,  was 
born  at  Marietta,  Pa.,  Feb.  24,  1856.  His  boyhood 
was  passed  at  MillersviJle  and  Lancaster,  where  he 
received  his  early  education  in  the  public  schools. 

Graduating  from  the  Lancaster  High  School  in 
1872,  he  spent  three  years  at  Franklin  and  Marshall 
College,  and  two  years  at  Yale,  graduating  there 
with  the  degree  of  B.  Ph.  Returning  to  Lancaster, 
he  entered  the  printing  house  of  the  Inquirer  Print- 
ing and  Publishing  Co.,  in  a  subordinate  position, 
and  by  diligence  and  good  judgment  advanced 
to  general  manager,  which  position  he  still  holds. 
After  his  father's  death  the  name  of  the  company 
was  changed  to  the  Wickersham  Printing  Co.,  and 
our  subject  was  elected  its  president.  The  plant  is 
of  high  grade,  and  does  a  large  and  successful  busi- 

Mr.  Wickersham  was  married  in  1880  to  Miss 
Jessie,  daughter  of  John  Hough,  of  Fort  Wayne, 
Ind.  He  is  prominent  in  the  business  and  social 
life  of  Lancaster. 

scended from  an  old  family  of  Lancaster  county,  his 
grandmother  on  his  father's  side  having  been  a  di- 
rect descendant  of  Hans  Herr,  the  progenitor  of  the 
numerous  and  influential  Herrs  of  this  section ;  and 
his  paternal  grandfather  was  a  native  of  Lancaster 
county.  George  Diffenbach,  the  latter,  was  a  farm- 
er and  tanner.  He  married  Maria  Herr,  sister  of 
Rev.  Christian  Herr,  of  Pequea.  George  Diffen- 
bach, Jr.,  son  of  George  and  Maria,  was  also  a 
farmer  and  tanner.  He  married  Barbara  Rohrer,  a 
sister  of  Squire  Rohrer,  and  an  aunt  of  Dr.  Amos 
K.  Rohrer,  deceased,  a  prominent  physician  of 
Mountville,  whose  ancestors  came  to  America  in 
1732.  To  this  union  were  born  seven  children,  two 
of  whom  are  now  living:  Adam,  a  farmer  in  Min- 
nesota, now  eighty  years  old ;  and  John  Rohrer,  of 
Lancaster,  now  in  his  eighty-ninth  year.  A  daugh- 
ter, Mrs.  Connellv,  made  her  home  with  her  son 
John,  and  died  at  the  age'  of  ninety-two  years.  In 
Strasburg,  in  association  with  Alexander  Hood  and 
Squire  Hofifman,  George  Diffenbach,  Jr.,  held  the 
first  meeting  for  and  took  the  first  steps  toward  the 
establishment  of  the  free  school  system  in  Penn- 

John  Rohrer  Diffenbach  was  born  in  Strasburg 
Sept.  13,  1813,  and  was  educated  in  his  native  town. 
He  left  school  at  the  age  of  eighteen  years  to  enter 
a  store,  and  afterward  he  spent  a  year  in  Lancaster, 
where  he  served  as  in  the  store  of  P.  K. 
Brenerman.  In  1833,  before  he  attained  his  ma- 
jority, Mr.  Diffenbach  began  a  career  as  a  merchant 
at  the  Buck,  where  he  was  engaged  for  two  years, 
removing  thence  to  New  Holland,  where  he  was  a 
merchant  two  years,  and  then  to  Silver  Spring, 
finally  locating  at  Marietta,  where  he  was  in  busi- 
ness from  1839  to  1868,  enjoying  a  fine  and  profita- 
ble patronage.  In  t868  he  came  to  Lancaster, 
where  he  bought  the  splendid  property,  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Lime  and  Orange  streets,  which  is  now  occu- 
pied by  Mrs.  Louise  Brenerman ;  and  in  1882  he 
purchased  the  ground  and  built  the  elegant  dwell- 
ing on  North  Duke  street,  into  which  he  moved  his 



home  and  family  the  following  year,  and  where  he 
is  still  found.  After  coming  to  Lancaster  Mr.  Dif- 
fenbach  still  retained  an  interest  in  two  stores,  one 
at  Lebanon,  and  the  other  at  Lykens  Valley,  but  in 
1875  h^  sold  them,  and  has  since  confined  himself 
to  looking  after  his  properties  and  investments.  Dur- 
ing his  long  and  useful  life,  Mr.  Diffenbach  has 
spent  at  least  $100,000  in  building  and  improving 
his  properties,  and  since  his  advent  in  Lancaster 
he  has  disbursed  as  large  a  sum  in  taxes,  living  ex- 
penses, and  in  assisting  worthy  objects — a  most 
creditable  record. 

At  first  a  Whig  in  politics,  Mr.  Diffenbach  be- 
came a  Republican  upon  the  formation  of  that  party. 
While  a  resident  of  Silver  Spring  he  was  ap- 
pointed a  justice  of  the  peace  by  Gov.  Ritner,  but 
resigned  the  office  on  the  occasion  of  his  removal 
from  the  district.  He  has  never  sought  official 
honors  of  any  kind,  and,  though  often  solicited,  has 
uniformly  declined  to  take  any  position  of  responsi- 
bility, and  it  is  to  his  credit  that  while  justice  of  the 
peace  he  never  returned  a  case  to  court,  always  bring- 
ing the  parties  together  and  effecting  a  settlement 
between  them.  At  one  period  of  his  life  Mr.  Diflfen- 
bach  was  a  surveyor,  making  the  draft  and  helping 
to  make  the  survey  to  avoid  the  inclined  plane  on 
the  Pennsylvania  railroad  between  Mountville  and 
Columbia.  Mr.  Diffenbach  has  been  interested  fin- 
ancially in  almost  every  bank  in  Lancaster,  as  well 
as  in  the  Marietta  banks  and  the  trust  companies 
of  Lancaster. 

On  Sept.  2g,  1840,  Mr.  Diffenbach  was  married 
to  Miss  Martha  Brenerman,  who  was  born  in  Co- 
lumbia, Pa.,  May  7,  1818,  daughter  of  Capt.  Bren- 
erman. Like  her  husband,  she,  too,  enjoys  a  serene 
old  age. 

DR.  JOHN  GAINER  MOORE,  whose  death 
at  his  home  in  New  Holland,  Pa.,  Jan.  18,  1883, 
removed  from  Lancaster  county  one  of  her  most 
skillful  and  successful  practitioners  of  dentistry,  was 
one  of  the  county's  most  esteemed  public-spirited 
and  useful  citizens. 

The  ancestral  line  of  the  Moore  family  goes  far 
back  in  the  world's  history  to  the  time  when  An- 
drew Moore,  a  native  of  Glasgow,  Scotland,  emi- 
grated to  County  Antrim,  Ireland,  in  1612,  when 
James  I  ruled  over  the  united  countries  known  as 
the  British  Isles. 

Dr.  Moore  was  peculiarly  fortunate  in  his  par- 
entage. His  distinguished  father.  Dr.  Mordecai 
M.  Moore,  was  for  many  years  known  not  only  in 
his  native  State,  but  through  a  large  section  of  coun- 
try. Dr.  Moore's  mother  belonged  to  one  of  the  old 
and  honorable  families  of  Lancaster  county. 

In  a  record  of  representative  men  of  this  kind, 
it  would  not  be  fitting  to  omit  extended  notice  of 
Dr.  Mordecai  M.  Moore.  He  was  born  near  Chris- 
tiana, in  Sadsbury  township,  Lancaster  county, 
April  19,  1807,  a  son  of  Gainer  Moore,  a  well- 
known  member  of  the  Societv  of  Friends,  who  was 

a  descendant  of  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  in  that 
section  of  Pennsylvania.  Dr.  Moore  obtained  a 
limited  education  in  the  common  schools,  but  spent 
much  of  his  leisure  time  in  study.  After  teaching 
school  in  Lancaster  county  for  several  years  he 
studied  dentistry  and  surgery  with  Dr.  Van  Pat- 
ton  as  a  preceptor.  Dr.  Moore  practiced  dentistry 
in  Lancaster  City  until  1849,  when  he  went  to  Cal- 
ifornia. On  his  arrival  there  he  became  interested 
in  gold  mining,  and  was  elected  the  first  president 
of  the  Keystone  Mining  Co.  He  also  practiced  both 
dentistry  and  medicine  in  California.  In  1853  he 
returned  to  Lancaster,  where  he  became  intimately 
acquainted  with  ex-President  Buchanan.  Three 
years  later  he  returned  to  California,  and  remained 
until  1859.  The  exposure  that  he  was  subjected  to 
while  in  the  mountain  regions  of  that  State  caused 
him  to  have  erysipelas,  which  so  affected  his  eyes 
that  he  became  totally  blind.  This  affliction  was 
borne  with  remarkable  fortitude  by  Dr.'  Moore,  who 
devoted  his  time  to  religious  thought.  Being  a  mem- 
ber of  the  M.  E.  Church,  he  was  made  an  exhorter, 
.  and  afterward  a  local  preacher,  and,  notwithstand- 
ing his  blindness,  he  traveled  extensively  in  the 
West,  preaching  the  Gospel.  Dr.  Moore  would 
have  a  friend  take  him  to  a  railroad  station,  and 
would  engage  the  services  of  a  trustworthy  boy  to 
take  him  to  places  he  wished  to  visit.  In  this  way 
he  visited  his  brother  George,  in  Iowa,  and  from 
there  traveled  to  California,  where  he  conducted 
a  series  of  religious  meetings.  On  his  return  to 
Lancaster,  Dr.  Moore  prepared  a  lecture  on  "What 
a  Blind  Man  Saw  in  California,"  which  he  delivered 
in  a  number  of  places. 

It  is  recorded  of  Dr.  Moore  that  at  one  time, 
while  suffering  from  a  tumor  on  his  left  side,  he  re- 
tired to  his  room,  took  an  ordinary  pocket  knife,  and 
with  coolness  and  skill,  removed  the  offender  and 
bandaged  the  wound  without  assistance. 

On  May  8,  1885,  Dr.  Moore  became  a  resident 
of  the  Masonic  Home,  Philadelphia,  and  was  the 
fourth  to  be  admitted  to  that  institution.  There 
his  death  occurred  in  his  ninety-first  year,  after  liv- 
ing in  darkness  almost  half  a  century.  In  1885  he 
united  with  the  Tioga  M.  E.  Church  and  had  the 
honor  in  1892,  of  breaking  the  ground  for  the  new 
edifice.  He  was  a  member  of  Christiana  Lodge, 
No.  417,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  for  nearly  sixty  years  and 
at  the  time  of  his  death  was  one  of  the  oldest  Ma- 
sons  in  Pennsylvania. 

In  1827  Dr.  Mordecai  Moore  was  united  in  mar- 
riage to  Elizabeth  Bomberger,  of  Lancaster,  who 
died  two  weeks  after  the  couple  had  celebrated  their 
Golden  Wedding,  in  1877.  Of  their  eight  children, 
but  two  are  living.  Rev.  vSamuel  B.  Moore,  a  clergy- 
man of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  and  Mrs. 
Harriet  Pownall,  of  Chester,  Delaware  county. 

Dr.  John  Gainer  Moore,  son  of  Dr.  Mordecai,. 
was  born  in  Lancaster,  Lancaster  county,  March 
10,  1830,  and  died  Jan.  18,  1883,  in  New  Holland, 
where  he  was  buried.    He  acquired  his  primary  edu- 



cation  in  the  common  schools  in  Lancaster  and  later 
pursued  a  higher  course  in  Franklin  and  Marshall 
college.  His  profession  was  learned  under  his 
father,  and  he  entered  upon  its  active  duties  in  1849, 
taking  up  the  practice  of  his  father,  who  went  to 
CaHfornia.  In  1857  he  went  to  New  Holland,  and 
from  that  time  until  his  death  practiced  between 
Lancaster  and  New  Holland  alternately,  being  very 
successful  in  his  profession,  and  gaining  a  wide 
celebrity  for  his  skill.  The  last  years  of  his  life 
were  spent  as  a  semi-invalid,  an  aggravated  form  of 
dyspepsia  refusing  to  yield  to  treatment.  In  many 
lines  aside  from  his  profession  was  Dr.  Moore 
known  and  admired.  He  was  a  strong  and  vig- 
orous writer,  and  an  eloquent  and  forceful  orator, 
while  his  intense  interest  in  liis  section's  advance- 
ment and  progress  made  him  an  interested  and  ear- 
nest advocate  of  every  enterprise  looking  in  that 
direction.  He  was  intellectually  strong,  and  all 
educational  measures  were  sure  of  finding  a  warm 
supporter  in  him.  In  religious  work  he  was  zealous 
and  consistent,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  aflfairs 
t)f  the  Lutheran  Church  and  the  work  of  the  Sun-  • 
day  school.  His  benefactions  were  large,  both  in 
the  church  and  the  community.  In  politics  he  pre- 
ferred to  be  independent. 

On  Nov.  17,  1859,  Dr.  Moore  was  united  in 
marriage  by  Rev.  Dr.  Kohler,  in  the  Lutheran 
Church,  in  New  Holland  (it  being  the  first  marriage 
held  in  the  church),  to  Miss  Anna  E.  Wilson,  who 
was  born  in  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  daughter  of  Morris 
and  Catherine  (Diller)  Wilson,  the  former  of  near 
Bridgeport,  Conn.,  and  the  latter  of  New  Holland, 
Pa.  Morris  Wilson  was  born  March  31,  1797,  and 
died  Nov.  10,  1826,  in  EHzabethtown,  Pa.  He 
studied  law  with  Judge  Elder,  of  Harrisburg,  re- 
moving then  to  EHzabethtown,  but  practicing  both 
in  the  Harrisburg  and  the  Lancaster  courts.  He 
was  a  man  of  brilliant  parts,  and  came  from  a  family 
of  culture,  refinement  and  wealth.  The  mother  of 
Mrs.  Moore  died  March  12,  1882,  at  the  age  of 
€ighty-six  years.  She  was  interred  in  New  Hol- 
land, where  she  was  a  beloved  member  of  the  com- 
munity, an  active  worker  in  the  Sundav  school,  a 
consistent  member  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and 
a  woman  who  was  noted  for  her  charities.  The 
onlv  child  of  this  marriage  was  Mrs.  Moore. 

Rolland  Diller  Moore,  the  only  child  of  Dr. 
John  and  Anna  (Wilson")  Moore,  was  born  April 
5,  1863,  and  on  Jan.  19,  1901,  was  united  in  mar- 
riage, in  Camden,  N.  J.,  to  Miss  Helen  Dugan, 
daughter  of  Michael  Dugan,  of  Shamokin,  Pa. 
Mr.  Moore  is  the  very  efficient  and  capable 
manager  of  his  mother's  estate,  consisting  of 
some  of  the  most  valuable  property  in  the 
city,  and  he  Is  one  of  the  most  public-spirited  and 
progressive  of  the  younger  business  men.  His  im- 
provements have  been  permanent,  substantial  and 
attractive,  while  he  is  also  engaged  in  other  lines  of 
endeavor,  ever  keeping  in  mind  the  advancement 
of  the  interests  of  his  city  as  well  as  his  personal 

preferment.     Fraternally  he  is  connected  with  the 
B.  P.  O.  E.  and  is  very  popular. 

Mrs.  Moore  is  one  of  the  most  highly  esteemed 
ladies  in  Lancaster.  Her  beautiful  home  in  New 
Holland  was  erected  by  her  uncle,  the  late  Roland 
Diller.  She  has  many  friends  not  only  on  account 
of  her  well-known  and  highly  appreciated  husband, 
but  for  herself,  her  personal  attributes  winning 
them  and  retaining  them. 

Roland  Diller  was  one  of  Lancaster  county's 
oldest  citizens  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1882,  in 
his  eighty-fifth  year,  in  his  old  home  in  New  Hol- 
land. His  burial  was  in  the  old  cemetery  at  that 
point.  Early  in  life  he  was  engaged  in  mercantile 
pursuits,  but  later  became  a  skilled  conveyancer  and 
surveyor,  continuing  to  perform  these  duties  al- 
most to  the  time  of  his  death.  His  mind  was  of  a 
legal  turn,  and  had  he  given  it  to  the  law  he  would 
doubtless  have  become  distinguished  in  that  pro- 
fession. His  tastes,  however,  were  of  a  quieter  na- 
ture although  on  occasion  he  could  fight  for  what 
he  believed  to  be  right.  For  over  forty  years  he  was 
justice  of  the  peace  in  Earl  township,  and  it  is 
known  that  during  this  time  he  wrote  more  mort- 
gages, deeds,  releases  and  similar  documents  than 
any  man  who  ever  lived  in  Lancaster  county.  His 
reliability  was  such  that  his  services  were  in  con- 
stant demand,  and  it  is  estimated  that  his  name  ap- 
pears on  more  than  half  the  legal  documents  is- 
sued during  his  official  life  in  eastern  Lancaster 

In  his  convictions  of  right  and  justice,  Mr.  Diller 
stood  as  a  rock.  This  was  notably  manifested  during 
the  period  known  as  Anti-Masonic,  in  1828.  It  is 
not  possible  to  recount  in  this  limited  space  the  details 
of  the  controversy  in  this  locality,  but  Mr.  Diller 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Anti-Masonic  Herald,- 
in  New  Holland,  and  during  its  existence  was  a  lib- 
eral and  consistent  contributor  to  its  support.  As  a 
politician  he  was  a  strong  Whig,  and  later  a  stanch 
Republican.  Although  prominent  and  active  in  his 
party,  he  would  never  accept  any  public  recognition, 
although  frequently  urged  to  do  so  by  his  fellow-citi- 
zens who  would  gladly  have  shown  him  honors. 

Mr.  Diller  was'  long  the  secretary  and  treasurer 
of  the  New  Holland  Turnpike  Co.,  retaining  the 
office  until  a  short  time  prior  to  his  death.  Perhaps 
though  Mr.  Diller  was  best  known  for  his  deep 
knowledge  on  every  subject.  For  twenty  years  he 
was  known  as  the  largest  book  buyer  in  Lancaster 
county,  and  it  was  his  greatest  delight  to  bury  him- 
self among  the  thousands  of  volumes  in  his  compre- 
hensive library,  and  to  there  enjoy  the  best  thought 
of  the  world.  Singularly  unselfish,  this  great  store- 
house of  wisdom  and  pleasure  was  at  the  service  of 
his  friends,  it  seeming  to  be  a  gratification  to  him  to 
have  his  "book  friends"  appreciated. 

Roland  Diller  was  a  son  of  Peter  and  Elizabeth 
Diller,  of  New  Holland,  the  former  of  whom  was  a 
man  of  prominence  in  his  time  and  one  of  the  large 
landowners  of  this  county.    For  many  years  Peter 



Diller  operated  a  hotel  in  New  Holland,  and  he  was 
well  known  as  one  of  the  county's  substantial  men. 
He  owned  live,  well-improved  farms  at  the  time  of 
his  death.  The  children  born  to  Peter  and  Elizabeth 
Diller  were :  Roland,  who  never  married ;  SolomOn, 
who  married  Margaret  A.  James ;  Lydia,  who  mar- 
ried Rev.  Peter  Filbert;  Catherine,  who  married 
Morris  Wilson,  and  became  the  mother  of  Mrs. 
Moore;  Mary,  who  married  Henry  Shirk;  Samuel, 
who  married  Eliza  Ringwalt ;  and  Elizabeth,  who 
married  Dr.  John  Luther,  an  eminent  physician  of 
New  Holland. 

COL.  DANIEL  H.  HERR.  One  of  the  most 
striking  characters  of  Lancaster,  a  man  whose  life 
has  closely  touched  the  history  of  his  native  county 
durmg  the  past  half  century,  who,  as  educator,  citi- 
zen, patriot,  soldier,  professional  man,  merchant  and 
attorney,  has  been  identified  with  the  rapidly  grow- 
ing interests  of  Lancaster,  and  who  to-day  is  most 
highly  esteemed  for  his  unique  and  eminently  suc- 
cessful career  is  Col.  Daniel  H.  Herr,  mechanical 
engineer  and  patent  attorney. 

Col.  Herr  is  a  worthy  descendant  of  Hans  Herr, 
the  venerable  pastor  of  the  persecuted  and  faithful 
band  of  Mennonites,  who,  in  1709,  upon  the  invita- 
tion of  William  Penn,  settled  in  the  fertile  but  primi- 
tively wild  valley  of  the  Conestoga.  Hans  Herr  was 
a  non-conformist  of  Schwabia,  Austria,  and  one  of  a 
colony  whom  religious  persecution  had  driven  to 
Zurich,  Switzerland.  William  Penn  visited  the  col- 
ony, and  invited  them  to  find  homes  and  rest  from 
persecution  in  the  Colony  of  Pennsylvania. 

Christian  Herr,  son  of  Hans,  was  one  of  a  com- 
mittee appointed  to  visit  the  promised  land.  They 
crossed  the  ocean,  selected  a  tract  of  10,000  acres  on 
the  Conestoga,  and  the  migration  speedly  followed. 
The  people  composing  this  colony  were  the  first  white 
settlers  in  this  coimty,  at  that  time  a  part  of  Chester 
county.  Hans  Herr  had  five  sons :  Abraham,  Chris- 
tan,  Emanuel,  Isaac  and  John.  They  were  the  an- 
cestors of  the  Herr  family  which  for  the  past  two 
centuries  has  been  conspicuous  and  eminently  ser- 
viceable in  the  development  of  Lancaster  county. 

Abraham  Herr,  the  first  son  of  Hans  Herr,  was 
a  grandfather  when  he  came  to  America,  and  he  set- 
tled in  Lancaster  township  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Wabank  road,  near  the  Mennonite  Meeting  House. 
This  old  homestead  is  still  in  the  possession  of  an 
Abraham  Herr.  There  he  reared  a  large  family  and 
died  at  a  ripe  old  age.  One  of  his  (Abraham's) 
sons,  was  Emanuel  Herr,  who  was  the  great-grand- 
father of  Daniel  H.  Herr,  and  he  (Emanuel)  was 
given  a  portion  of  the  ancestral  acres  in  Lancaster 

Christian  Herr,  his  son,  and  the  grandfather  of 
Daniel  H.,  was  reared  on  part  of  the  old  home  farm. 
He  married  Catherine  Kauflfman,  the  only  daughter 
of  John  Kauffman,  and  died  comparatively  young  in 

Daniel  Herr,  son  of  Christian  and  the  father  of 

Daniel  H.,  was  born  in  Lancaster  township  June  6, 
1809,  and  became  a  farmer  and  mill  owner.  He 
married  on  March  9,  1830,  Susannah  M.  Horn- 
berger,  who  was  born  July  10,  181 1,  daughter  of  Ste- 
phen Hornberger,  who  kept  a  well  known  tavern  on 
the  Columbia  turnpike.  She  was  a  descendant  on 
her  mother's  side  from  Henry  Gross,  a  pioneer  of 
Lancaster,  who  imported  a  communion  set  from 
Wurtemberg  for  the  use  of  Zion's  Lutheran  Church 
of  this  city.  Daniel  Herr  engaged  in  farming  for  a 
time  on  the  old  homestead,  which  he  sold,  and  later 
farmed  for  some  years  on-  the  Conestoga  creek,  now 
known  as  the  Brubaker  farm.  He  sold  the  latter 
farm,  and  removed  to  Manheim  township,  where  he 
bought  the  Dietrich  farm  of  167  acres,  and  later  re- 
tired to  Eden,  where  he  died  Sept.  12,  1852,  aged 
forty-three  years.  His  widow  survived  until  Sept. 
16,  1875,  passing  away  at  the  age  of  sixty-four  years. 
To  Daniel  and  Susannah  Herr  were  born  ten  chil- 
dren, of  whom  five  survive. 

Daniel  H.  Herr  was  born  Jan.  14,  1835,  ^t  Mil- 
lersville,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  where  his  father  had 
purchased  a  home,  and  his  boyhood  was  spent  in 
Manheim  township.  His  early  education  was  re- 
ceived there,  and  in  Cumberland  county.  When  a 
lad  of  eighteen  (in  1853),  after  the  death  of  his  fa- 
ther, he  went  to  Dayton,  Ohio,  where  he  was  em- 
ployed in  a  dry-goods  store.  Returning  to  Lancas- 
ter county  in  1856,  he  engaged  in  teaching  school, 
and  soon  after  entered  the  State  Normal  school  at 
Millersville,  graduating  in  the  scientific  course  in 
1858.  He  was  at  once  appointed  professor  of  pen- 
manship, drawing  and  bookkeeping,  and  assistant  in 
mathematics,  filling  these  positions  for  four  years. 
In  the  spring  of  1862,  Professor  Herr,  together  with 
Professor  Andrew  R.  Byerly  and  Hon.  David  N. 
Fell  recruited  Co.  E,  of  the  i22d  P.  V.  I.,  nine 
months'  service,  thirty-six  students  of  the  Normal 
School  being  enrolled  in  the  company.  Prof.  Herr, 
as  he  was  then  known,  toid  Prof.  Byerly  that  he  in- 
tended to  enter  the  army,  and  Prof.  Byerly  said  that 
if  he  (Herr)  took  the  initiative,  he  too,  would  go. 
They  shook  hands,  Mr.  Herr  went  to  Harrisburg, 
saw  Gov.  Curtin,  was  accepted,  was  commissioned 
second  lieutenant,  and  was  sworn  in  as  mustering 
officer.  Returning  to  the  Normal  School,  he  ex- 
hibited his  commission  and  appointed  a  meeting  with 
the  students.  The  rest  is  easily  told.  Thirty-six 
students  joined  the  company,  and  Col.  (then  lieu- 
tenant) Herr,  assisted  by  Mr.  Byerly  and  Mr.  Fell, 
recruited  the  remainder  in  Lancaster.  Prof.  Byerly 
was  made  captain.  Prof.  Herr  first  lieutenant,  and 
M'r.  Fell  second  lieutenant.  Col.  Herr  was  mustered 
in  as  first  lieutenant  on  July  26,  1862,  and  was 
mustered  out  May  16,  1863.  The  regiment  joined 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  was  in  the  second  battle 
of  Bull  Run,  under  fire  at  Fredericksburg,  and  en- 
gaged at  Chancellorsville.  Lieut.  Herr,  on  Aug.  4th 
(before  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville)  was  made 
quartermaster  of  Piatt's  Brigade,  then  in  Gen.  Stur- 
gis'  Independent  Division  ;  and,  after  the  second  bat- 



tie  of  Bull  Run,  this  Brigade  became  the  First 
Brigade,  Third  Division,  Third  Army  Corps,  Army 
of  the  Potomac,  under  Gens.  McClellan,  Burnside 
and  Hooker.  He  participated  in  the  engagements 
at  Pleasant  Valley,  Harper's  Ferry,  Berlin,  Warren- 
town  Junction  and  Falmouth.  After  a  regular 
quartermaster  reported  for  duty,  Lieut.  Herr  was  de- 
tailed to  go  to  Washington  on  important  missions, 
the  order  coming  from  the  corps  commander;  and, 
later,  he  was  one  of  the  detail  on  general  court  mar- 
tial in  the  field,  the  army  then  lying  before  Freder- 
icksburg. This  was  during  the  fall  and  winter  of 
1862-63.  During  the  summer  of  1863,  Lieut.  Herr 
and  others  raised  a  company  of  Pennsylvania  militia 
for  emergency  service,  which  became  a  part  of  the 
47di  Regiment.  Lieut.  Herr  was  commissioned  adju- 
tant of  the  regiment,  which  followed  Lee  in  his  re- 
treat to  the  Potomac,  being  a  part  of  Gen.  John  E. 
Wool's  troops,  organized  for  the  defense  of  the 
State,  and  later  they  did  service  in  Schuylkill  coun- 
ty, in  suppressing  the  "Mollie  Maguires."  He  then 
served  as  post  adjutant  of  Taggart's  Free  Military 
School  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  for  training  ofiEcers  for 
colored  troops.  Passing  Gen.  Casey's  board  of  ex- 
amination at  Washington,  he  was  recommended  by 
the  board  for  rank  of  Lieut.  Colonel.  Accepting  a 
captaincy,  he  was  assigned  to  Co.  F,  i22d  regiment, 
infantry.  United  States  Colored  Troops,  at  Lexing- 
ton, Ky.  The  regiment  was  attached  to  the  Army  of 
the  James,  under  Gen.  Butler,  and  saw  active  service 
in  the  operations  before  Petersburg  and  Richmond, 
and  the  many  engagements  involved  in  that  cam- 
paign. After  the  surrender  of  Gen.  Lee,  at  Appo- 
mattox Court  House,  the  2Sth  Army  Corps  was  or- 
ganized at  City  Point,  and  this  corps  was  assigned  to 
the  Department  of  the  South,  under  Gen.  Phil.  Sheri- 
dan, with  headquarters  at  New  Orleans.  This  corps, 
under  command  of  Gen.  Weitzel,  was  sent  to  Texas, 
covering  the  entire  southern  part  of  that  State. 
'Capt.  Herr  was  detailed  by  Gen.  Weitzel  as  assist- 
ant inspector  general  stationed  at  Corpus  Christi, 
Texas,  where  he  remained  until  the  troops  were  dis- 
charged in  the  spring  of  1866.  Prior  to  that,  how- 
ever, Capt.  Herr  had  been  made  a  member  of  the 
Court  of  Claims,  created  by  order  of  Gen.  Sheridan, 
and  assisted  in  the  adjustment  of  the  claims  of  citi- 
zens for  confiscated  property. 

Returning  to  Lancaster,  Capt.  Herr  re-entered 
civil  life  as  a  draughtsman  for  the  old  Norris  Loco- 
motive Works,  where  he  did  work  for  the  Pennsyl- 
vania, the  Chicago  &  Northwestern,  the  St.  Louis, 
Alton  &  Terre  Haute,  and  the  Lehigh  Valley  rail- 
roads, and  during  this  period,  two  of  the  heaviest 
locomotives  then  known  to  the  world,  were  con- 
structed, each  locomotive  weighing  sixty  tons,  and 
having  five  pairs  of  driving  wheels  connected.  He 
remained  with  this  company  until  1868,  when,  owing 
to  the  death  of  one  of  the  firm,  it  suspended  opera- 
tions. Going  to  Reading,  Pa.,  Mr.  Herr  made  a  deal 
with  the  Howe  Sewing  Machine  Co.,  securing  con- 
trol of  several  counties,  and  doing  business  in  his 

own  name.  In  1878  he  removed  to  Philadelphia, 
making  that  city  for  a  time  his  headquarters  as  a 
commercial  traveler.  Returning  to  Lancaster  in 
1879,  he  was  for  one  year  principal  of  the  Mulberry 
Street  Grammar  School,  in  Lancaster,  and  then 
taught  school  for  one  year  at  Florin,  same  county. 

In  1 88 1  Col.  Herr  returned  to  Lancaster,  accept- 
ing a  position  as  bookkeeper  for  Richard  Blicken- 
derfer,  iron  founder.  A  little  later  he  became 
draughtsman  for  David  H.  Kulp,  pattern  maker  and 
patent  attorney,  and  when  the  latter  concluded  to  re- 
tire from  the  patent  business,  Mr.  Herr  purchased  and 
has  since  continued  this  active  and  successful  work. 

In  1879  at  Philadelphia,  Mr.  Herr  married  Miss 
Emma  Adams,  a  native  of  Lebanon  county,  daughter 
of  Jacob  and  Mary  Adams,  her  father  having  been 
formerly  a  well  known  business  man  of  Reading.  To 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herr  was  born  one  son,  Paul  Adams,  a 
graduate  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  after- 
ward taking  a  post-graduate  course  in  Chemistry 
and  Physics,  and  securing  his  master  degree  in  June, 
1901 ;  he  is  now  at  the  head  of  the  Department  of 
Natural  Science  in  Lincoln  Memorial  University, 
Cumberland  Gap,  Tenn.  Col.  and  Mrs.  Herr  are 
prominent  members  of  St.  James  Episcopal  Church. 
He  is  a  stanch  Republican  in  politics,  and  a  member 
of  George  H.  Thomas  post,  No.  84,  G.  A.  R.  In 
1875,  he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  Hartranft,  Major 
and  Aide-de-camp  on  the  staflf  of  Maj.  Gen.  Bolton, 
commanding  the  second  Division,  National  Guard  of 
Pennsylvania.  In  that  capacity  he  performed  valu- 
able service  during  the  railroad  riots  of  1876  and 
1877.  He  is  a  public-spirited  citizen  of  Lancaster, 
and  one  of  its  most  highly  esteemed  citizens ;  while 
as  a  patent  attorney,  his  work  is  of  such  a  conscien- 
tious and  intelligent  character,  as  to  win  and  hold 
for  him  the  most  prominent  inventors  and  manufac- 
turers in  the  community  as  his  clients. 

STEELE.  The  Steele  family,  many  of  whose 
members  were  conspicuous  for  patriotism  and 
gallantry  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  is  of 
great  antiquity.  The  original  members  came  from 
Scotland.  The  first  mention  we  have  of  the  family 
in  this  state  is  in  the  history  of  Chester  county.  At 
an  early  date  Ninian  Steele  with  his  wife  and  chil- 
dren, came  from  the  North  of  Ireland  and  settled 
in  New  London  township,  Chester  county.  There 
he  died  in  1745,  leaving  a  wife,  Mary,  and  six  chil- 
dren, as  follows:  Robert;  Martha;  Samuel,  who 
died  in  1760;  Susannah;  Ninian;  and  William. 

Samuel  Steele,  second  son  of  Ninian,  resided  at 
what  is  known  as  "Thunder  Hill,"  New  London 
township.  He  died  in  May,  1760,  leaving  eleven 
children:  Robert;  Ruth,  born  1719,  married  Sam- 
uel Futhey  in  1750,  and  he  died  Jan.  27,  1790; 
Jane,  married  George  Campbell,  and  he  died  in 
March,  1812,  leaving  eight  children;  Samuel; 
Francis;  Joseph;  James,  married  Isabella  Read,  of 
New  London,  and  his  descendants  went  to  west- 
ern Virginia;  William,  born   1731,  married  Eliza- 



beth  Magee,  Jan.,  1756,  and  died  Sept.  5,  1797  (she 
died  July  5,  1779)  ;  Ninian ;  Ann ;  and  Elizabeth, 
married  and  settled  in  Northumberl'and  county, 
with  other  members  of  the  family. 

William  Steele,  probably  the  youngest  son  of 
Ninian,  settled  near  Chestnut  Level.  On  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  Revolution  he  was  appointed  First 
Lieutenant,  First  Pennsylvania  Battalion  of  the 
Flying  Camp,  June  to  December,  1776.  He  was 
a  representative  man  among  the  early  settlers.  He 
obtained  a  large  tract  of  land  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Octoraro. 

William  Steele,  son  of  William,  noted  in  above 
paragraph  was  also  a  staunch  supporter  of  Ameri- 
can Independence.  He  was  also  appointed  a  lieu- 
tenant during  the  Revolutionary  war  and  married 
Abigail,  a  sister  of  Francis  Bailey,  of  Sadsbury. 

James  Steele,  son  of  William  and  Abigail,  was 
born  in  Sadsbury  township  about  the  beginning  of 
the  Revolutionary  war.  He  was  in  the  War  of 
1812,  and  became  a  brigadier  general  in  the  same. 
He  died  about  1840. 

General  John  Steele  was  born  in  Drumore  town- 
ship in  the  year  1758.  His  parents  had  emigrated 
from  Scotland  at  an  early  date.  He  was  prominent 
in  the  Revolutionary  war  and  was  elected  State  Sena- 
tor of  Pennsylvania  in  1801.    He  died  Feb.  27,  1827. 

Archibald  Steele  was  a  brother  of  Gen.  John 
Steele,  and  raised  one  of  the  first  Lancaster  county 
companies  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  His  com- 
pany was  in  the  famous  march  to  Quebec  in  the 
winter  of  1775.  He  died  in  Philadelphia  in  1832. 
He  had  three  sons,  George,  William,  and  Matthias, 
in  the  War  of  181 2. 

HUGH  STANLEY  GARA  was  in  his  life- 
time one  of  the  prominent  citizens  of  Lancaster,  not 
only  as  one  of  the  best  insurance  men  of  the  county, 
but  also  as  a  public-spirited  citizen  and  a  Mason  of 
high  degree.  Active  in  every  line  in  which  he  be- 
came interested,  he  not  only  made  a  success  in  his 
chosen  life  work,  but  found  time  to  serve  his  fel- 
low citizens  well  without  sacrificing  one  for  the 
other,  and  in  Masonic  circles  he  was  widely  known 
and  highly  esteemed. 

Mr.  Gara  came  of  a  race  which  Pennsylvania 
especially  has  reason  to  thank  for  many  of  her  best 
citizens,  his  parents,  Patrick  and  Mary  Gara,  both 
having  been  natives  of  the  North  of  Ireland.  Their 
marriage  took  place  in  Lancaster  county.  Pa.,  and 
here  were  born  to  them  four  children,  all  now  de- 
ceased :  Isaac  B.  was  a  prominent  citizen  of  Erie,  this 
State,  where  he  edited  the  Erie  Gazette,  and  served 
as  postmaster :  he  was  deputy  secretary  of  the  Com- 
monwealth under  Gov.  Geary.  Samuel  H.  was  a 
resident  of  Philadelphia.  Hugh  Stanley  is  men- 
tioned below.  Margaret  married  Joseph  Baldwin, 
a  farmer  of  Ogdensburg,  New  York. 

Hugh  Stanley  Gara  was  born  March  28,  18 17, 
in  Soudersburg,  East  Lampeter  township,  this 
■county,  where  he  lived  until  he  was  eleven  years  of 

age,  and  in  the  public  schools  of  which  locality  he 
received  his  first  instruction.  Later  he  attended 
the  Parkesburg  (Pa.)  Academy.  At  the  age  of 
seventeen  he  commenced  to  learn  the  mercantile 
business,  his  first  employment  being  in  the  mercan- 
tile store  of  James  WhitehJl,  in  Strasburg  Borough, 
and  he  was  subsequently  with  James  Shirk,  in  the 
same  place.  He  was  still  a  youth  when  he  came  to 
Lancaster  and  entered  the  store  of  David  Markley, 
from  whose  employment  he  went  to  Boon  &  Cock- 
ley,  serving  three  years  as  manager  of  their  foundry. 
He  then  formed  a  partnership  with  David  Cockley, 
conducting  a  general  dry  goods  store,  of  which, 
after  some  years,  in  1845,  he  became  sole  proprietor, 
continuing  in  this  line  for  twenty-five  years.  Mr. 
Gara  first  took  up  the  insurance  business  in  1840, 
being  always  looked  upon  as  the  pioneer  in  that  field 
in  Lancaster,  and  after  retiring  from  mercantile 
life  devoted  his  business  hours  to  general  insurance 
until  1 89 1,  when,  because  of  his  advancing  age,  he 
sold  out,  Christopher  Hager  purchasing  his  in- 
terest in  that  line.  He  was  the  veteran  insurance 
man  of  Lancaster,  and  was  highly  thought  of  as  an 
able  and  successful  man  in  that  line.  He  was  a  stock 
holder  and  manager  of  the  Keystone  Watch  Co., 
of  which  he  was  one  of  the  founders  (only  under 
another  name)  and  was  its  president  for  many  years. 
All  Mr.  Gara's  business  transactions  Were  charac- 
terized by  the  utmost  honesty  and  strictest  integ- 
rity, traits  which  were  recognized  and  thoroughly 
appreciated  by  all  with  whom  he  had  dealings. 
After  relinquishing  the  activities  of  business  life 
he  gave  himself  almost  entirely  to  the  duties  of  no- 
tary public,  acting  as  such  twenty-five  years  prior 
to  his  death,  and  to  the  work  of  the  Masonic  fra- 
ternity, serving  as  secretary,  continuing  for  a  period 
of  twenty-five  years,  in  various  Masonic  bodies.  He 
attained  to  the  thirty-second  degree,  and  at  the  time 
of  his  death  was  one  of  the  best  known  and  oldest 
Masons  in  the  locality.  He  was  "made"  Feb.  12, 
1862,  in  Lodge  No.  43,  F.  &  A.  M.,  of  which  he  was 
elected  secretary  in  1864.  He  also  held  that  office 
in  Chapter  No.  42,  R.  A.  M.,  was  recorder  of  Good- 
win Council,  No.  19,  R.  S.  E.  &  S.  M. ;  Commander 
of  Commandery  No.  13,  K.  T. ;  and  a  charter  mem- 
ber of  Lancaster  Lodge  of  Perfection,  A.  A.  S.  R., 
and  its  secretary  for  many  years.  He  was  secre- 
tary of  all  bodies  named  at  the  time  of  his  decease, 
which  occurred  March  9,  1896,  in  Lancaster.  He 
was  also  a  member  of  the  I.  O.  O.  F.  Mr.  Gara  was 
laid  to  rest  in  Lancaster  cemetery  with  every  mark 
of  respect  and  honor  due  so  worthy  a  citizen,  and  his 
death  was  mourned  as  a  loss  to  the  community,  in 
general.  Though  ever  busy,  Mr.  Gara  always  found 
time  to  be  affable  and  courteous,  and  he  was  exceed- 
ingly pleasant  to  all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact, 
whether  in  the  business  world,  in  social  life,  or  in  the 
domestic  circle. 

Mr.  Gara  was  a  stanch  Republican,  and  not  as  a 
partisan  but  as  a  patriotic  citizen,  and  took  an  active 
part  in  public  affairs  in  his  locality.    He  held  office 



as  a  matter  of  duty,  and  evidently  discharged  the  du- 
ties of  the  various  incumbencies  to  which  he  was 
chosen  in  the  same  spirit.  For  many  years  he  was 
a  member  of  the  school  board,  of  which  he  was  sec- 
retary during  some  fifteen  years  of  that  time ;  he  was 
one  of  the  board  of  prison  inspectors  for  nine  years, 
and  also  served  as  county  recorder.  As  will  be  seen, 
his  services  seems  to  have  been  especially  in  demand 
as  secretary,  and  in  addition  to  his  work  in  that  line 
already  mentioned,  he  held  such  relations  to  the  Lan- 
caster Board  of  Trade  for  two  years.  For  many 
years  he  was  president  of  the  Union  Building  &  Loan 
Association.  A  life  long  member  of  the  Presbyte- 
rian Church,  Mr.  Gara  served  as  a  member  of  the 
board  of  trustees  of  the  local  congregation,  for  forty 
years,  until  his  death,  and  was  president  of  the  same 
for  nine  years.  He  was  an  elder  for  thirty  years, 
and,  in  fact,  was  zealous  and  active  in  all  that  per- 
tained to  the  welfare  of  his  home  church  especially, 
and  Christianity  in  general,  his  earnest  efforts  in  this 
connection,  however,  being  no  more  than  might  be 
expected  of  one  so  deeply  interested  in  moral  ad- 
vancement everywhere.  He  was  orderly  sergeant  in 
the  Lancaster  Fencibles,  a  crack  military  organiza- 

On  Oct.  15,  1841,  Mr.  Gara  was  married  in  Lan- 
caster to  Sarah  J.  Buck,  and  two  children  blessed  this 
union :  William  H.,  who  died  young ;  and  Elizabeth 
Batterson.  The  latter  is  a  member  of  the  Daughters 
of  the  American  Revolution,  claiming  descent  from 
early  American  ancestry  through  her  mother,  who 
was  born  in  Lancaster,  Sept.  19,  1820,  a  grand- 
daughter of  John  Okely  (who  was  a  member  of  the 
Constitutional  Congress)  and  who  died  March  13, 
1890,  at  the  age  of  sixty-seven  years.  She  was  a 
daughter  of  William  and  Elizabeth  (Okely)  Buck, 
the  former  a  native  of  Bedford,  England,  the  latter 
of  Bethlehem,  Pa.  Both  died  in  Lancaster  county, 
and  the  father  is  buried  in  St.  James  Episcopal  cem- 
etery, the  mother  in  the  Lancaster  cemetery.  They 
had  a  family  of  seven  children,  one  son  and  six 
daughters,  of  whom  Sarah  J.,  Mrs.  Gara,  was  the 
youngest.  John  Okely,  of  Northampton  county,  Pa., 
Mrs.  Gara's  grandfather,  was  a  member  of  Congress 
from  Northampton  county  in  1773-74-75.  He  served 
during  the  Revolutionary  war,  first  as  lieutenant,  and 
finally  became  assistant  commissary  general,  remain- 
ing in  the  army  until  the  close  of  the  struggle. 

BENJAMIN  R.  KREIDER,  a  resident  of  West 
Lampeter  township,  and  one  of  the  more  prominent 
men  of  Lancaster  county,  was  born  in  East  Lam- 
peter township,  Aug.  18,  1855,  and  is  a  son  of  Isaac 
and  Anna  (Rohrer)  Kreider,  both  of  whom  are 
still  living  in  East  Lampeter  township. 

Benjamin  R.  Kreider  was  educated  in  the  pub- 
lic schools,  and  after  he  had  passed  his  twenty- 
first  birthday  began  operations  on  his  own  account  as 
a  fence  builder,  in  which  work  he  was  engaged  for 
five  years.  For  the  past  nineteen  years  he  has  been 
employed  in  gathering  and  delivering  milk  to  the 

creameries  and  the  caramel  factory.  Mr.  Kreider 
owns  a  small  farm  of  seven  acres  which  he  pur- 
chased in  the  spring  of  1892.  This  property  is  in 
West  Lampeter  township;  the  residence  has  been 
greatly  rebuilt  by  him,  and  the  other  buildings  on 
the  place  have  been  changed  and  added  to,  Mr. 
Kreider  expending  some  fifteen  hundred  dollars 
in  adapting  the  place  to  dairy  purposes.  It  is  said 
Mr.  Kreider  delivers  more  milk  to  the  factory  than 
any  other  contractor  in  the  county,  his  daily  aver- 
age being  seven  thousand  pounds  or  more. 

Benjamin  R.  Kreider  was  married  Oct.  10, 
1876,  to  Susan,  a  daughter  of  John  and  Susan 
(Wenger)  Musser,  of  Earl  township.  Mrs.  Kreid- 
er was  born  Jan.  21,  1856,  and  became  the  mother 
of  the  following  children ;  Anna  Mary,  Harry  Mus- 
ser, Clara  Bertha,  Lizzie  B.,  Ada  May  and  Elmer 
Benjamin.  Mrs.  Kreider  died  May  27,  1901,  and 
with  her  husband  belonged  to  the  Old  Mennonite 
Church.  His  two  oldest  children  are  married, 
Anna  Mary  is  the  wife  of  Jesse  Kreider,  of  Salis- 
bury, who  is  an  extensive  farmer  and  dairyman; 
Harry  M.  married  Fannie  Shriner,  of  Manheim 
township,  and  is  an  employe  of  the  silk  mills  in 
Lancaster  township,  having  his  home  in  West  Lam- 
peter township. 

HUGH  M.  NORTH.  Among  the  legal  lights 
of  Pennsylvania  the  name  of  Hugh  M.  North,  of 
Columbia,  shines  as  a  star  of  the  first  magnitude. 
His  mastery  of  legal  lore,  his  tenacious  memory,  his 
natural  ability,  have  all  combined  to  make  him  one 
of  the  foremost  lawyers  of  the  State,  one  who  is  con- 
sulted by  the  members  of  his  own  profession  and  one 
whose  decisions  are  regarded  as  ultimate. 

Mr.  North  was  born  May  7,  1826,  in  Juniata 
county,  Pa.,  a  son  of  John  North,  of  Scotch-Irish 
descent,  and  his  wife,  Jane  McAlister,  whose  father, 
Hugh  McAlister,  of  Revolutionary  fame,  was  the 
founder  of  McAlisterville,  Pa.  Hugh  M.  North  was 
given  as  good  educational  facilities  as  his  father's 
circumstances  permitted,  and  when  twenty  years  of 
age  he  was  graduated  with  honor  from  the  academy 
at  Mifflinburg,  Pa.  He  then  entered  the  office  of 
Judge  Casey,  of  Union  county,  who  later  became 
Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States  Court  of  Claims. 
Young  North  applied  himself  to  his  studies  with  the 
same  energy  that  had  characterized  his  school  wOrk, 
and  when  he  went  to  take  his  examination  for  ad- 
mission to  the  Bar  he  had  a  fund  of  legal  knowledge 
superior  to  many  lawyers  then  old  in  practice.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  Union  county  in  March, 
1849,  ^^'^  i"  the  August  following  to  the  Lancaster 
County  Bar.  Columbia  was  chosen  as  the  future 
home  of  the  young  lawyer,  and  there  he  immediately 
entered  upon  his  practice.  His  fine  intellectual  at- 
tainments soon  won  recognition,  and  before  long  his 
time  was  fully  occupied,  and  his  large  and  lucrative 
practice  yielded  him  a  handsome  competence.  There 
were  calls  fo^  his  services  from  all  over  the  State, 
and  every  important  case  in  his  own  vicinity  found' 

<^.^.  .//^.^^7 



him  actively  interested  on  one  side  or  the  other.  In 
every  branch  of  the  law  he  seems  equally  at  home, 
and  the  thoroughness  with  which  he  studies  the  sub- 
ject under  litigation,  his  skill,  his  insight  into  human 
nature,  and  his  fine  presence,  make  him  a  tower  of 
great  strength  before  courts  and  juries.  His  gen- 
erous disposition  has  prevented  him  from  putting 
any  obstacles  in  the  paths  of  younger  members  of 
the  profession;  instead,  he  is  ever  willing  to  aid  in 
any  way  those  who  seek  his  counsel.  In  1880  he  was 
instrumental  in  organizing  the  Lancaster  County 
Bar  Association,  for  the  "improvement  of  law  and 
its  administration,"  and  so  generally  was  his  pre- 
eminence conceded  that  he  was  unanimously  elected 
president,  to  which  office  he  has  been  re-elected 
annually  ever  since.  He  is  a  prominent  member  of 
the  American  Bar  Association,  and  for  a  time  was 
a  member  of  its  council  for  the,  State  of  Pennsyl- 

Questions  of  public  importance,  local  or  national, 
have  found  in  Mr.  North  a  deep  and  intelligent 
student.  He  has  held  a  number  of  offices  in  the  bor- 
ough of  Columbia,  and  in  1854  became  a  member  of 
the  State  Legislature,  having  been  elected  on  the 
Democratic  and  Independent  tickets.-  In  i860  he  was 
a  delegate  to  the  National  Democratic  Convention 
held  at  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  there  served  on  a  num- 
ber of  important  committees.  Active  work  in  that 
convention  required  the  exercise  of  rare  judgment, 
and  it  was  men  like  Mr.  North  who  were  able  to 
carry  it  through  with  honor  and  with  dignity.  In 
1864  he  was  the  Democratic  candidate  for  Congress 
against  the  late  Thaddeus  Stevens,  and  in  1872  was 
the  opponent  of  A.  Herr  Smith ;  in  1874  he  was  a 
candidate  before  the  State  Convention  for  lieuten- 
ant governor,  and  polled  the  second  highest  vote; 
in  1876  he  was  delegate-at-large  to  the  Democratic 
Convention  at  St.  Louis. 

Mr.  North's  work  has  brought  him  many  well- 
deserved  honors.  He  is  solicitor  for  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Co.,  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  Railway  Co., 
two  national  banks  of  Columbia,  and  many  other 
corporations,  including  iron  companies,  insurance 
companies,  etc.  He  is  president  of  the  First  Na- 
tional Bank  of  Columbia,  and  a  director  in  a  num- 
ber of  other  corporations. 

Mr.  North  is  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church, 
and  a  vestryman  of  St.  Paul's,  Columbia,  and  rec- 
tor's warden.  He  has  been  for  many  years  a  member 
of  the  standing  committee  of  the  Diocese  of  Central 
Pennsylvania,  and  was  a  deputy  to  the  general  con- 
ventions of  1895,  1898  and  1901.  He  was  honored 
some  years  ago  with  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  from 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College. 

On  Dec.  23,  1868,  Mr.  North  was  united  in  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Serena  M.  Franklin,  daughter  of 
the  late  Thomas  E.  Franklin,  LL.  D.,  of  Lancaster, 
well  known  and  prominent  in  the  legal  circles  of  the 
State,  and  Attorney  General  of  Pennsylvania  under 
Gbvs.  Johnson  and  Pollock.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
North  have  been  born  two  children,  viz. :  Serena 

Mayer,  who  on  April  11,  1901,  was  married  to  Jo- 
seph Baldwin  Hutchinson,  general  manager  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Railway  Co. ;  and  Hugh  M.,  Jr.,  who 
graduated  from  Yale  University  in  June,  1897,  and- 
is  now  a  member  of  the  Lancaster  Bar. 

HUGH  MAXWELL  was  born  Dec.  7,  1777,  iri' 
Ireland,  and  when  quite  a  young  man  he  came  tO' 

At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  entered  into  partner-- 
ship  with  Matthew  Carey  in  that  city,  Carey  being  a- 
printer  of  prominence.  They  published  one  of  the' 
early  literary  magazines  and  subsequently  Maxwell' 
edited  the  Port  Folio..  Whilst  in  the  book-publishing: 
business  he  made  his  own  engravings  aind  cast  his 
own  type.  Meeting  with  losses  in  the  financial  crisis 
following  the  war  of  1812,  he  abandoned  the  printing 
business  and  for  a  while  engaged  in  the  pursuits  of  a 
farmer.  In  1817  he  removed  to  Lancaster  and  began 
the  publication  of  the  Lancaster  Gazette.  Subse- 
quently he  purchased  the  Lancaster  Journal,  which 
he  edited  until  1839.  This  paper  was  one  of  the- 
ablest  Democratic  newspapers  of  Pennsylvania.  He 
was  the  inventor  of  the  printer's  roller  which  wa* 
patented  in  1817.  In  1820  he  was  one  of  the  most 
active  promoters  of  the  Conestoga  Navigation  Com- 
pany, which  had  for  its  object  the  improvement  of 
the  Conestoga  creek.  When  the  subject  of  uniting 
Philadelphia  and  Columbia  by  railroad  was  mooted 
he  called  the  first  meeting  at  Columbia  having  that 
object  in  view.  Mr.  Maxwell  was  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  the  Mechanics'  Literary  Association  of  Lan- 
caster, and  became  its  first  president.  The  Lykens 
Valley  and  Short  Mountain  coal  fields  were  discov- 
ered by  him  and  William  White,  an  ex-sheriff  of 
Lancaster,  and  they  sent  the  first  coal  from  that  sec- 
tion to  market. 

Mr.  Maxwell  was  a  vigorous  writer  and  as  an 
editor  had  few  superiors  in  his  day.  His  editorials 
were  bold  and  fearless  and  showed  much  independ- 
ence of  thought.    He  died  Nov.  i,  i860. 

LL.  D.,  Professor  of  Theology  and  President  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  of  "the  Reformed  Church 
in  the  United  States,"  located  at  Lancaster,  is  one 
of  the  most  remarkable  men  not  only  of  this  local- 
ity and  great  religious  body,  but  of  the  State.  At 
the  age  of  eighty-five  years  he  still  stands  in  the  van- 
guard of  theological  achievement,  vigorous  in  mind 
and  body,  controlling  great  religious  interests  and! 
managing  business  affairs  with  the  clear  judgment 
of  a  man  of  fifty. 

Dr.  Gerhart  comes  of  sturdy,  Pennsylvania  an- 
cestry, his  grandfather,  Abraham  Gerhart,  having^ 
been  born  in  Sellersville,  Bucks  county,  this  State, 
where  he  lived  an  honest,  industrious  life  as  a  farm- 
er, and  reared  a  family  to  become  respected  mem- 
bers of  society.  Dr.  Gerhart  was  born  June  13,  1817, 
at  Freeburg,  Pa.,  where  his  father.  Rev.  Isaac  Ger- 
hart, was  pastor  of  the  Reformed  Church.    His  early 



education  was  carefully  looked  after  by  his  intelli- 
gent father,  and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  years,  he  en- 
tered the  High  School  which  the  Reformed  Church. 
had  established  in  1831,  at  York,  Pa.,  and  of  which 
the  distinguished  Rev.  Frederick  Augustus  Ranch, 
Ph.  D.,  was  at  that  time  the  principal.  When,  in  the 
fall  of  1835,  the  School  was  removed  to  Mercers- 
burg,  young  Gerhart  was  one  of  the  eighteen  stu- 
dents who  followed  the  removal  of  the  Institution, 
and  when,  during  the  winter  of  1836,  the  school  de- 
veloped into  a  college,  he  became  a  member  of  the 
first  sophomore  class  of  .Marshall  College.  Gradu- 
ating from  this  noted  institution  in  1838,  he  then  en 
tered  the  Theological  Seminary  of  the  German  Re- 
formed Church,  at  that  time  located  at  Mercersburg 
and  completed  his  theological  studies  in  September. 

While  pursuing  his  theological  studies  under  the 
scholarly  direction  of  the  learned  Drs.  Ranch,  Mayer 
and  Nevin,  he  became  a  teacher  himself,  instructing 
in  the  School  for  Women,  under  the  principalship  of 
Mrs.  Sarah  Ann  Young;  also  in  the  preparatory 
school  of  Marshall  College  until  the  autumn  of  1842. 
Dr.  Gerhart  was  examined  and  found  worthy  to  be 
licensed  to  preach  the  Gospel,  by  the  Synod  of  the 
Reformed  Church  in  its  session  held  afReading,  Pa., 
in  October,  1841,  and  was  ordained  to  the  ministry 
at  the  Grindstone  Hill  Church,  in  August,  1842,  by  a 
committee  of  the  Mercersburg  Classis.  For  one  year 
this  enthusiastic  young  clergyman  was  the  pastor  of 
four  churches  in  the  vicinity  of  Chambersburg,  but 
in  the  following  May  he  accepted  a  call  to  Gettys- 
burg. The  succeeding  six  years  and  two  months 
were  occupied  in  his  duties  to  four  German-English 
churches,  his  labors  being  acceptable  and  being 
blessed  in  many  ways. 

During  the  summer  of  1849,  Dr.  Gerhart  was 
commissioned  a  missionary  to  the  foreign  born  Ger- 
mans located  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  he  accepted 
this  charge  with  the  same  belief  in  his  success  that 
has  been  a  great  factor  in  all  his  work.  For  two 
years  he  faithfully  filled  this  mission  in  that  city,  and 
the  church  was  well  satisfied  with  the  result,  while 
the  experiences  of  a  missionary  made  Dr.  Gerhart 
still  more  competent  to  meet  other  demands.  His 
next  great  work  was  the  organization  of  churches 
through  Ohio,  Northern  Kentucky,  Wisconsin,  Indi- 
ana and  elsewhere,  being  a  pioneer  in  many  locali- 
ties, and  making  many  of  his  ministerial  trips  on 
horseback.  Mnny  a  neglected  hamlet  and  forgotten 
household  came  to  bless  the  name  of  Emanuel  Vogel 

In  the  winter  of  185 1,  at  a  special  meeting  of  the 
Synod  of  Ohio,  Dr.  Gerhart  was  elected  Professor  of 
Systematic  Theologv  in  the  Theological  Seminary 
and  President  of  Heidelberg  Colle'^e,  institutions 
which  were  +hen  in  their  infancy.  These  were  lo- 
cated at  Tiffin.  Ohio,  a  stronghold  of  the  Reformed 
Church,  and  l^ere  for  four  years,  from  1851  to  i85;5. 
Dr.  Gerhart  hhored  in  this  double  capacity  in  the  in- 

terests of  a  liberal  theological  education,  with  a  vigor 
only  appreciated  by  those  who  know  him  best. 

It  was  in  1855  that  the  board  of  trustees  of 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College  strengthened  their 
faculty  by  making  him  the  President  of  this  growing 
institution,  and  the  Professor  of  Mental  and 
Moral  Philosophy.  Here  he  taught  for  thirteen 
years  and  was  one  of  the  most  valued  of  the  instruc- 
tors. In  the  spring  of  1868,  by  the  mother  Synod  of 
the  Reformed  Church,  which  is  now  called  the  East- 
ern Synod,  he  was  chosen  to  the  chair  of  Systematic 
Theology  in  the  Theological  Seminary,  at  that  time 
located  at  Mercersburg.  In  1871  this  institution  was 
moved  to  the  city  of  Lancaster  and  during  all  these 
years  the  same  position  in  the  faculty  has  been  held 
by  Dr.  Gerhart. 

To  mention  all  the  works  in  the  way  of  books,  es- 
says, lectures  and  valuable  theological  papers  which 
have  issued  from  the  facile  pen  of  Dr.  Gerhart,  would 
be  a  task  indeed.  Perhaps  those  which  have  attract- 
ed the  most  attention  have  been  :  A  "Monograph  of 
the  Reformed  Church;"  "Philosophy  and  Logic;" 
"Institutes  of  the  Christian  Religion,"  in  two  vol- 
umes ;  and  in  addition  to  these  a  notable  contribution 
to  theological  literature  which  Dr.  Gerhart  has 
named  "A  Philosophical  Introduction  to  Theology," 
which  is  in  printed  form,  but  which  has  not  yet  been 
offered  to  the  general  public.  For  more  than  a  half- 
century  his  life  has  been  spent  as  a  Teacher  in  relig- 
ious colleges  and  seminaries  of  his  church,  utilizing 
his  generous  endowment  of  mental  gifts  in  her  ser- 
vice. As  a  clergyman  he  has  administered  the  duties 
of  his  position  with  extraordinary  success,  and  as  an 
educator  few  can  be  named  as  his  equal.  Exceptional 
as  has  been  his  career  in  duration,  he  is  a  singularly 
unostentatious  laborer,  only  those  who  have  been  ad- 
mitted into  the  inner  recesses  of  his  life,  ever  realiz- 
ing^he  depths  of  his  zeal  or  the  extent  of  his  useful- 

Dr.  Gerhart  was  married  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  on 
Jan.  3,  1843,  to  Miss  Eliza  Rickenbaugh,  a  native  of 
that  place,  where  her  father,  Martin  Rickenbaugh, 
■was  formerly  a  well-known  business  man.  Four  chil- 
dren were  born  to  this  union :  Col.  William  R.,  a 
graduate  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  class  of 
1863,  who  was  in  the  army  during  the  Civil  war,  re- 
maining in  the  service  until  1867,  and  is  now  a  solic- 
itor of  patents ;  Rev.  Robert  Leighton,  who  was  also 
educated  in  Franklin  and  Marshall  College  and  a 
graduate  of  the  Theological  Seminary  in  the  class  of 
1 87 1,  and  is  a  minister  in  the  Reformed  Church,  in 
Lewisburg,  Pa. ;  Virginia,  a  young  lady  possessing 
rare  talent  as  an  artist ;  and  Paul,  also  a  graduate  of 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  who  studied  law  and 
was  admitted  to  the  Bar,  but  gave  up  the  profession 
to  engage  in  the  mercantile  business,  and  who  was 
removed  from  Hfe  suddenly,  in  June,  1901.  The  wife 
and  mother  departed  this  life  in  Januarv,  1864,  and 
in  August,  1865,  Dr.  Gerhart  was  married  to  Mrs. 
Mary  M.  Hunter,  widow  of  Frederick  S.  Hunter,  6f , 



Reading,  Pa.  She  passed  away  one  year  later,  and 
after  a  widowerhood  of  nearly  nine  years  Dr.  Ger- 
Ivart  was,  on  Dec.  29,  1875,  married  to  Miss  Lucia  D. 
Cobb,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Asahel  Cobb,  a  dis- 
tinguished clergyman  of  the  Congregational  Church 
■of  Massachusetts,  and  the  evening  of  the  venerable 
•doctor's  life  is  made  bright  by  the  companionship  of 
this  cultivated  and  intellectual  companion. 

On  June  13,  1897,  Dr.  Gerhart  reached  his  eighti- 
«th  birthda}',  and  no  better  evidence  of  the  esteem 
in  which  he  is  held  on  account  of  his  labors  for  the 
Reformed  Church  could  be  found  than  in  the  fact 
that  the  Reformed  Church  Messenger  devoted  its 
entire  issue  of  that  date  to  a  most  interesting  and  in- 
structive recital  of  the  life  events  of  this  learned  the- 
ologian, as  viewed  by  many  in  high  authority. 
Among  the  sketches  gladly  contributed  appeared 
those  from  the  pens  of  such  friends  as  Dr.'  Bowman, 
Prof.  Schiedt  and  Hon.  W.  U.  Hensel.  Never  be- 
fore in  the  history  of  the  Messenger  was  there  such 
tribute  paid  in  its  pages  to  any  one.  No  better  end- 
ing can  be  made  to  this  inadequate  sketch  than  in 
the  words  which  close  a  paper  written  on  Dr.  Ger- 
hart by  the  editor  of  The  Forum,  and  published  in 
its  issue  of  December,  1901 : 

"And  now,  let  us  briefly  add,  notwithstanding 
the  modesty  of  this  venerable  man,  that  in  no  way 
is  the  lesson  that  all  this  active,  struggling,  useful, 
pure  life  has  taught,  better  exemplified  than  in  the 
mere  sight  and  presence  of  the  man  himself  as  we 
see  him  still  moving  along  the  streets  of  I^ancaster, 
with  step  so  wonderfully  firm  for  his  years,  with 
mind  so  clear,  with  countenance  so  restful,  with  con- 
science so  at  ease,  with  soul  so  pure,  we  cannot  but 
feel  that  that  alone  is  sermon  enough  for  one  day." 

ELIPHALET  ORAM  LYTE,  A.  M.,  Pii.  D., 
who  has  been  principal  of  the  First  Pennsylvania 
State  Normal  School  at  Millersville  since  1887,  is 
one  of  the.  most  widely  known  and  popular  educa- 
tors of  Lancaster  county.  He  is  beloved,  as  well  as 
respected,  among  his  pupils  and  all  with  whom  he 
has  had  relations  in  his  long  and  successful  career, 
for  though  strict  as  a  conscientious  discharge  of  his 
duties  requires  him  to  be,  he  exercises  his  authority 
judiciously.  He  his  earnestness  and  sin- 
■ceritv  upon  all;  winning  their  admiration  as  well  as 
allegiance,  and  in  this  fact  no  doubt  lies  the  secret 
to  much  of  his  success  with  so  many  of  his  pupils.  A 
lifelong  devotion  to  the  profession  of  his  choice  has 
made  him  peculiarly  alive  to  its  needs  and  require- 
ments, and  no  less  active  in  attempting  to  supply 
them.  His  connection  with  the  Normal  School  has 
covered  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  so  that  his  in- 
terest is  as  much  one  of  affection  as  of  duty. 

Dr.  Lyte  was  born  June  29,  1842,  near  Bird-in- 
Hand,  Lancaster  county,  and  there  passed  his  early 
life,  in  the  winter  attending  the  public  schools,  and 
■during  the  remainder  of  the  year  assisting  his  fa- 
ther in  the  care  of  his  nursery.  He  had  commenced 
preparation  for  college  when  the  war  of  the  Rebel- 

lion broke  out,  and  he  enlisted  in  the  Union  army 
for  three  years,  serving  his  full  term,  and  rising 
from  the  ranks  of  an  infantry  regiment  to  coinmis- 
sioned  officer  in  a  battery  of  light  artillery.  His 
regiment  was  attached  to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac, 
and  he  was  actively  engaged  in  a  number  of  the  great 
battles  which  it  fought,  proving  efficient  in  every 
capacity.  He  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Chan- 
cellorsville,  and  has  never  completely  recovered 
from  the  effects  of  the  injury. 

Returning  home  at  the  close  of  the  war  Dr.  Lyte 
resumed  his  studies,  and  commenced  teaching,  be- 
ing engaged  two  years  in  the  district  schools  of  Lan- 
caster county.  Subsequently  he  became  a  pupil  in  the 
institution  with  which  he  has  so  long  been  connected, 
graduating  therefrom  in  the  regular  course  in  1868, 
and  later  taking  up  the  scientific  course,  which  he 
also  completed.  From  the  time  of  his  graduation 
he  has  been  a  member  of  the  Faculty,  having  first 
been  elected  Professor  of  Rhetoric  and  Bookkeep- 
ing, and  later  as  Professor  of  Pedagogy  and  English 
Grammar.  In  1887  he  assumed  the  duties  of  his 
present  position.  His  promotion  to  so  responsible 
a  position  is  the  best  evidence  of  his  success  in  more 
subordinate,  but  equally  important,  work,  and  his 
long  continuous  service  in  that  capacity  is  the  best 
evidence  of  his  worthiness  to  fill  so  great  a  trust.  In 
addition  to  attending  to  his  duties  as  principal,  he 
fills  the  chair  of  Psychology  and  Logic.  That  he 
has  not  been  without  honor  in  his  incumbency  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  in  1878  Franklin  and  Mar- 
shall College  conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts,  and  in  1887  that  of  Doctor  of  Phil- 

Dr.  Lyte  has  grown  with  the  institution  which 
has  had  so  important  a  bearing  on  the  intellectual 
life  of  Lancaster  county.  During  his  connection 
with  the  Normal  School  he  has  watched  with  pride, 
and  aided  in,  her  liberal  expansion,  which  has  been 
in  keeping  with  the  sj^irit  of  this  advanced  age,  and 
with  the  constantly  increasing  patronage  she  has 
enjoyed.  The  number  of  pupils  at  present  is  "larger 
than  in  any  similar  institution  in  the  State.  The 
course  of  study  has  been  broadened,  many  branches 
having  been  taken  up  which  add  to  the  interest  of  the 
work,  widen  the  student's  outlook,  increase  his 
efficiency  for  the  duties  for  which  he  is  preparing, 
and  thus  affect  the  value  and  raise  the  standard  of 
the  common  schools.  The  various  buildings  include 
gymnasium,  library,  physical  science  and  mechanical 
arts  buildings,  all  of  which  have  been  found  neces- 
sary with  the  growing  needs  of  the  estabUshment. 

Dr.  Lyte  has  kept  abreast  of  the  times  in  his  own 
studies,  Language,  Philosophy  and  Pedagogy  be- 
ing his  specialties.  He  is  the  author  of  a  number 
of  text  books,  a  series  on  Language,  one  on  Book- 
keeping and  several  on  Music,  and  is  a  popular  lec- 
turer on  educational  and  literary  topics,  having 
many  valuable  ideas  on  the  subject  of  public  educa- 
tion especially.  He  is  an  eminently  practical  man, 
and  as  such  his  opinions  are  received  with  marked 



respect.  Many  of  his  plans  for  the  development  of 
the  Normal,  and  the  broadening  of  its  usefulness, 
have  been  put  into  operation  with  complete  success. 
Practically  all  his  energies  have  been  turned  into' 
this  one  channel,  his  love  for  his  work  being  of  that 
genuine  kind  which  overcomes  all  obstacles  and  out- 
lasts discouragement.  He  has  frequently  declined 
positions  more  lucrative,  and  which  promised  more 
renown,  his  attachment  for  his  institution  proving 
too  strong  to  be  easily  severed.  The  Millersville 
State  Normal  has  always  borne  a  high  reputation, 
and  the  standard  has  been  elevated  considerably 
under  the  present  administration.  Dr.  Lyte  has  al- 
ways been  in  hearty  sympathy  with  educational  or- 
ganizations, and  in  1891  was  honored  with  election 
to  the  office  of  president  of  the  Pennsylvania  Teach- 
ers' Association.  He  is  a  life  member  of  the  Na- 
tional Educational  Association,  of  which  he  has 
served  as  director  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was 
president  of  the  N.  E.  A.  in  1899,  and  he  has  also 
been  vice-president  of  the  council  of  education  of 
that  body.  He  is  likewise  a  member  of  the  Amer- 
ican Academy  of  Political  Science. 

Fraternally  Dr.  Lyte  is  a  thirty-third  degree 
Mason,  receiving  his  last  degree  in  1885 ;  he  also 
holds  membership  in  the  Loyal  Legion,  the  Grand 
Army  of  the  Republic,  and  the  Society  of  the  Sons 
of  the  Revolution. 

In  March,  1872,  Dr.  Lyte  married  Mary  Mcjun- 
kin,  daughter  of  Dr.  Isaiah  Mcjunkin,  of  Phila- 
delphia, and  they  have  had  two  children,  Louis  and 
Gilbert.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lyte  are  members  of  the 
Episcopal  Church.  They  are  widely  known  socially, 
and  are  everywhere  esteemed  among  the  circle  of 
their  acquaintances. 

THADDEUS  STEVENS  represented  Lancas- 
ter county  in  the  United  States  House  of  Represen- 
tatives during  the  last  ten  years  of  his  eventful  life. 
It  is  the  highest  honor  this  district,  then  the  Ninth 
Congressional  District  of  Pennsylvania,  has  ever 
known.  During  those  years  he  did  more  than  any 
other  man  in  Congress  to  shape  the  policy  of  the  Na- 
tion, both  in  war  and  in  peace,  to  advance  the  cause 
of  human  freedom,  to  which  his  life  had  been  de- 
voted, and  to  save  from  dismemberment  the  Amer- 
ican republic,  the  hope  of  the  world.  And  the  Na- 
tion, saved  and  regenerate,  conferred  upon  him  a 
title  higher  than  King — the  Great  Commoner.  We 
believe  that  he  was  brought  by  divine  providence 
to  do  his  appointed  work,  as  much  as  was  George 
Washington  or  Abraham  Lincoln.  FroiTi  1861  to 
1865  Abraham  Lincoln  and  Thaddeus  Stevens  were 
|:he  two  mightiest  forces  in  the  land  in  shaping  the 
policy  and  determining  the  destiny  of  the  Nation.  As 
Henry  Watterson  has  said,  "Thaddeus  Stevens  was 
the  House  of  Representatives"  during  these  four 
years  of  Titanic  strife.  Many  of  our  people  know 
him  only  as  a  name.  We  wish  to  present  such  a  con- 
nected sketch  as  will  give  them  more  definite  knowl- 
edge of  his  life  and  work.    He  was  born  in  Danville, 

Vt.,  April  4,  1792.  His  parents  were  Joshua  and 
Sarah  (Morrill)  Stevens,  who  removed  from  Me- 
thuen,  Essex  Co.,  Mass.,  about  the  year  1786.  He 
was  evidently  of  Anglo-Saxon  stock,  though  little  is 
known  of  his  ancestors.  His  father  was  a  surveyor 
and  shoemaker.  He  resurveyed  the  town  of  Dan- 
ville in  1790,  and  his .  measurements  are  the  legal 
lines  to-day.  He  was  an  athlete  and  a  famous 
wrestler,  but  a  man  of  rather  dissipated  habits. 
When  he  died  or  where  is  not  known  with  certainty. 
In  the  war  of  18 12  he  is  said  to  have  enlisted  as  a 
soldier,  and  in  the  attack  on  Oswego  to  have  re- 
ceived a  bayonet  wound  from  which  he  died  a  few 
days  afterward.  Thaddeus  never  wearied  in  talking 
of  his  mother  and  of  the  noble  fight  she  made  with 
penury  in  bringing  up  her  four  boys.  She  was  a 
remarkable  woman,  and  her  sons  all  achieved  distinc- 
tion. The  eldest  became  a  judge  in  Illinois ;  Alan- 
son,  the  second  son,  was  a  practicing  physician  of 
high  reputation  at  the  time  of  his  death.  The  third 
of  the  brothers  became  a  farmer  and  was  a  gentle- 
man of  intelligence  and  culture.  Thaddeus,  the 
youngest,  was  the  one  on  whom  especially  she  placed 
her  affections.  The  boy,  though  healthy,  was  in 
some  degree  deformed.  He  had  a  club  foot,  and 
doubtless  required  greater  attention  than  the  others. 
He  could  never  sufficiently  acknowledge  his  indebt- 
edness to  her.    Long  years  after  he  said  of  her : 

"I  really  think  the  greatest  pleasure  of  my  life 
resulted  from  my  ability  to  give  my  mother  a  farm 
of  250  acres  and  a  dairy  of  fourteen  cows,  and  an 
occasional  bright  gold  piece,  which  she  loved  to  de- 
posit in  the  contributors'  box  of  the  Baptist  Church, 
which  she  attended.  This  always  gave  her  much 
pleasure  and  me  much  satisfaction.  My  mother  was. 
a  very  extraordinary  woman.  I  have  met  very  few 
women  like  her.  My  father  was  not  a  well-to-do 
man,  and  the  support  and  education  of  the  family 
depended  upon  my  mother.  She  worked  day  and 
night  to  educate  me.  I  was  feeble  and  lame  in 
youth,  and  as  I  could  not  work  on  the  farm,  she  con- 
cluded to  give  me  an  education.  I  tried  to  repay  her 
afterward,  but  the  debt  of  a  child  to  his  mother,  you 
know,  is  one  of  the  debts  we  can  never  pay."  He 
gratefully  cherished  her  memory  to  the  last,  and  by 
his  will  he  established  a  fund,  the  income  of  which 
was  forever  to  be  used  to  plant  each  springtime 
"roses  and  other  cheerful  flowers"  upon  her  grave. 

The  mother  moved  from  Danville  to  Peacham, 
where  there  was  an  academy,  that  she  might  educate 
her  boys.  During  his  early  years  Mr.  Stevens  was  a 
very  diligent  reader  of  everything  that  came  in  his 
way.  When  about  fifteen  he  taught  school  and 
started  a  library  in  the  town.  There  he  prepared  for 
college,  entering  the  Sophomore  class  at  Dartmouth 
in  181 1.  Two  terms  of  his  Junior  year  were  spent 
at  the  University  of  Vermont,  and  his  Senior  year 
at  Dartmouth,  where  he  graduated  in  1814.  The 
records  of  the  university  show  him  as  a  speaker  in 
a  "Forensic  Disputation"  in  1813,  and  tell  of  a 
drama,  "The  Fall  of  Helvetic  Liberty,"  a  tragedy  in 




three  acts  by  Thaddeus  Stevens,  in  which  the  author 
played  one  of  the  parts. 

When  he  graduated  at  Dartmouth  he  was  twenty- 
two  years  old.  He  determined  to  study  law,  and,  as 
his  native  State  did  not  afford  the  opportunities  he 
desired,  he  removed  to  Pennsylvania.  There  he 
taught  for  a  time  in  an  academy  at  York  while  read- 
ing law.  He  visited  Lancaster,  after  his  admission 
to  the  Bar,  but  finally  decided  to  open  an  ofHce  at 
Gettysburg..  It  was  discouraging  experience  for 
the  young  lawyer,  and  he  was  on  the  point  of  leaving 
the  place  when  a  case  of  murder,  such  that  no  other 
would  undertake  the  defense  of  the  criminal,  came 
into  his  hands.  He  astonished  everybody  by  his 
skill,  his  eloquence  and  the  display  of  those  qualities 
which  afterward  made  him  one  of  the  ablest  and 
most  noted  lawyers  in  the  United  States.  His  fame 
spread,  and  he  was  soon  employed  on  one  side  or 
another  of  nearly  every  important  case  tried  in  that 
part  of  the  State.  He  did  much  work  gratuitously. 
Many  a  man,  claimed  as  a  slave,  gained  his  freedom 
through  ,  Mr.  Stevens,  and,  when  legal  expedients 
failed,  he  at.  times  paid  out  of  his  own  pocket  the 
price  demanded  for  the  slave.  There  he  spent  fifteen 
years  of  his  intense  life,  gaining  in  actual  practice 
that  ready  and  familiar  acquaintance  with  the  law 
for  which  he  was  noted  above  other  men. 

Mr.  Stevens  took  little  part  in  politics  until  1829, 
when  the  Anti-Masonic  excitement  swept  over 
Pennsylvania.  "He  once  told  me,"  says  Alexander 
H.  Hood,  Esq.,  for. many  years  a  member  of  the 
Lancaster  Bar,  a  man  of  unusual  native  ability  and  a 
close  personal  friend  of  Mr.  Stevens,  to  whose  sketch, 
written  in  1871,  we  are  indebted  for  much  that  is 
■contained  in  this  article,  "that  the  last  talk  he  had 
with  James  Buchanan,  who  was  an  ardent  Democrat, 
was  in  1827,  at  York.  They  had  both  been  engaged 
on  the  same  side  in  the  trial  of  a  cause,  and  when  the 
jury  were  out  they  walked  down  a  lane  some  distance 
from  the  town  and  took  a  seat  on  the  top  rail  of  the 
fence.  Buchanan  suggested  that  it  was  a  good  time 
for  a  man  of  brains  to  enter  politics,  and  added  that 
Stevens  would  do  well  to  come  into  the  support  of 
Jackson.  Stevens  answered  by  saying  that  he  saw 
the  advantages  of  such  a  course,  but  would  not  for- 
sake his  old  opinions,  which  he  believed  to  be  right, 
for  the  sake  of  joining  a  party  in  which  he  had  no 
faith."  They  took  opposite  sides  in  politics  and 
often  assailed  each  other  bitterly.  The  first  became 
President  of  the  United  States,  occupying  the  White 
House  at  one  end  of  Pennsylvania  avenue,  while  at 
the  same  time,  from  his  own  State,  his  own  county, 
his  own  city,  the  second  stood  at  the  other  end  of  the 
avenue,  recognized  as  the  mightiest  man  in  the  Uni- 
ted States  Congress. 

In  1 83 1  Mr.  Stevens  was  elected  to  the  Legisla- 
ture from  Adams  county.  His  ability  was,  of  course, 
recognized,  though  he  was  of  the  unpopular  minor- 
ity. Few  men  have  ever  been  more  foully  abused  by 
an  opposition  press.  He  was  charged  with  all  man- 
ner of  evil,  but  cared  little  or  nothing  to  refute 

calumny.  He  had  favored  the  free  school  law  of 
1834,  introduced  by  Hon.  Samuel  Breck,  of  Philadel- 
phia, who  had  come  to  the  Senate  for  the  sole  pur- 
pose of  securing  its  passage.  This  law  had  passed 
with  little  opposition,  but  revulsion  of  feeling  all 
over  the  State  at  the  prospect  of  taxation  for  the  pro- 
posed system  of  free  schools  sent  back  a  Legislature 
pledged  to  its  repeal.  Mr.  Stevens  had  not  served 
on  the  committee  on  Education  and  had  taken  no 
part  in  preparing  the  bill  of  1834.  He  had  little  to  do 
also  with  the  educational  work  of  the  session  of  1834- 
35  until  the  crisis  came  and  he  saw  the  infant  free 
schools  in  danger  of  destruction.  Then,  gathering 
up  his  great  strength,  he  threw  himself  with  his 
whole  soul  into  the  contest,  and  won  the  day,  not 
more  by  his  eloquent,  inspiring  words,  than  by  the 
bold  and  resolute  position  which  he  assumed.  Com- 
petent judges  of  all  parties  who  witnessed  the  fight 
agree  that  had  he  not  stood  like  a  rock,  furnishing 
shelter  and  imparting  strength  to  the  free  school 
combatants,  and  bidding  defiance  to  the  fiercest  of 
those  who  would  have  struck  them  down,  the  law 
of  1834  would  have  been  swept  from  the  statute 
books  or  been  saved  only  by  a  veto  from  the  gover- 
nor, and  the  day  of  universal  education  in  Pennsyl- 
vania would  have  been  postponed  for  years.  One 
who  was  present.  Dr.  George  Smith,  of  Delaware, 
wrote  in  1880,  "Stevens's  speech  was  one  of  the  most 
powerful  I  ever  heard.  The  House  was  electrified, 
and  the  school  system  was  saved  from  ignominious 
defeat."  In  honor  of  its  author,  the  speech  was  beau- 
tifully printed  on  silk  by  some  school  men  in  Read- 
ing, and  proudly  kept  by  him  as  a  relic  till  his  death. 
It  is  given  in  the  Pennsylvania  School  Journal  for 
July,  1865,  along  with  another  which  he  made  in 
1838,  in  behalf  of  a  bill  to  establish  a  school  of  art  in 
Philadelphia,  in  which  he  championed  most  vigor- 
ously the  higher  institutions  of  learning.  "Immedi- 
ately after  Mr.  Stevens  concluded  this  great  effort," 
says  Hon.  John  W.  Forney,  "he  received  a  message 
from  George  Wolf,  then  Democratic  governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  a  leading  member  of  the  Masonic 
fraternity.  Gov.  Wolf  was  the  firm  friend  of  popu- 
lar education.  Of  a  different  and  more  methodical 
character,  he  did  not  and  could  not  bring  to  the 
movement  the  attributes  with  which  God  had  clothed 
Thaddeus  Stevens ;  but  he  was  earnest  and  sincere. 
When  Mr.  Stevens,  in  response  to  his  invitation,  en- 
tered the  Executive  Chamber,  he  threw  his  arms 
about  his  neck,  and,  with  tearful  eyes  and  broken 
voice,  thanked  him  for  the  great  service  he  had  ren- 
dered to  our  common  humanity."  We  have  always 
thought,  in  reading  of  this  educational  crisis  and  the 
far-reaching  result  of  his  victory,  that  the  greatest 
thing  Mr.  Stevens  did  at  this  time  was,  providen- 
tially, to  hold  Samuel  Breck's  crude  law  of  1834  in- 
tact, for  the  work  of  Thomas  H.  Burrowes,  secretary 
of  the  Commonwealth,  during  the  three  years  of  the 
Ritner  administration,  and  the  calling  of  this  re- 
markable man  to  the  organization,  direction,  im- 
provement and  support  of  the  school  system  of  Penn- 



sylvania  for  the  rest  of  his  life  of  extraordinary  use- 
fulness. We  have  seen  and  heard  Mr.  Stevens 
spoken  of  as  the  "father  of  the  school  system."  He 
used  to  laugh  at  this  as  very  ridiculous.  No  man  in 
Pennsylvania  history  has  ever  inerited  such  title  of 
distinction,  and  he  was  the  last  man  to  assume  or 
allow  it.  His  service  to  the  schools  was  great  be- 
yond estimate,  but  that  of  Dr.  Burrowes  far  greater. 
"Old  Thad."  and  "Old  Tom,"  as  they  came  to  be 
familiarly  known,  were  near  friends  for  nearly  forty 
years,  and  to  no  other  two  men  of  the  past  generation 
do  the  schools  of  the  State  owe  so  great  a  debt  of  ob- 

In  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1837  he  was 
a  conspicuous  figure.  The  debates  fill  thirteen  large 
volimies.  Stevens  refused  to  affix  his  signature  to 
the  result  of  their  deliberations  because  the  new  Con- 
stitution limited  the  right  to  vote  to  "white"  citi- 
zens. His  name  alone,  of  all  the  members  of  the  con- 
vention, was  conspicuous  by  its  absence. 

In  1838  Mr.  Stevens  was  appointed  by  Gov. 
Ritner  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Canal  Commis- 
sioners. The  political  triumvirate  of  Pennsylvania 
was  at  that  time  Ritner,  Burrowes  and  Stevens.  The 
Gubernatorial  campaign  of  that  year  was  most  bit- 
terly contested.  The  excitement  was  unprecedented. 
Thomas  H.  Burrowes  was  chairman  of  the  State 
Central  Committee  of  his  party,  and  Thaddeus  Ste- 
vens was  the  master  spirit  of  the  campaign.  These 
men  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder  through  the  stubborn 
fight.  Ritner  was  defeated.  The  organization  of 
the  Legislature  was  delayed  for  weeks.  At  the  most 
critical  period  in  this  fierce  struggle  bloodshed  was 
looked  for  at  any  moment.  Political  ruffians  from 
the  Philadelphia  slums  and  elsewhere  were  present 
with  the  avowed  purpose  to  "kill  Stevens."  He 
faced  the  storm  at  Harrisburg  with  the  same  de- 
fiant, unflinching  courage  which  he  displayed  nearly 
a  generation  later  at  Washington.  Each  faction  or- 
ganized its  own  "house" — the  "Hopkins  House"  and 
the  "Stevens  House" — ^but  finally  victory  fell  to  the 
other  party,  who  had  retained  possession  of  the  Rep- 
resentatives' chamber.  Stevens  refused  to  recog- 
nize the  legality  of  the  "Hopkins  House,"  and  re- 
mained absent  during  its  sessions.  Later  he  at- 
tended an  adjourned  session,  at  the  request  of  his 
constituents.  The  leader  of  the  opposition  party 
had  a  resolution  passed,  providing  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  committee  to  inquire  into  his  status  as  a 
member  of  the  body.  He  contemptuously  refused  to 
appear  before  this  committee,  but  sent  them  a  letter 
which  conclusively  established  the  illegality  of  their 
proceedings  and  his  absolute  right  of  membership. 
The  House  by  a  party  vote  declared  his  seat  vacant, 
and  ordered  a  new  election.  He  was  returned  by  a 
large  majority.  The  Legislature  the  next  winter 
gave  him  "satisfaction"  by  expelling  the  member 
who  had  been  responsible  for  his  own  expulsion. 
"While  an  intense  partisan,  he  had  won  an  acknowl- 
edged position  as  the  most  formidable  debater  and 

perhaps  the  greatest  orator  at  that  time  in  public  life 
in  Pennsylvania." 

Mr.  Stevens  took  part  in  the  Harrison  campaign 
in  1840,  and  after  the  election  was  slated  for  a  cabinet 
position,  but  this  appointment  was  prevented  by 
Clay  and  Webster.  Stevens  never  forgave  Webster 
for  the  part  he  took  in  this  transaction ;  nor  did  he 
go  into  the  support  of  Clay  in  1844,  till  Clay  made 
known  to  Stevens  that,  should  he  be  elected,  atone- 
ment would  be  made  for  past  wrong. 

Mr.  Stevens  closed  his  service  in  the  Legislature 
of  Pennsylvania  with  the  session  of  1841.  His  long- 
continued  attention  to  politics,  and  the  large  sums 
he  expended,  had  materially  impaired  his  fortune. 
He  had  also  lost  very  heavily  through  the  operations 
of  a  partner  in  the  iron  business.  In  the  summer  of 
1842  he  saw  that  Gettysburg  did  not  afford  an  ade- 
quate field  for  his  professional  practice,  and  this  in- 
duced his  removal  to  Lancaster  in  August  of  that 
year.  His  course  in  1844  has  been  already  noticed, 
and  from  that  time  till  1848  he  took  little  part  in 
politics,  though  he  was  always  keenly  alive  to  what 
was  going  on  in  the  country.  During  this  period  his. 
practice  was  very  remunerative,  and  from  this  and 
the  sale  of  his  .A.dams  county  farms  he  brought  down 
his  debts  to  within  what  he  considered  a  manageable 
limit.  In  1843  he  was  in  danger  of  being  sold  out  by 
the  sheriff.  In  1844  he  paid  interest  on  debts 
amounting  to  $217,000.  In  1849,  when  he  first  went 
to  Congress,  he  had  reduced  his  debts  to  $30,000. 
On  March  4,  1853,  when  his  first  service  in  Congress 
ended,  his  debts  amounted  to  about  $60,000.  These 
figures  are  given  by  Mr.  Hood,  who  had  opportunity 
to  know  the  facts.  What  he  was  worth  at  his  death 
it  is  difficult  to  say.  After  the  payment  of  certain 
personal  bequests  he  directed  that  the  residue  of  the 
estate  be  used  for  the  founding  and  support  of  an 
orphans'  home  in  which  there  should  be  no  distinc- 
tion of  race  or  color.  The  amount  of  the  fund  is 
now  (1903)  over  $60,000,  and  it  is  the  purpose  of  the 
trustees  to  permit  it  to  accumulate  until  it  shall  reach 
$100,000,  when  the  necessary  buildings  will  be 
erected  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  city  of  Lancaster,, 
on  land  adjoining  the  Children's  Home. 

When  the  Free  Soil  movement  began  he  was 
favorable  to  its  principles,  though  he  supported 
Zachary  Taylor  with  all  his  might  for  the  Presi- 
dency. In  1848,  after  a  sliaip  contest  with  the  op- 
posing candidates  for  the  nomination  he  was  named 
for  Congress  by  the  supporters  of  Taylor,  and  elected 
by  a  large  majority.  During  the  four  years  that  he 
served  at  this  time  he  was  recognized  as  one  of  the 
leading  men  in  Congress,  and  enjoyed  to  a  large  ex- 
tent the  confidence  of  Gen.  Taylor,  who,  though  a 
slaveholder  himgelf,  was,' without  declaring  it  openly,, 
opposed  to  the  further  extension  of  that  evil ;  and  it 
is  very  certain  that  it  was  through  his  adroit  man- 
agement that  California  came  into  the  Union  as  a 
free  State.  The  Fugitive  Slave  law  was  passed  after 
Ihe  death  of  President  Taylor.    This  law  and  all  kin- 



dred  measures  Mr.  Stevens  opposed  to  the  extent  of 
his  power.  Profoundly  impressed  with  the  gravity 
of  the  crisis,  Mr.  Stevens  introduced  into  the  House 
a  series  of  resohitions  covering  the  leading  points 
at  issue  between  the  political  parties.  These,  of 
course,  stood  no  chance  of  approval  or  adoption. 
On  Feb.  20,  1850,  he  made  his  first  set  speech  in 
Congress,  in  which  he  violently  attacked  the  Fugi- 
tive Slave  law,  and  discussed  the  slavery  question 
with  the  utmost  vigor  and  frankness. 

"We  can  say  anything,"  and  his  hard  firm  tone 
compelled  men  to  listen — "we  can  say  anything  with- 
in these  walls  or  beyond  them  with  impunity,  unless 
it  be  to  agitate  in  favor  of  human  liberty.  That  is 
aggression."  While  he  announced  his  "unchange- 
able hostility  to  slavery  in  every  form  and  in  every 
place,"  he  declared  that  he  felt  bound  by  the  Con- 
stitutional provisions.  Some  of  these  compromises 
he  greatly  disliked,  and  if  they  were  still  open  he 
would  never  consent  to  them,  but  he  was  precluded 
from  objecting.  It  was  a  matter  of  regret  that  Con- 
gress had  no  power  over  slavery  in  the  States,  and, 
if  it  had,  he  would,  regardless  of  all  threats,  support 
"some  just,  safe  and  certain  means  for  its  final  ex- 
tinction." He  then  proceeded  to  discuss  the  wis- 
dom of  slavery  in  a  style  which  it  is  impossible  to 
condense  or  abridge  without  injuring  the  argument. 
"This  speech,"  sa)'s  Hon.  Samuel  W.  McCall,  in 
his  "Life  of  Thaddeus  Stevens,"  published  by 
Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.,  in  the  "American  States- 
men" series,  "not  only  commanded  the  admiration 
of  his  friends  and  justified  the  votes  they  had  given 
him  for  Speaker,  but  it  achieved  the  success  of  draw- 
ing upon  him  the  fire  of  the  opposition.  It  had 
strength  and  directness.  It  clearly  expressed  great 
ideas,  which  were  not  dressed  up  and  concealed  in 
any  frippery  or  labored  rhetoric.  His  trenchant 
power  of  argument,  his  courage,  the  force  of  his 
compact  eloquence,  not  merely  established  his  posi- 
tion in  the  House,  but  they  attracted  the  attention 
of  the  country.  The  proceedings  of  the  House  which 
most  intensely  interested  him  were  those  relating  to 
the  slavery  question.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Ju- 
diciarv  committee,  and  gave  much  of  his  time  to  the 
Avork  of  a  technical  and  legal  character  which  came 
before  that  committee,  but  his  heart  was  with  the 
slave,  and  his  most  elaborate  speeches  were  made 
in  his  behalf." 

Shortly  after  this  first  great  speech  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  the  leaders  of  the  opposition  are 
credited  with  saying:  "Our  enemy  has  a  general 
now.  We  cannot  buy  him,  we  cannot  allure  him 
with  office,  we  cannot  seduce  him.  He  is  in  earnest. 
He  is  bold.  We  can  neither  flatter  nor  frighten  him." 
Such  he  had  been  always  and  such  he  continued  to 
the  end.  When  the  California  question  came  before 
the  House  he  seized  the  opportunity  to  state  more 
fully  his  position  with  regard  to  slavery  in  the  Terri- 
tories as  well  as  to  make  more  emphatic,  if  possible, 
his  hostilitv  to  slavery  everywhere.  On  June  10, 
1850,  he  delivered  another  philippic,  which  was  even 

more  forcible  and  uncompromising  than  his  Febru- 
ary speech. 

He  constantly  declared  his  undying  hostility  to  the 
Fugitive  Slave  law.  Referring  to  the  people  of  Lan- 
caster county  in  this  connection  on  one  occasion,  he 
said :  "The  distinguished  Senator  from  Kentucky 
(Henry  Clay)  wishes  further  to  make  it  the  duty, 
of  all  bystanders  to  aid  in  the  capture  of  fugitives ; 
to  join  in  the  chase  and  run  down  the  prey.  This 
is  asking  more  than  my  constituents  will  ever  grant. 
They  will  strictly  abide  by  the  Constitution.  The 
slaveholder  may  pursue  his  slaves  among  them  with 
his  own  foreign  myrmidons,  unmolested,  except  by 
their  frowning  scorn.  But  no  law  that  tyranny  can 
pass  will  ever  induce  them  to  join  the  hue  and  cry 
after  the  trembling  wretch  who  has  escaped  from 
unjust  bondage.  Their  fair  land,  made  by  nature 
and  their  own  honest  toil  as  fertile  and  as  lovely  as 
the  Vale  of  Tempe,  shall  never  become  the  hunting 
ground  on  which  the  bloodhounds  of  slavery  shall 
course  their  prey  and  command  them  to  join  the 

In  185 1,  for  the  first  time  in  many  years,  a  fugitive 
slave  resisted,  with  arms,  the  claims  of  his  owner. 
About  two  miles  from  Christiana,  Lancaster  county, 
a  number  of  fugitive  slaves  were  hiding  at  the  house 
of  a  colored  man  named  Parker.  An  elderly  man, 
named  Gorsuch,  of  Maryland,  assisted  by  his  son, 
and  a  deputy  marshal  from  Philadelphia,  named 
Kline,  came  to  the  house  of  Parker^  about  an  hour 
before  daylight.  Gorsuch,  the  younger,  with  Kline, 
summoned  the  persons  inside  to  surrender.  To  this 
it  was  replied  they  would  defend  themselves,  and  at 
the  same  time  the  click  of  firearms  was  heard.  Kline 
ran  and  hid  behind  a- tree.  Young  Gorsuch  went  to 
his  father  and  reported  that  an  attack  would  be  dan- 
gerous. The  father  said  it  would  never  do  to  back 
out  so,  and  started  toward  the  house,  his  son  follow- 
ing. Gorsuch  hailed  the  house  again,  and  on  re- 
ceiving the  defiant  answer,  fired  a  pistol,  the  ball 
taking  effect  in  the  leg  of  one  of  the  blacks  in  the 
house.  This  shot  was  returned  by  a  volley,  killing 
the  elder  Gorsuch.  The  firing  alarmed  the  neighbor- 
hood. Castner  Hanway  and  Elijah  Lewis  were  the 
first  to  reach  the  place.  These  were  white  men  and 
Abolitionists.  Their  influence  prevented  further  fir- 
ing, and  they  assisted  the  younger  Gorsuch  to  remove 
the  dead  body  of  his  father  to  Christiana,  the  nearest 
railroad  station  to  the  scene  of  the  fight.  This  oc- 
currence raised  the  pro-slavery  spirit  to  a  flame.  For 
a  week  no  colored  man  could  pass  along  the  railroad 
without  being  arrested.  Hanway  and  Lewis  were 
taken  to  Philadelphia  and  tried  for  treason.  In 
this  trial  Mr.  Stevens  and  John  M.  Read,  later  one 
of  the  judges  of  the  Supreme  court,  were  the  counsel 
for  the  prisoners.  Stevens  was  the  inspiration  for 
the  defense.  Its  lines  were  laid  down  by  him.  But 
because  of  his  extreme  anti-slavery  views  it  was 
thought  best  to  give  the  part  of  leading  counsel  to 
one  of  the  ablest  Democratic  lawyers  in  the  State,  in 
the  person  of  Judge  Read,  whose  exhaustive  argu- 



merit  on  the  law  of  treason  knocked  the  breath  out 
of  the  prosecution,  and  Mr.  Stevens  was  content  with 
a  brief  speech.  The  prisoners  were  acquitted,  and 
from  that  day  the  Fugitive  Slave  law  was  practi- 
cally a  dead  letter  in  Pennsylvania.  The  great  merit 
of  Mr.  Stevens  in  this  transaction  was  in  the  bold, 
firm  stand  he  took  at  the  beginning.  His  defiant 
attitude  kept  up  the  courage  of  those  who  would 
otherwise  have  desponded.  His  share  in  the  trial 
was  not  very  conspicuous,  but  there  were  good  rea- 
sons for  the  course  he  pursued.  The  great  object 
was  attained,  and  that  was  all  he  desired. 

Mr.  Stevens  was  elected  to  the  XXXIId  Con- 
gress, which  was  organized  without  difficulty,  and  on 
the  ballot  for  Speaker  he  received  sixteen  votes, 
among  them  those  of  Joshua  R.  Giddings  and  Horace 
Mann.  He  made  two  or  three  important  speeches, 
and  in  March,  1853,  "retired,  as  he  thought  per- 
manently, to  private  life,  from  which  he  did  not 
emerge  again  until  his  countrymen,  aroused  to  fever 
heat,  were  about  to  decide  the  question  amid  the 
clash  of  arms,  and  he  was  to  do  the  work  which  was 
to  make  his  name  immortal." 

From  1853  to  1858  he  steadily  pursued  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  in  Lancaster  and  elsewhere, 
though  at  the  same  time  taking  part  in  the  initiatory 
movements  which  resulted  in  the  formation  of  the 
Republican  party,  he  being  one  of  the  delegates  from 
Lancaster,  the  Ninth  Congressional  t>istrict,  to  the 
convention  which  nominated  Fremont.  In  1858 
the  necessities  *f  the  country  required  his  presence 
in  Congress,  and,  after  a  warm  contest,  he  was  elected 
by  a  large  majority.  He  had  scarcely  taken  his 
seat  in  that  body,  in  December,  1859,  when  the  first 
symptoms  of  the  Rebellion  began  to  be  developed. 
Although  nearly  sixty-eight  years  old  wHen  he  re- 
entered Congress,  the  great  work  of  his  life  lay  yet 
before  him.  He  had  never  met  his  intellectual  su- 
perior, either  at  the  Bar,  in  the  Pennsylvania  Legis- 
lature, or  during  his  four  years  in  Congress.  But 
it  is  the  work  he  was  yet  to  do  that  has  given  him  en- 
during fame  in  the  history  of  a  great  nation  saved 
and  purified  from  the  taint  and  curse  of  negro 
slavery.  There  was  a  long  contest  over  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  House  in  1859,  and  Mr.  Stevens  was  in 
the  thick  of  the  fight,  a  conspicuous  figure.  Noisy 
threats  of  disunion  and  bloodshed  filled  the 
air.  Stevens  had  been  through  such  scenes 
before,  and  enjoyed  lashing  his  opponents  into 
fury.  His  wit,  always  apt  and  telling,  flashed  like 
the  lightning,  and  often  scorched  like  flame.  Many 
of  the  Southern  members  hated  him  intensely,  and 
feared  him  as  no  other  man,  as  well  they  might,  and 
yet,  personally  and  socially,  not  a  few  of  them  ad- 
mired and  were  attracted  by  him.  When  the  House 
was  not  in  session  he  was  often  the  center  of  a  group 
in  which  all  sections  of  the  country  were  pleasantly 

Then  came  the  Presidential  election  in  i860. 
Stevens  was  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  delega- 
tion to  the  National  Convention.     The  vote  of  this 

delegation  was  transferred  to  Mr.  Lincoln  on  the 
ballot  which  secured  his  nomination.  Lincoln  was 
elected,  and  Congress  met  in  December  for  the  most 
extraordinary  session  in  our  national  history.  Mr. 
Stevens  was  a  master  spirit  during  this  eventful  ses- 
sion. He  thought  that  the  time  had  at  last  arrived 
for  determining  whether  secession  was  a  rightful 
act.  If  it  were,  "then  the  Union  is  not  worth  pre- 
serving for  a  single  day ;"  for,  if  the  emergency  then 
existing  should  pass  away,  "fancied  wrongs  would 
constantly  arise,"  and  induce  States  to  secede.  He 
then  made  a  powerful  argument  against  the  right 
of  secession,  and  declared  that  the  South  had  no 
just  grievance.  "Rather  than  show  repentance  for 
the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln,  with  all  its  consequences, 
I  would  see  this  Government  crumble  into  a  thousand 
atoms.  If  I  cannot  be  a  free  man,  let  me  cease  to 

Hon.  Henry  L.  Dawes,  who  was  a  member  of 
Congress  at  the  time,  has  preserved  a  striking  pic- 
ture of  the  effect  of  the  speech.  It  was  a  tremendous 
scene.  The  same  heroic  figure  as  when  he  saved 
the  School  Law  from  repeal  in  1835,  at  Harrisburg, 
but  on  a  vastly  broader  arena,  filling  it  with  a  sense 
of  his  presence  and  his  power,  "No  one,"  says  Mr. 
Dawes,  "could  forget  the  scene  in  which  it  occurred, 
though  all  I  can  say  of  it  and  of  him  seems  tame 
enough  without  the  inspiration  of  the  occasion  and 
of  his  presence.  This  speech  was'  delivered  in  that 
last  session  after  the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln,  when 
the  House  was  more  like  a  powder  magazine  than  a 
deliberative  assembly.  His  denunciation  of  the  plot- 
ters of  treason  to  their  face  was  terrible,  and  his 
expose  of  the  barbarism  of  the  so-called  civilization 
behind  them  was  awful.  Nearly  fifty  Southern  mem- 
bers rose  to  their  feet  and  rushed  toward  him  with 
curses  and  threats  of  personal  violence.  As  many 
of  his  friends  gathered  around  him,  and,  moving  him 
in  sort  of  hollow  square  to  the  space  in  front  of  the 
Speaker,  opened  before  his  assailants  and  stood  guard 
over  him  while  he  arraigned  the  slaveocracy  in  an 
indictment  for  its  crimes  against  humanity  surpass- 
ing in  severity  even  the  great  arraignment  of  Mr. 
Sumner.  He  was  then  an  old  man,  approaching 
seventy,  on  whose  frame  and  voice  time  had  already 
made  sad  inroads,  but  still  standing  erect  and  firm 
as  a  man  of  thirty-five.  Calm  and  self-possessed  as 
a  judge,  he  lashed  them  into  a  fury,  and  then  bade 
them  compose  themselves  at  their  leisure.  The  ex- 
citement aroused  by  his  fiery  denunciation  and  de- 
fiant scorn  beggars  all  description  and  can  live  only 
in  the  memory  of  those  who  witnessed  it." 

Through  all  the  four  bloody  years  of  the  Civil 
war,  as  chairman  of  the  committee  on  Ways  and 
Means,  Mr.  Stevens  was  most  emphatically  the  right 
man  in  the  right  place.  "Had  he  been  younger  and 
not  deformed,"  says  Mr.  Hood,  "his  natural  courage 
would  have  sent  him  to  the  battlefield  at  the  firing 
of  the  first  gun.  Men,  firm  believers  in  the  doctrine 
of  special  providence,  aver  that  his  lameness  was  a 
necessity,  ordained  to  keep  him  where  he  was.    With- 



out  entering  into  any  discussion  on  this  point,  it  is 
enough  to  say,  there  were  so  many  illustrations  of 
the  doctrine  during  the  war,  that  to  a  thinking  mind 
it  is  somewhat  difficult  to  deny  the  proposition." 

The  House  of  Representatives,  now  that  the 
Southern  leaders  had  withdrawn,  had  a  large  Re- 
publican majority.  Galusha  A.  Grow  was  elected 
Speaker.  Thaddeus  Stevens  was  made  chairman  of 
the  committee  on  Ways  and  Means,  the  most  im- 
portant committee  of  the  House,  the  post  of  all  others 
for  him  at  such  a  crisis.  The  duty  of  this  committee 
■was  to  provide  means  for  prosecuting  a  great  war 
and  having  charge  of  the  appropriation  bills,  to  de- 
■cide  how  the  money  should  be  spent.  Thus  Mr. 
iStevens  was  directly  in  charge  of  the  great  work  of 
raising  and  spending  the  money  needed  during  the 
four  years  of  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  aggregating 
not  hundreds  of  millions,  but  thousands  of  millions. 
Stevens  drove  the  revenue  bills  and  the  appropria- 
tion bills  with  his  accustomed  energy.  He  favored 
the  issue  of  legal-tender  notes  and  the  enormous  bond 
issues  of  the  Government.  Says  Mr.  McCall,  in 
speaking  of  this  tremendous  task  of  the  Ways  and 
Means  committee :  "What  other  men  have  ever  done 
so  well  ?  With  national  credit  almost  destroyed,  with 
property  values  greatly  lessened,  and  with  half  the 
men  of  military  age  in  the  field  in  a  civil  war,  twenty 
million  people  were  called  upon  in  four  years  to  meet 
an  expenditure  of  $3,500,000,000,  and  they  showed 
themselves  able  to  respond  to  the  gigantic  demand. 
The  achievement  not  only  stands  without  a  parallel, 
but  it  stands  unapproached.  The  credit  was  not 
chiefly  due  to  leadership.  What  was  demanded 
of  the  leaders  was  the  ability  to  comprehend  and  the 
boldness  to  call  into  play  the  splendid  capacity  and 
the  fervent  patriotism  of  the  people.  But  the  one 
man  who  is  as  much  entitled  as  any  other,  with  the 
exception  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  to  the 
glory  of  these  financial  achievements,  was  the  chair- 
man of  the  committee  on  Ways  and  Means,  and 
the  leader  of  the  House  of  Representatives — Thad- 
deus Stevens." 

He  was  from  the  first  in  favor  of  emancipation 
as  a  war  measure,  urging  that  the  slaves  should  be 
armed  if  the  war  continued,  and  declaring  that 
slavery  caused  the  Rebellion.  After  waiting  in  vain 
for  action  by  the  Military  committee,  he  boldly  pre- 
sented his  bill  to  the  House,  and  secured  an  assign- 
ment for  its  consideration  without  awaiting  the  re- 
port of  any  committee.  This  unusual  course  excited 
violent  opposition,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to  pre- 
vent a  vote  upon  the  measure. by  repeated  roll-calls 
upon  motions  to  adjourn  and  other  dilatory  proposi- 
tions. After  an  all-night  session  the  House  ad- 
journed without  action,  but  the  struggle  was  re- 
sumed at  its  next  meeting  and  continued  for  a  week. 
Stevens  concluded  the  debate  in  a  characteristic 
speech.  His  efl-'orts  were  at  last  crowned  with  suc- 
cess. The  bill  passed  by  83  to  54,  and  the  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  black  soldiers  who  enlisted  before  the 

end  of  the  war  refuted  by  their  conduct  the  predic- 
tions that  they  would  be  guilty  of  inhumanity. 

"A  review  of  the  course  of  Stevens  upon  all  the 
measures  coming  before  the  House,"  says  Hon.  Sam- 
uel W.  McCall,  himself  a  member  of  the  House  of 
Representatives,  "would  involve  practically  a  history 
of  legislation  during  the  war.  He  was  so  unquestion- 
ably leader  that  no  man  was  next  to  him,  and  his  in- 
dustry and  energy  responded  so  fully  to  all  demands 
that  he  was  almost  always  upon  his  feet  or  in  charge 
of  measures  before  the  House.  When  the  enormous 
amount  of  committee  work  which  he  was  called  upon 
to  perform  is  remembered,  and  especially  the  prepar- 
ation of  revenue  and  appropriation  bills,  which  would 
alone  be  a  sufficient  tax  upon  the  strength  of  an  or- 
dinary man,  it  is  almost  incredible  that  one  of  his 
advanced  age  should  have  been  able  to  attend  so 
constantly  upon  the  sessions  of  the  House  and  per- 
form the  part  that  he  performed  there."  His  memory 
seemed  a  prodigious  storehouse,  in  which  everything 
was  in  order  and  everything  at  command.  His 
will  was  indomitable  as  ever,  his  mental  force  and 
intellectual  grasp  never  greater,  though  his  physi- 
cal vigor  was  slowly  losing  ground  under  the  tre- 
mendous strain  of  heavy  duties  and  vast  responsi- 

The  war  ended,  but  the  troubles  it  brought  in  its 
train  stood  out  in  such  bold  relief  that  people  only 
then  began  to  have  something  like  a  correct  idea  of 
their  magnitude.  The  South,  though  beaten  and 
vanquished,  was  far  from  being  in  a  temper  to  ac- 
cept the  situation  as  the  fortune  of  a  war  brought 
on  by  themselves  against  their  brethren.  There  was 
a  debt  of  'nearly,  if  not  more  than,  three  thousand 
millions,  taxing  the  people  and  their  posterity  for 
many  years  to  come.  Besides  this,  there  were  four 
millions  of  emancipated  slaves  to  be  cared  for,  to  be 
instructed  and  protected  from  the  aggression  of 
those  who  had  formerly  been  their  masters.  Of  the 
leading  measures  adopted  to  reconstruct  the  South, 
Mr.  Stevens  was  the  author.  The  whole  general 
plan,  though  possibly  not  original  with  himself,  was 
by  adoption  peculiarly  his  own ;  and  though  some 
modifications  may  have  been  made  in  Congress,  yet 
the  principal  features  of  his.  measures  were  retained, 
and  were  the  means  employed  to  govern  the  people 
of  the  section  lately  in  rebellion  until  its  several  por- 
tions were  again  admitted  as  component  parts  of  the 
Union,  as  States,  members  of  the  great  family  of 
communities  forming  the  indivisible  Republic. 

During  the  whole  period,  from  the  beginning  of 
the  war  to  the  end  of  his  life,  Mr.  Stevens  was  scarce- 
ly a  day  absent  from  his  seat,  and  for  the  most  of 
that  time  his  labors  were  truly  herculean.  During 
the  war,  in  times  of  peculiar  adversity,  when  every- 
body else  seemed  to  lose  heart,  his  indomitable  en- 
ergy, and  his  full  assurance  of  final  success,  inspired 
with  new  life  the  hearts  that  were  ready  to  give  up 
the  combat.  After  the  disastrous  battles  of  Freder- 
icksburg and  Chickamauga  he  seemed  more  than  ever 



determined  to  fight  on,  no  matter  how  gloomy  the 
prospect  before  the  country. 

Men  will  wear  out,  and  Mr.  Stevens  was  no 
exception  to  the  general  rule.  When  he  left  Lan- 
caster for  Washington,  about  the  end  of  November, 

1866,  he  was  so  feeble  as  to  be  unable  to  sit  up  in  the 
car,  and  a  bed  was  made  for  him  on  the  floor.  Those 
who  knew  his  condition  had  great  fear  whether  he 
could  survive  the  journey.  After  his  arrival  at  Wash- 
ington he  rallied,  and  during  most  of  the  session  he 
remained  comparatively  well.  At  the  adjournment 
he  came  home,  and  remained  there  till  November, 

1867,  when  he  took  his  last  journey  to  the  capital. 
He  then  seemed  much  better  than  he  had  been  for 
some  time,  and  appeared  very  hopeful  in  regard  to 
his  health. 

After  the  death  of  Abraham  Lincoln  his  successor 
in  office,  Andrew  Johnson,  adopted  a  policy  that 
aroused  strenuous  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  Re- 
publican leaders.  On  the  25th  of  February,  1868, 
Mr.  Stevens,  with  Mr.  Bingham,  appeared  in  the 
United  States  Senate  and  presented  articles  of  im- 
peachment against  Andrew  Johnson.  The  trial,  of 
which  Mr.  Stevens  was  one  of  the  managers 
on  the  part  of  the  House,  ended  on  the 
26th  of  May.  During  all  this  time  Mr. 
Stevens,  so  feeble  as  to  be  carried  daily  to 
the  Capitol  in  a  chair,  was  always  present  attend- 
.  ing  to  his  duty.  His  will  was  indomitable.  Nothing 
but  death  could  conquer  him.  He  prepared  his 
speech  before  the  Senate  with  great  care.  After 
standing  for  a  few  minutes,  in  addressing  that  body, 
his  strength  gave  out,  and  he  was  forced  to  resume 
his  chair.  He  spoke  for  nearly  half  an  hour  from 
his  seat,  when  his  voice  became  weak,  and  the  reading 
of  his  speech  was  concluded  by  Gen.  Benjamin  F. 
Butler.  He  was  greatly  disaopointed  at  the  acquittal 
of  the  President,  and  was  for  a  time  depressed,  but 
soon  regained  his  accustomed  gayety  and  spirit. 

He  attended  the  sessions  of  the  House  when  at 
all  able  to  do  so,  though  his  strength  was  ebbing  fast, 
and  took  part  in  the  proceedings.  On  July  7,  1868, 
within  a  few  weeks  of  his  death,  he  introduced  five 
additional  articles  of  impeachment,  "apparently  for 
the  purpose  of  reviewing  the  law  of  impeachments, 
in  one  of  the  longest  speeches  of  his  later  years,  and 
to  express  his  dissatisfaction  with  the  Senate  on  the 
rulings  of  the  Chief  Justice."  On  July  i6th  he  in- 
troduced a  resolution  looking  to  the  acquirement  of 
a  naval  station  and  depot  in  the  West  Indies,  and 
supported  it  in  a  brief  speech.  On  July  27th  Con- 
gress adjourned  until  September.  Mr.  Stevens  was 
too  weak  to  make  the  journey  to  Lancaster.  But 
he  would.die,  he  said,  "like  Nicanor,  in  harness."  "I 
mean  to  die  hurrahing,"  was  a  favorite  expression 
with  him.  "You  have  changed  my  medicine?"  he 
said  to  his  physician.  Dr.  Henry  C.  Carpenter,  a  few 
days  before  his  death.  "Yes,"  replied  the  doctor. 
"Well,"  replied  Stevens,  grimly  with  a  smile,  "this 
is  a  square  fight."  And  those  who  knew  him,  know 
just  how  he  would  say  it,  and  how  characteristic  of 

the  man.  He  died  on  Tuesday,  Aug.  11,  1868.  The 
Republican  primary  election  in  Lancaster  county  had 
been  called  for  Saturday  of  that  week,  for  the  nom- 
ination of  the  member  of  Congress.  Although  he 
was  dead,  it  was  found  when  the  votes  were  counted 
that  all  were  cast  for  Thaddeus  Stevens. 

The  character  of  Thaddeus  Stevens  was  made 
up  of  contradictory  elements.  Nature  designed  him 
for  one  of  the  great  men  of  the  race,  and,  so  far  as 
time  and  circumstances  gave  his  powers  opportunity 
to  act,  he  fulfilled  her  intention.  One  of  his  most  re- 
markable endowments  was  that  never-failing  spirit 
of  generous  kindness,  which  made  it  his  pleasure  to 
do  good  to  and  confer  benefits  on  all  who  came  within 
his  reach.  His  inherent  liberality  grew  by  continual 
practice,  till  it  became  almost  one  of  the  necessities 
of  his  being.  No  man,  woman  or  child  approached 
Thaddeus  Stevens,  worthy  or  unworthy,  and  asked 
for  help,  who  did  not  obtain  it  when  he  had  the 
means.  Another  quality  most  strongly  developed 
was  his  unconquerable  perseverance  and  determina- 
tion to  accomplish  anything  which  he  undertook. 
No  matter  how  often  defeated,  he  was  always  ready 
to  "tr)',  try  again;"  and  this  he  would  do  when,  to 
al!  appearance,  he  had  not  the  slightest  chance  of 

During  the  war  his  good  offices  were  often  re- 
quired to  save  men  sentenced  to  be  shot,  and  he  never 
refused  to  invoke  with  success  the  kind  feelings  of 
President  Lincoln,  who  was  only  too  happy  to  have 
some  person  to  intercede  for  the  miserable  delinquent. 
It  is  true  that  in  a  speech  in  Congress,  Stevens  justi- 
fied Juarez  for  shooting  Maximilian ;  but  it  is  very 
certain  that  had  he  been  ruler  of  ]\Iexico  the  fallen 
emperor  would  have  been  sent  home  safe  and  sound. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  had  Mr.  Stevens  been  invested 
with  the  power  of  life  and  death,  but  few  criminals 
would  have  been  executed.  A  woman's  tearful  face, 
or  the  wai!  of  a  child,  was  beyond  his  power  to  resist. 
This,  in  a  ruler,  might  have  been  a  great  weakness, 
but  in  Mr.  Stevens's  position  it  was,  doubtless,  one 
of  the  most  amiable  traits  in  his  character.  Nothing 
ever  pleased  him  better  than  to  tell  of  his  success  with 
the  President  on  occasions  like  those  above  referred 
to.  He  never  took  the  credit  of  success  to  himself, 
but  always  ascribed  it  to  the  goodness  of  "Old  Abe." 
Let  us  illustrate  what  has  been  said  by  introducing 
one  of  these  stories :  "A  young  fellow  from  Lan- 
caster county  was  to  be  shot  for  desertion.  It  was 
rather  a  hard  case,  and  his  mother,  in  great  distress, 
called  on  me  to  help  save  him.  I  took  her  at  once 
to  the  White  House  and  introduced  her  to  the  Presi- 
dent. On  the  road  I  told  her  to  tell  her  story  in  her 
own  way,  which  she  did  in  such  a  manner  as  none 
but  a  mother  could  tell  it.  I  said  nothing.  I  saw 
by  the  President's  eye  it  was  all  right.  There  was 
no  use  in  my  saying  a  word.  While  snc  rv^is  talking 
the  President  began  to  write.  It  was  but  a  couple  of 
lines,  but  it  was  effectual.  Fearing  a  scene,  I  took 
her  into  the  ante-room,  telling  her  as  we  went  along- 
her  son  was  safe.    As  soon  as  she  fully  understood 



it,  she  broke  out :  'Oh !  this  is  the  man  our  news- 
papers said  was  a  brute  and  a  devil.  Why  he  is  the 
loveliest  man  I  ever  saw  in  my  life !  He  is  an  angel ! 
He  does  the  work  of  the  Almighty,  and  stands  in  His 
place  on  earth !  I  could  worship  him  for  his  good- 
ness— my  poor  Ben  is  safe.'  There  was  a  great  deal 
of  desertion  about  that  time.  Some  hard-hearted 
devils  thought  all  should  have  been  shot,  but  then  I 
had  nothing  to  do  with  that.  It  was  Lincoln's  busi- 
ness, and  he  did  all  ttiose  things  as  he  believed  to  be 
right.  He  was  a  great  man.  In  his  place,  perhaps, 
I  would  have  done  tne  same  thing." 

Mr.  Stevens  was  about  five  feet  eleven  inches 
high ;  clear,  ruddy,  smooth  skin.  His  natural  hair 
was  chestnut,  but  he  lost  it  from  brain  fever  when 
about  thirty-five  years  old,  and  afterward  always 
wore  a  wig.  He  had  very  fine  teeth;  was  strongly 
built,  but  not  corpulent ;  his  appearance  when  his 
features  were  at  rest  was  very  dignified.  When 
young,  he  was  a  great  lover  of  athletic  sports,  and 
could  make  a  full  hand  at  an)-thing  where  swiftness 
of  foot  was  not  required.  He  was  a  splendid  Horse- 
man, and  very  fond  of  the  chase.  His  favorite  ex- 
ercise during  much  of  his  life  was  horseback  riding, 
and  he  spent  much  of  his  leisure  in  the  saddle.  He 
was  also  fond  of  attending  horseraces.  He  was  an 
excellent  swimmer,  and  often  swam  across  "Joe's 
Pond,''  as  he  called  it,  which  he  said  was  one  and 
a  half  miles  wide  and  as  cold  as  a  spring.  He  de- 
clared that  he  could  swim  the  Bosphorus  as  easily 
as  Byron  did.  He  resembled  Byron  in  another  par- 
ticular, for  he  had  a  club  foot,  but,  unlike  Byron,  he 
did  not  seek  to  conceal  his  deformity.  This  affected- 
his  walking,  and  he  assisted  himself  with  a  very 
common  hickory  cane.  He  had  a  large  mouth,  thin 
upper  lip,  prominent  aquiline  nose,  and  massive  head. 
"No  stranger,"  says  Hon.  Henry  L.  Dawes,  "would 
pass  him  on  the  street  without  turning  for  a  second 
look  at  an  unmistakably  great  character.  On  great 
occasions,  when  his  untamable  spirit  had  got  the 
mastery  of  him,  he  no  longer  looked  like  a  man,  at 
least  like  any  other  man  I  ever  saw." 

He  hated  oppression  and  injustice  in  all  its  forms. 
This  was  the  ruling  passion,  and  exhibited  itself  in 
full  force  as  he  drew  near  his  end.  In  the  principal 
cemeteries  of  Lancaster  it  was  stipulated,  by  charter, 
that  no  person  of  color  should  be  interred  within 
their  limits.  He  had  bought  lots  in  both  Woodward 
Hill  and  Lancaster  cemeteries,  but  when  he  received 
the  deeds  he  sent  them  back,  refusing  to  be  buried  in 
the  grounds  of  either.  Shreiner's  cemetery,  the 
smallest  in  the  city,  was  free  from  this  objection, 
and  there  he  was  laid  to  rest,  within  a  short  distance 
of  the  public  schools  which  his  fearlessness  and  love 
for  humanity  aided  in  establishing  in  Pennsylvania 
forever.  For  the  reason  above  stated,  he  ordered 
in  his  will  the  following  should  be  inscribed  upon 
his  tomb :  "I  repose  in  this  quiet  and  secluded  spot, 
not  from  any  natural  preference  for  solitude,  but 
finding  other  cemeteries  limited  by  charter  rules  as 
to  race,  I  have  chosen  it  that  I  might  be  enabled  to 

illustrate  in  my  death  the  principles  I  have  advocated 
through  a  long  life — equality  of  man  before  the 

In  one  of  his  essays,  in  which  he  touches  the 
drama  of  History  in  its  mightiest  actors,  Alexander 
Smith  says :  "I  sit  as  in  a  theatre — tne  stage  is 
Time,  the  play  is  the  World.  What  a  spectacle  it 
is!  I  hear  or  cry  'Bravo!'  when  the  great  actors- 
come  on,  shaking  the  stage."  Thaddeus  Stevens  is,, 
bevond  question,  one  of  these  great  actors,  upon  this 
stage  of  Time,  in  this  play  of  the  World  ;  and  life  has 
been  and  will  be  better  for  untold  millions  because 
of  the  part  he  has  played  in  the  great  drama  of  human 

There  is  no  "life"  of  Mr.  Stevens  that  is  full 
enough  to  be  satisfactorv.  It  should  be  a  great  book 
in  several  volumes.  What  a  book  it  would  be  if 
there  had  been  near  him  some  Boswell,  quietly  not- 
ing, without  his  knowledge,  wit  and  fact  and  mem- 
orable incident,  and  capable  of  carrying  on  the  story 
of  liis  work  to  the  end — the  success  which  crowned 
him  at  the  last!  Edward  McPherson,  Esq.,  one  of 
the  executors  under  his  will,  had  collected  matter 
with  the  thought  of  an  extended  biography,  but  he 
died  before  this  was  fairly  begun.  There  would  be 
no  large  sale  for  such  a  "life,"  but  it  should  stand  in 
the  great  libraries,  and  in  the  collections  of  students 
of  history  and  statesmen. 

Vermont  has  given  to  Pennsylvania  two  extra- 
ordinary men,  Thaddeus  Stevens  and  Elnathan 
Elisha  Higbee.  They  found  their  way,_providential- 
ly,  to  the  same  part  of  the  State,  where,  after  busy 
years  of  unconscious  preparation  for  service  of  which 
neither  had  any  premonition,  they  came,  one  before 
the  State,  the  other  before  both  State  and  Nation, 
to  do  their  appointed  work.  Each  spent  the  last 
years  of  his  useful  life  in  the  city  of  Lancaster.  When 
Mr.  Stevens  died,  in  i86S,  he  was  the  most  widely- 
known,  and  most  honored  man  in  Pennsylvania. 
When  Dr  Higbee  died,  in  1889,  he  was,  we  think, 
the  man  best  beloved  in  all  the  State.  Only  those 
who  knew  them,  in  themselves  and  in  their  work, 
can  estimate  the  value  of  their  lives  as  compared  with 
those  of  men  in  general.  Their  work  was  done  in 
widely  dififerent  fields,  and  in  it  mankind  has  been 
greatly  blessed. 

We  close  with  this  bit  of  humorous  verse  by 
Charles  G.  Halpine,  on  "Uncle  Thad  Stevens,"  writ- 
ten at  a  time  when  the  Old  Commoner  was  the  most 
inlluential  member  of  the  United  States  Congress. 
The  lines  were  read  and  laughed  over,  grimly  we 
suppose,  by  Mr.  otevens  himself,  and  will  be  read 
again  with  interest  bv  many  of  his  old  admirers. 
They  are  as  follows  : 

Gnarled  and  tough  from  seventy  winters, 

A  gritty,  grisly,  bitter  "Rad" — 
Though  our  Union  fall  to  splinters, 

Here's  to  Pennsylvania  Thad. 

Brown  his  wig  but  green  his  vigor, 

Angry  often,  never  sad  — 
Full  of  wit,  and  prone  to  rigor, 

Here's  to  Pennsylvania  Thad. 



Though  lame  his  leg,  his  mind  is  rapid, 
And  all  the  House  is  hushed  and  glad 

When,  to  squelch  some  talker  vapid. 
Rises  Pennsylvania  Thad. 

He's  in  candor  a  believer; 

All  may  know  the  thought  he  had; 
For  no  mealy-inouthed  deceiver 

Is  our  wrinkled  Uncle  Thad. 

Into  epithets  he  rushes; 

All  are  "traitors"  or  are  "mad" — 
All  who  dare  to  cross  the  wishes 

Of  our  Pennsylvania  Thad. 

Thad,  we  like  you;  you  are  able; 

And  the  biggest  brick  we've  had 
In  our  loud  Congressional  Babel 

Is  our  Pennsylvania  Thad. 

Spite  of  age,  he  still  is  human. 

And  while  to  man  he  is  not  bad, 
Oh,  dear!  a  good  man  to  woman — 
■  The  kindliest  man  is  Uncle  Thad. 

Go  it,  my  old  shoulder-hitter! 

Though  at  times  your  logic's  bad, 
You're  just  as  brilliant  as  you're  bitter — 

Here's  to  Pennsylvania  Thad. 

ELIAS  H.  HERSHEY  was  born  Dec.  12,  1841, 
in  Dauphin  county,  son  of  Jacob  and  Nancy  Hershey. 
His  ancestors  emigrated  from  Switzerland  between 
1719  and  1739,  settling  in  Lancaster  county,  Pa.  He 
was  married  to  Elizabeth  Miller  Frantz,  daughter 
of  Christian  and  Elizabeth,  in  the  year  1868;  their 
living  children  are  Annie,  Mary,  Christian  and  Ezra. 
Bishop  Hershey's  forefathers  in  Europe  were  Men- 
nonites,  which  faith  he  embraced  in  1862,  was  chos- 
en to  the  ministry  in  1874,  and  elected  Bishop  in  the 
Reformed  Mennonite  Church  in  1884.  In  the  fol- 
lowing lines,  from  his  pen,  he  notes  some  historical 
points,  and  delineates  leading  principles : 

The  Church  of  Christ  originated  on  the  day  of 
Pentecost,  with  the  effusion  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  'This 
■divine  endowment,  in  persons  willing  to  forsake  sin, 
works  the  change  of  temper  and  life  denominated 
the  "new  birth,"  which  is  manifested  by  being  peace- 
able, harmless,  passive  under  injuries  and  wrongs 
without  ever  resenting  aggression,  humble  and  pure 
in  life,  just  in  all  transactions,  loving  our  neighbor  as 
ourself,  united  in  faith  and  doctrine,  reproving  all 
unfaithful  worshippers  by  withdrawing  from  their 

Such  was  the  character  of  the  primitive  Church, 
according  to  history,  until  about  the  beginning  of, 
the  fourth  century,  when  worldly  rulers  united  the. 
Church  with  the  State,  and,  by  compulsion,  made 
many  of  their  subjects  Christian  formalists.  From 
that  time  we  find  a  class  of  believers  differing  from 
the  formalists  in  rejecting  infant  baptism,  and  as- 
serting baptism  on  faith,  leading  spiritual  lives  sepa- 
rated from  the  world  by  abstaining  from  a  fleshly 
walk  and  worldly  irregularities  from  vain  ambition, 
idle  amusements,  pride,  folly,  and  from  all  unfaithful 
worship,  being  strictly  non-resistant,  and  maintain- 

ing the  doctrine  that  Christians  take  no  part  in 
worldly  government.  Their  position  provoked  the 
same  persecutions  which  the  Head  of  the  Church 
and  his  early  adherents  suffered.  At  times  they  are 
unnoticed,  then  they  appear  prominently,  according 
to  the  tolerance  of  worldly  rulers.  They  are  vari- 
ously called  Poor  Men  of  Lyons,  Waldenses,  Al- 
bigenses,  Berengarians,  Petrobroscians,  Henricans, 
Leonists,  Mennonites.  Menno  Simon,  in  the  year 
1524,  became  a  priest  in  the  Roman  CathoUc  Church, 
which  priesthood,  and  the  connection  with  the 
Church,  he  renounced,  Jan.  12,  1536,  and  associated  1 
with  persons  of  dne  heart  with  him,  at  whose  solici- 
tation, and  under  the  impulse  of  love  for  souls  hun- 
gering for  the  pure  Scriptures,  he  yielded  himself 
to  preaching  and  writing  for  the  propagation  of 
sound  Gospel  doctrines.  His  labors  prospered 
against  violent  opposition.  There  are  many  branches 
diverging  from  the  origin  cited,  holding  some  of  the 
views  of  those  early  believers. 

The  Reformed  Mennonite  Church  had  its  begin- 
ning  through  a  number  of  Mennonites,  in  the  early 
part  of  the  nineteenth  century ;  being  impressed  that 
Menno  Simon  had  soundly  interpreted  the  Scrip- 
tures, they  withdrew  from  their  church  to  restore  the 
practice  of  his  teachings,  being  in  full  accord  there- 
with, and  believing  that  the  support  given  them  by 
the  shedding  of  much  innocent  blood  in  Europe,  be- 
tween the  years  1524  and  1781,  was  a  martyrdom  in 
behalf  of  doctrines  founded  on  the  Gospel. 

Doctrines.  They  believe  in  the  Godhead  of  the 
Father,  Son  and  Holy  Ghost ;  that  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  were  given  by  inspiration,  that  the  New 
supersedes  the  Old,  and  is  the  true  text-book  for  the 
Church ;  that  the  Holy  Ghost  is  the  sure  interpreter, 
without  the  necessary  aid  of  advanced  human  learn- 
ing ;  that  conversion  is  a  gift  of  God,  bestowed  upon 
all  who  by  divine  light  are  willingly  led  to  abhor  sin, 
that  they  may  turn  to  righteousness,  the  change  be- 
ing the  nature  of  God  born  in  them,  by  which  they 
lead  new  lives ;  that  the  clergy  are  to  be  exemplary 
leaders,  not  arbitrary  lords ;  that  through  the  love 
of  God  in  them  Christians  are  always  in  fellowship, 
as  was  the  iirst  State  of  the  Church ;  that  there  can 
be  only  one  visibly  Church,  separated  from  profes- 
sions maintaining  the  doctrine  of  divided  organiza- 
tions ;  that  the  Church  as  a  body  is  required  to  sepa- 
rate from  the  company  of  members  who  again  per- 
sist in  sin,  or  commit  gross  violations,  by  avoiding 
them  in  church  communion,  in  secular  dealings,  in 
eating  social  meals,  in  customary  social  intercourse, 
without  respect  of  persons,  or  regard  to  social  rela- 
tions, for  their  spiritual  reformation,  and  to  preserve 
the  purity  of  the  Church,  and  to  cause  all  to  fear  sin. 
Matt,  xviii;  i  Cor.  v;  2  Thess.  iii;  that  Chris- 
tians do  not  vote,  hold  office  in  civil  government,  sit 
in  judgment  to  pass  civil  or  criminal  sentence,  do  not 
litigate,  do  not  have  "ownership  in  chartered  corpora- 
tions, do  not  use  deadly  weapons  in  war  or  self-de- 
fense to  destroy  the  tares,  Matthew  xiii ;  do  not  in- 



dulge  in  worldly  pastimes  and  frivolous  plays,  in 
dancing  and  foolish  conversation,  Ephesians  v;  do 
not  make  vain  display  in  raiment,  but  clothe  with 
modest  apparel,  i  Timothy  ii ;  are  exemplary  in  their 
deportment  to  fill  the  high  station  assigned  them  of 
being  chosen  out  of  the  world,  and  being  the  light  of 
the  world  they  display  in  walk  and  conversation  the 
virtues  of  grace. 

Ordinances.  They  are  regarded  as  testimonies, 
not  saving  means.  Circumcision  commanded  to 
Abraham  was  a  token  of  the  covenant  God  had  made 
with  him,  and  was  typical  of  regeneration.  Rom.  ii. 
The  baptism  of  John  in  Jordan  was  a  testimony  to 
repentance,  foreshadowing  a  state  in  which  "all  flesh 
should  see  the  salvation  of  God,"  under  the  higher 
administration  of  Christ,  who  was  to  save  his  peo- 
ple from  their  sins.  It  was  an  act  of  righteousness, 
because  an  act  of  obedience,  as  all  obedience  is  right- 
eousness, though  our  works  of  obedience  do  not  save 
us,  they  are  only  a  fruit  of  having  been  saved.  It  is 
the  entire  consecration  and  submission  of  all  our  will 
power  to  the  Divine  will  that  gives  God  power  in  us 
to  save  us,  and  to  bring  us  under  His  control.  This 
power  the  Savior  promised  to  His  disciples,  to  be 
given  only  after  his  ascension  to  the  Father.  Luke 
xxiv,  49. 

The  baptism  commanded  in  the  name  of  the  Fa- 
ther, and  of  the  Son  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  expresses 
a  full  union  with  the  Godhead,  indicating  our  adop- 
tion as  full  heirs,  by  faith,  annulling  the  baptism  of 
repentance.     Acts  xix. 

Baptism  is  associated  with  faith  in  the  Scripture 
examples,  as  an  expression  of  faith,  the  saving  virtue 
being  ascribed  to  faith.  By  faith  the  malefactor  on 
I  the  cross  had  the  promise  of  Paradise  without  bap- 
tism. He  had  no  opportunity  after  he  had  repented 
and  confessed  faith,  to  be  baptized,  or  to  confirm  his 
faith  by  works;  the  promise  rested  on  his  sincere 
confession  and  appeal.  Baptism  has  not  more  virtue 
to  save  us  than  obedience  to  any  other  command- 
ment, yet,  believers,  when  they  have  opportunity,  will 
observe  baptism  and  every  other  commandment,  as 
a  fruit  of  faith,  for  by  works  faith  is  made  perfect. 
James  ii. 

Not  having  merit  to  save,  we  understand  why 
baptism  is  treated  indifferently  as  to  form.  "The  true 
worshippers  worship  the  Father  in  spirit  and  in 
truth,"  not  seeking  merit  in  forms,  regarding  the 
outward  ordinances  as  symbolizing  inward  condi- 
tions, understanding  that  no  particularity  in  forms  is 
urged  in  Gospel  teaching,  lest  we  might  become  re- 
ligious formalists,  instead  of  spiritual  worshippers. 
Spiritual  worship  involves  the  whole  life  given  in 
service  to  God. 

The  breaking  of  the  bread  and  the  drinking  of 
the  cup  is  commanded  as  a  commemorative  ordi- 
nance bringing  to  mind  the  sacrificial  offering  on 
the  cross,  impressing  solemn  obligation  to  divine 
love,  inspiring  the  heirs  of  redemption  with  a  will- 

ing obedience  to  all  Gospel  teachings,  leading  us 
near  to  God  in  contemplating  his  mercy  to  a  fallen 
world.  The  manner,  time  and  frequency  of  observ- 
ing it  being  not  particularized  is  likely  to  direct  more 
attention  to  its  spirituality. 

The  washing  of  feet  is  indicative  of  the  divine 
cleansing,  and  of  the  mutual  aid  members  of  the 
Church  extend  to  one  another  by  blameless  example, 
kind  admonition,  brotherly  reproof,  and  every  serv- 
ice of  humility  and  love.  It  portrays  the  fellowship 
and  unity  in  the  household  of  faith,  confirmatory  of 
the  doctrine  of  oneness  prominent  in  the  Gospel  mes- 
sage, leading  in  its  observance  to  contemplation. 

The  kiss  of  charity  is  understood  to  be  a  social 
salutation  in  acknowledgment  of  the  fervent  love 
believers  bear  to  one  another,  and  is  practiced  when 
they  meet,  by  each  sex  separately  to  denote  peace. 

Principles.  While  they  strive  diligently  to 
conform,  in  their  outward  life,  to  all  New  Testament 
teachings,  they  seek  no  salvation  in  anything  out- 
ward, believing  the  unction  of  the  Spirit  will  prompt 
all  outward  actions,  as  an  indwelling  presence. 

They  recognize  God  in  things  temporal  as  well  as 
in  things  spiritual,  that  God  in  the  Old  Testament 
age  prescribed  worldly  government,  and  used  world- 
ly rulers  as  his  agents  to  accomplish  his  purposes. 
It  was  said  unto  Pharoah  that  God  raised  him  up  to 
show  his  power  in  him,  though  he  destroyed  him. 
God  established  civil  statutes  by  Moses,  which  he 
refutes  by  Christ,  in  saying,  "Ye  have  heard  that  it 
hath  been  said.  An  eye  for  an  eye,  and  a  tooth  for  a 
tooth.  But  I  say  unto  you,  That  ye  resist  not  evil." 
Matthew  v.  The  fact  that  Paul  says,  "the  pow- 
ers that  be  are  ordained  of  God,"  as  applying  to 
worldly  government,  signifies  that  they  are  compre- 
hended in  his  infinite  plan.  Every  good  tendency  in 
mankind  emanates  from  God,  and  works  human 
amelioration  and  beneficent  ends.  It  is  an  active 
principle  in  worldly  affairs,  formulating  government 
for  the  good  of  mankind.  Governments  are  good  or 
bad  in  proportion  as  this  influence  prevails. 

They  regard  regeneration  as  the  higher  and  full- 
er influence  of  the  spirit  of  God  wrought  by  Christ's 
coming  formulating  the  kingdom  or  conditions  in 
which  the  mind  and  spirit  of  Christ  hold  sway,  evinc- 
ing its  practical  effects  in  the  visible  Church  by 
"transforming  every  faithful  member  to  the  image  of 
God's  Son."  To  be  loyal  to  their  Head,  the  believ- 
ers in  Christ  cannot  take  part  in  the  kingdom  "out  of 
which  he  has  chosen  them,"  nor  obey  worldly  rulers, 
in  demands  conflicting  with  "the  law  of  the  spirit  of 
life  in  Christ  Jesus."  They  will  rather  suffer  "as 
lambs  to  the  slaughter."  To  give  tribute,  honor  and 
fear  is  commanded,  yet  the  authors  of  this  teaching 
proved  by  their  example  that  they  meant  as  far  as 
the  Divine  law  allows,  for  they  continued  preaching 
against  the  prohibition  of  the  authorities,  and  suffer- 
ing for  it. 

Understanding  the  Scriptures  to  teach  a  respon- 



sibility  resting  on  every  member  of  the  Church  to  re- 
prove sin  known  to  them,  they  cannot  commune  with 
disorderly  members,  but  must  as  a  spiritual  duty  la- 
bor for  their  reformation,  and  see  "that  the  wicked 
are  put  away"  from  the  Church,  when  amendment 
-does  not  follow. 

Separation  from  discordant  worshippers,  they  be- 
lieve, is  based  on  the  principle  that  fundamentally 
mankind  are  created  to  be  in  social  accord ;  that  the 
disturbance  of  this  law  through  sin  is  overcome  by 
the  Redeemer  who  came  to  destroy  the  works  of  the 
Devil  to  restore  the  love  of  God  through  the  Holy 
Ghost,  giving  ascendancy  to  the  fundamental  life  in 
us,  that  "love  may  knit  together  our  hearts."  This 
principle  pervades  the  teaching  of  our  Savior  and 
the  Apostles,  in  their  earnest  advocacy  of  oneness, 
and  in  their  condemnation  of  disunity.  Agreeing 
with  their  doctrine,  we  must  reprove  divisions,  ana 
Jive  in  unity  as  taught  by  our  Savior,  "by  this  shall 
all  men  know  that  ye  are  my  disciples,  if  ye  have  love 
one  to  another."  The  observances  taught  the  church 
demand  unity  of  action. 

They  believe,  therefore,  in  one  United  Christian 
Church,  in  fulfillment  of  Scripture  injunctions  and 
types.  The  idea  of  outward  ordinances  suggests 
agreement,  the  appeal  "to  the  church"  in  disposi- 
tion, forbids  division,  Matthew  xviii ;  "  by  this  shall 
all  men  know  that  ye  are  my  disciples,  if  ye  have  love 
one  to  another"  teaches  the  unbroken  tie  to  all  ob- 
servers, John  xiii;  the  prayer,  "that  they  may  be 
made  perfect  in  one ;  and  that  the  world  may  know 
that  thou  hast  sent  me,"  is  significant  of  vmity,  John 
xvii;  the  condemnation  of  divisions  points  to  the 
same  truth  flowing  from  divine  love.  Christ  uses  the 
natural  vine  as  a  type  of  Christian  system  and  unity 
bearing  uniformity  of  fruit,  demonstrating  that 
when  one  branch  ceases  to  receive  the  life  of  the  vine, 
it  is  like  a  soul  ceasing  to  abide  in  Christ,  the  spirit- 
ual character  withering  and  the  carnal  life  springing 
into  fruitfulness,  dooming  the  soul  to  death,  which 
is  "the  wages  of  sin,"  John  xv.  The  temple  built 
by  Solomon  at  Jerusalem  is  used  as  a  type  of  the 
Church,  "ye  also,  as  lively  stones  are  built  up  a  spir- 
itual house,"  I  Peter  ii.  The  natural  body  is  used  as 
an  illustration.  For  as  the  body  is  one  and  hath 
many  members  and  all  the  members  of  that  one  body, 
being  many,  are  one  body ;  so  is  Christ.  One  mem- 
ber does  not  say  to  another,  I  have  no  need  of  thee. 
God  hath  tempered  the  body  together,  having  given 
more  abundant  honor  to  that  part  which  lacked. 
That  there  should  be  no  schism  in  the  body ;  but  that 
the  members  should  have  the  same  care  one  for  an- 
other. But  speaking  the  truth  in  love  may  grow  up 
into  him  in  all  things  which  is  the  Head,  even  Christ. 
From  whom  the  whole  body  fitly  joined  together  and 
■compacted  by  that  which  every  joint  supplieth,  ac- 
cording to  the  effectual  working  in  the  measure  of 
•every  part,  maketh  increase  of  the  body  unto  the  edi- 
fying of  itself  in   love,      i    Corinthian  xii ;   Ephe- 

sians  iv.  The  figures  here  drawn  accord  with  Gos- 
pel teaching  throughout,  being  confirmatory  of  the 
effect  of  God's  love  working  harmony  among  the 
redeemed,  displaying  the  impulse  of  the  Creative 
Mind  transforming  the  passive  creature  into  the 
"likeness  of  God"  who  is  blessed  forever.    Amen. 

A.  J.  STEINMAN,  Esq.,  member  of  the  Lan- 
caster Bar  and  prominent  in  his  ownership  and  con- 
trol of  the  Penn  Iron  Works,  as  well  as  in  the  news- 
paper world,  being  senior  publisher  and  editor  of  the 
Intelligencer,  comes  from  one  of  the  oldest  and  most 
honored  families  in  the  State. 

Christian  Frederick  Steinman  (1.711-1760),  a  na- 
tive of  Dresden,  Saxony,  married  Anna  Regina  Ro- 
sin (1717-1783).  Their  eldest  son,  George  Michael, 
born  at  Erfurt,  in  1738,  sailed  with  Moravian  Col- 
onists from  Zist  for  St.  Petersburg  in  1767,  and  the 
next  year  was  one  of  the  zealous  band  who  founded 
Sarepta,  in  Astrakhan,  where  he  settled  and  married 
in  1793.  The  parents  embarked  for  Pennsylvania  as 
a'  fruitful  field  for  missionary  labor,  and  settled  at 
Bethlehem,  where  another  son,  John  Frederick 
(1752-1823),  was  born. 

The  Moravian  Church  records  at  Lititz,  Lancas- 
ter Co.,  Pa.,  report  that  Christian  Frederick  Stein- 
man arrived  with  his  family  at  that  new  ecclesiastical 
establishment  in  November,  1756,  and  that  he  had 
been  appointed  to  oversee  and  take  care  of  the  work- 
men who  were  to  build  the  saw  and  grist  mill  near 
the  town,  on  the  stream  issuing  from  the  great  Lititz 
Spring.  After  a  large  part  of  this  work  was  done, 
the  Church  authorities  changed  the  site  of  the  mill 
to  a  spot  quite  a  mile  below  the  village,  whither 
"Brother  and  Sister  Steinman  removed  in  April, 
1757,  taking  up  their  abode  in  a  house  bought  by  the 
brethren."  They  returned  to  Bethlehem  in  1758,  but 
in  October  of  the  next  year  returned  to  Lititz  as  per- 
manent residents,  where  he  died,  being  the  first  mar- 
ried man  who  had  died  in  the  new  settlement,  and 
the  fifth  person  buried  in  the  Moravian  cemtery,  his 
grave  being  numbered  "5,"  and  the  seventh  from  the 
main  entrance  walk  in  the  second  row  from  the 
south  end  of  the  grave-yard,  in  its  southwestern  corr 
ner.  His  widow  removed  with  her  son,  John  Fred- 
erick, to  Lancaster,  there  married  John  Christopher 
Heyne,  and  died  without  children  born  of  her  sec- 
ond marriage. 

John  Christopher  Heyne  established  a  tin  and 
copper-ware  business  in  Lancaster  in  1764,  on  the 
present  site  of  the  Steinman  Co.'s  hardware  store,. 
which  John  Frederick  Steinman  continued  to  carry 
on  after  the  death  of  John  Christopher  Heyne,  in 
1 78 1 — a  business  which  in  his  hands  and  in  those 
of  his  descendants,  has  expanded  into  one  of  the 
larsrest  and  most  opulent  hardware  houses  in  the 
country.  John  Frederick  Steinman  was  burgess  of 
Lancaster  in  1800,  and  elected  chief  burgess  in  1801. 
He  married,  in   1777,   Sybilla  Margaretha  Mayer 



<|  1753-1831),  eldest  daughter  of  George  Ludwig  and 
Maria    Barbara    (Diemer)    Mayer,    of    Lancaster. 
<jeorge  Ludwig  Mayer    (1727- 1793),  a  native  of 
Ulm,  came  to  America  in  1752;  his  wife,  a  native  of 
the  same  place,  died  in  Lancaster  in  1777,  and  was 
buried  in  Trinity  churchyard,  her  husband  being 
buried  there,  and  noted  on  the  church  records  as  an 
■old  member  thereof.    The  children  of  this  union  are : 
George  Michael  Steinman  (1779-1799),  who  went 
to  Cape  Francois,  San  Domingo,  with  his  uncles, 
Jacob  and  John  Mayer,  the  former  United  States 
consul  there,  and  with  the  latter  largely  associated  in 
commercial   enterprises,   and  there   died  of  yellow 
fever;  Anna  Maria    (1780-1844),  wife  of  George 
Bryan,  clerk  of  the  State  Senate  and  auditor  general ; 
^Rebecca  Regina  (1782- 1845),  who  married  Daniel 
Dinkle,  and  died  at  Carlisle,  Pa. ;  Susanna  Julianna 
(1785-1817),  wife  of  Joseph  Cottrell,  a  hardware 
inerchant  of  Columbia  and  Lancaster ;  Sybilla  Ame- 
lia  (1786-1839),  wife  of  John  Christian  Ernst,  a 
farmer  and  merchant,  of  Easton,  Pa. ;  John  Fred- 
«rick,  born  at  Lancaster,  Pa.,  Dec.  19,  1789,  who  died 
Oct.  5,  1884;  and  Eva  Henrietta  Steinman  (1791- 
1842),  wife  of  Richard  Treat  Leech,  a  farmer  and 
merchant,  of  Pittsburg. 

Of  these,  the  only  son,  John  Frederick  Steinman, 
succeeded,  on  attaining  his  majority,  to  his  father's 
mercantile  business  in  Lancaster  City,  which  he  de- 
veloped into  large  proportions,  and  conducted  with 
^reat  success  until  his  retirement  from  the  business, 
in  1849,  when  he  transferred  it  to  his  eldest  son, 
■George  M.  Steinman,  who  had  been  his  partner  since 
1836.  He  was  a  non-commissioned  officer  of  a  vol- 
unteer company  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  marched  to 
Elkton.  He  was  first  president  of  the  Conestoga 
Steam  Cotton-Mill  Co.,  organized  by  citizens  of  Lan- 
caster; active  in  the  City  Councils  for  many  years, 
and  a  member  of  the  first  Select  Council  of  the  city ; 
-chief  organizer  of  the  school  system  of  the  city,  and 
a  director  of  the  school  board  for  a  number  of  years, 
•over  which  he  was  the  first  to  preside ;  took  an  ac- 
tive part  in  building  the  first  reservoir,  a:nd  while 
he  took  a  deep  interest  in  the  prosperity  of  his  own, 
the  Moravian  Church,  he  was  liberal  in  his  opinions 
•of  other  religious  demonstrations.  His  public  spirit 
led  him  to  assist  in  all  worthy  local  enterprises.  His 
first  wife,  Maria  Gill,  of  Lancaster,  whom  he  mar- 
ried Sept.  5,  181 1,  died  Nov.  25,  18 18,  having  borne 
Tiim  one  son  and  three  daughters,  Henrietta  Dickert, 
born  March  i,  1813,  became  the  wife  of  George 
H.  Bomberger,  of  Lancaster ;  George  Michael,  born 
July  II,  1815;  Margaretta  Rosina,  born  1817,  and 
died  the  same  year;  and  Mary  Gill  Steinman,  born 
Oct.  14,  1818,  wife  of  Elam  D.  Hurst,  of  Lancas- 
ter. By  his  second  marriage  in  1824,  to  Mary  Smith 
(1794-1851),  daughter  of  Charles  Fahnestock,  of 
Warren,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  he  had  the  following  chil- 
dren :  Susan  Smith,  Margaretta  Sybilla,  Charles 
Fahnestock,  Rebecca   (wife  of  Jonathan  M.  Foltz, 

Surgeon  General  United  States  Navy),  John  Freder- 
ick, Amelia  and  Andrew  Jackson. 

Andrew  Jackson  Steinman,  Esq.,  who  is  now 
senior  editor  and  publisher  of  the  Intelligencer,  the 
oldest  newspaper  now  published  in  Lancaster  (hav- 
ing passed  its  io8th  birthday  on  March  9,  1902), 
has  been  associate  or  chief  editor  of  that  stanch  Dem- 
ocratic journal  since  1868.  He  was  born  in  the  city 
of  Lancaster,  Oct.  -lo,  1836,  and  graduated  from 
Yale  in  1856,  and  was  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1859. 
He  graduated  in  the  same  class  with  Chauncey  M. 
Depew,  Justices  Brewer  and  Brown  of  the  United 
States  Supreme  Court,  Chief  Justice  Magrader,  of 
the  Illinois  Supreme  Court,  General  Swayne,  and 
others  of  scarcely  less  note,  and  his  meeting  with 
all  these  distinguished  men  in  the  Autumn  of  1901, 
at  the  re-union  of  their  Class  during  the  bi-centen- 
nial  anniversary  of  Yale  College,  was  quite  a  mem- 
orable event  to  him.  The  November-December 
( 1901 )  double  issue  of  The  Rostrum,  under  the  cap- 
tion, "Local  Men  of  National  Fame,"  has  this  to 
say  of  Mr.  Steinman:  "He  drifted  into  the  Intelli- 
gencer rather  unexpected  to  himself  in  1868,  be- 
cause there  was  some  change  then  about  to  take 
place  in  its  management,  and  he  being  chairman 
of  the  Democratic  County  Committee  at  the  time, 
and  his  party  feeling  the  importance  of  maintaining 
a  daily  organ,  practically  requested  him  to  take 
charge  of  the  ship.  He  accordingly  did  take  charge, 
and  that  he  has  successfully  piloted  it  through 
all  the  storms  which  battered  it  in  an  overwhelm- 
ingly Republican  county  is  evidenced  by  its  large 
circulation,  newsy  columns  and  general  flour- 
ishing condition.  Mr.  Steinman  is  a  Democrat  of 
Democrats,  his  paper  always  being  'regular'  in  every 
emergency  from  presidential  candidate  down  to 
ward  constable,  swallowing  both  Greeley  in  1872 
and  Bryan  in  1896;  though  the  natural  independ- 
ence of  his  mind  is  always  compelling  him  to  give 
reasons  rather  original  and  slightly  different  from 
those  ordinarily  given  by  politicians  for  sticking  to 
their  party.  In  his  strictures  upon  local  events 
he  is  biting  and  sarcastic,  cutting  and  slashing  in 
all  directions  without  the  slightest  regard  as  to 
where  the  chips  fly,  and  in  this  connection,  we 
must  allude  to  an  experience  he  had  in  1880,  while 
the  Hon.  W.  U.  Hensel  was  connected  with  him  in 
publishing  the  Intelligencer,  which  has  happened 
possibly  to  no  other  journalist  in  this  country:  we 
allude  to  what  is  still  remembered  distinctly  as  the 
famous  attempt  to  disbar  both  gentlemen  (as  they 
were  both  members  of  the  Bar)  for  the  publishing 
of  an  editorial  which  reflected  upon  the  integrity 
of  the  Court.  The  paragraph  at  which  the  Court 
took  umbrage  was  on  the  disposition,  by  the  Court, 
of  an  alleged  violation  of  the  election  laws  by  a 
Republican,  and  was  as  follows  :  'Logically,  the  last 
acquittal  like  the  first  was  secured  by  a  prostitution 
of  the  machinery  of  justice  to  serve  the  exigencies 



of  the  Republican  party.  But  as  all  the  parties  im- 
plicated, as  well  as  the  Judges,  belong  to  that  party, 
the  Court  is  unanimous — for  once — that  it  need  take 
no  cognizance  of  the  imposition  practiced  upon  it 
and  the  disgrace  attaching  to  it.'  The  late  Judge 
Patterson,  who  was  the  trial  judge,  summoned 
both  Messrs.  Steinman  and  Hensel  before  him 
and  asked  them  both,  separately,  if  they  were 
the  author  of  the  article,  and'  both  gentlemen 
acknowledged  responsibility  for  it  in  their  editorial 
capacity,  whereupon  the  Judge  ordered  rules  to  be 
served  upon  them  to  answer  for  contempt  of  court, 
and  to  show  cause  why  they  should  not  be  dis- 
barred and  their  names  stricken  from  the  list  of 
attorneys.  The  case  immediately  attracted  wide- 
spread attention  in  this  country,  and  was  even 
noticed  in  England,  The  case  was  argued  before 
the  Court,  Rufus  E.  Shipley,  of  Philadelphia,  rep- 
resenting the  respondents  and  Samuel  H.  Reynolds, 
the  rule.  The  opinion  was  delivered  on  the  next 
regular  opinion  day,  both  Judges  concurring  that 
the  rule  for  contempt  should  be  discharged,  and 
that  the  rule  for  disbarment  should  be  made  absolute. 
The  case  was  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court,  where 
Mr.  Shipley  was  reinforced  by  Colonel  A.  K.  Mc- 
Clure  and  Francis  E.  Gowen,  and  Mr.  Reynolds 
by  John  B.  McPherson  and  Henry  W.  Palmer.  The 
case  was  most  exhaustively  argued  on  both  sides. 
The  opinion  of  the  Court  was  finally  delivered  by 
Chief  Justice  Sharswood,  in  which  the  rule  was 
discharged,  holding,  in  substance,  that  the  conduct 
of  a  Judge  was  as  proper  a  subject  for  criticism  by 
the  press  as  the  conduct  of  any  other  public  official, 
and  the  fact  that  the  comments  were  made  by  prac- 
ticing attorneys  in  the  Court  in  their  editorial  ca- 
pacity, in  no  wise  altered  the  case,  closing  his  opin- 
ion in  the  following  language:  'To  say  that  an  at- 
torney can  only  act  or  speak  on  this  subject  under  lia- 
bility to  be  called  to  an  account,  and  to  be  deprived 
of  his  profession  and  livelihood  by  the  very  Judge 
or  Judges  whom  he  may  consider,  it  his  duty  to 
attack  and  expose,  is  a  proposition  too  monstrous 
to  be  entertained  for  a  moment  under  our  present 
system.'  Thus  were  Messrs.  Steinman  and  Hensel 
gloriously  sustained  and  an  important  question  for- 
ever settled  before  the  Court  of  last  resort  in  Penn- 
sylvania. In  addition  to  lawyer  and  editor,  Mr. 
Steinman  is  one  of  the  leading  business  men  of  the 
city.  He  became  interested  in  the  Penn  Iron  Works 
in  1879.  They  employ  hundreds  of  men,  and  pay 
more  money  annually  for  labor  at  their  office  than 
is  paid  at  any  other  place  in  the  city.  Mr.  Stein- 
man has  never  held  office  and  has  never  been  a 
candidate  for  any,  holding  to  the  idea  that  an  editor 
can  wield  a  more  independent  pen  out  of  office  than 
in  it." 

Mr.  Steinman  married  Miss  Caroline  Morgan 
Hale,  of  Reading,  Pa.,  niece  of  the  Hon.  Gideon 
Welles,  who  was  the  distinguished  Secretary  of  the 

Navy  under  Lincoln.  Four  children  were  born  o£ 
this  union:  Miss  Elizabeth,  attending  the  noted, 
school  at  Farmingto'n,  Conn. ;  Jack  and  Hale,  both 
of  whom  attend  the  Yeates  School;  and  Caroline, 
Mr.  Steinman  takes  a  prominent  part  in  the 
Cliosophic  Society,  composed  of  Lancaster's  leading 
literary  men  and  women,  and  he  is  as  ready  in 
debate  as  he  is  at  wielding  the  pen.  So  trenchant  is 
the  latter,  that  tlie  editorials  of  the  Intelligencer 
attract  attention  wherever  independence  of  thought 
and  grace  of  diction  are  appreciated;  and,  whether 
as  a  lawyer,  journalist,  literary  authority  or  business 
man,  you  will  always  find  him  in  the  front  rank. 

THE  GRUBB  FAMILY  was  first  represented 
in  America  by  John  Grubb.  There  is  still  in  exist- 
ence a  letter  written  to  his  uncle  by  King  Charles  I, 
in  November,  1642,  with  the  Royal  signature  and 
the  Royal  seal  appended,  asking  the  loan  of  £200  in 
money  or  plate,  "to  aid  the  King  in  defending  the 
realm  and  the  church  against  his  enemies."  This 
letter  was  addressed  to  "our  truly  and  well  beloved 
John  Grubb,  Esq."  Lord  John  Grubb's  family  are 
interred  in  the  old  manor  churchyard  on  his  estate 
in  England,  and  on  it  were  many  memorial  tablets 
bearing  epitaphs  in  Latin  and  having  the  family 
arms  and  crests.  This  family  is  descended  from 
people  who  distinguished  themselves  as  early  as  the 
tenth  century. 

John  Grubb,  the  first  of  the  family  on  these 
shores,  was  a  son  of  John  and  Helen  Grubb.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-five  years  he  came  to  America  to 
mend  his  fortunes,  which  had  been  much  impaired 
by  the  support  he  gave  to  the  Royal  cause.  Sailing 
from  London  in  the  ship  "Kent,"  in  1677,  he  arrived 
at  Burlington,  West  Jersey,  after  a  lengthy  voyage, 
and  received  340  acres  of  land  on  Chester  creek.  As 
early  as  1682  Grubb'.s  landing.  Brandy  wine  Hun- 
dred, Del,  was  known  to  fame,  and  here  Emanuel 
Grubb,  the  eldest  son  of  John,  was  born  July  19,. 
1682.  John  Grubb  became  the  possessor  of  a  tract 
of  land  600  acres  in  extent,  was  made  one  of  the 
Colonial  justices  in  1693,  and  was  twice  elected  tc^ 
the  Colonial  Assembly.  The  historian  says  of  him,. 
"He  came  from  that  stock  of  men  second  to  none  on 
the  face  of  the  earth — the  English  country  gentle- 
men." At  Grubb's  Landing  he  erected  a  tannery,, 
and  was  the  first  manufacturer  of  leather  in  Penn's 
province.  -In  1703  he  left  Grubb's  Landing  and  lo- 
cated in  Marcus  Hook,  Pa.,  where  he  presently  in- 
vested heavily  in  land.  He  died  there  in  March, 
1708.  He  was  an  extensive  land  owner  in  both 
Pennsylvania  and  Delaware.  Like  his  ancestors,  he 
was  a  devout  supporter  of  the  Established  Church 
of  England.  Frances  Vane,  his  wife,  belonged  to  an 
old  English  family,  and  they  had  a  family  of  nine 
children:  Emanuel,  John,  Joseph,  Henry,  Samuel, 
Nathaniel,  Peter,  Charity  and  Phoebe.    Of  these, 

Peter  Grubb  was  the  ancestor  of  the  family  of 
Clement  B.  Grubb,  of  Lancaster.     His  special  dis-- 






tinction  is  his  discovery  of  the  vast  beds  of  iron  ore 
at  Cornwall,  Lebanon  county,  and  his  standing  as  a 
pioneer  in  Pennsylvania  manufacturing  interests. 
In  1734  he  became  the  proprietor  of  the  celebrated 
Cornwall  ore  hills,  of  almost  pure  magnetic  ore.  On 
this  property  he  built  the  Hopewell  Forge  and  the 
Cornwall  Furnace,  naming  the  latter  after  the  En- 
glish mining  county  where  his  father  was  born.  In 
this  furnace,  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  he  cast 
cannon  ammunitions  for  Washington,  and,  as  a 
loyal  adherent  to  the  cause,  accepted  no  remunera- 
tion. The  Cornwall  furnace,  which  is  the  oldest  in 
the  country,  is  still  in  operation.  It  was  noted  by 
Aurelius,  in  his  history,  as  early  as  1756.  Peter 
Grubb  became  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends 
in  1732.  He  first  married  Martha,  widow  of  James 
Wall,  and  daughter  of  Jeremiah  and  Mary  Bates, 
of  Gloucester,  N.  J.  She  died  in  1740,  and  late  the 
following  year  he  married  Hannah,  widow  of 
Thomas  Marshall,  and  daughter  of  Benjamin  and 
Ann  Marshall.  His  second  wife  died  in  1770.  The 
children  of  Peter  Grubb  were  Curtis  and  Peter  (2). 

Peter  Grubb  (2)  was  born  in  Cornwall  and  died 
in  1786  at  Hopewell  Forge,  now  called  Speedwell. 
Under  the  old  English  law  of  entailment  two-thirds 
of  the  property  of  Peter  Grubb  ( i )  went  to  his  son 
Curtis,  the  other  son,  Peter,  receiving  one-third. 
Disagreements  between  the  brothers  followed,  and 
Peter  bought  Mount  Hope,  where,  in  1784,  he 
erected  a  furnace,  which  is  still  in  existence,  though 
unused  for  years.  In  1771  Peter  Grubb  (2)  was 
married  to  Mary  Shippen  Burd,  a  daughter  of  James 
and  Sarah  (Shippen)  Burd,  sister-in-law  of  Judge 
Jasper  Yeates,  of  Lancaster,  granddaughter  of 
Judge  Shippen,  and  niece  of  Peggy  Shippen,  who 
was  the  wife  of  Benedict  Arnold.  She  died  at 
Hopewell  Forge  Feb.  23,  1776.  Their  children 
were:  Alan  Burd  Grubb,  born  at  Hopewell  Forge 
.  Feb.  6,  1772 ;  and  Henry  Bates  Grubb,  born  at 
Hopewell  Forge  Feb.  6,  1774.  Peter  Grubb  (2) 
served  as  colonel  in  the  8th  Battalion  during  the 
Revolutionary  war. 

Henry  Bates  Grubb  was  married  at  Pine  Grove, 
Pa.,  June  18,  1805,  to  Ann  Carson,  daughter  of  John 
Carson,  of  Dauphin  county.  She  died  in  October, 
1806,  leaving  one  child,  Henry  Carson, .  who  was 
bom  in  1806,  and  died  in  1873.  On  Dec.  i,  1808, 
Henry  Bates  Grubb  was  married  to  Harriet  Amelia 
Buckley,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Sarah  (Brooke) 
Buckley,  the  former  of  whom  owned  the  "Compe- 
tence farm"  and  Brooke  Forge,  in  Pequea.  Children 
as  follows  came  to  this  union:  (i)  Edward  Burd 
Grubb,  born  Dec.  17,  1810,  died  at  Burlington,  N.  J. 
He  married  Euphemia  Parker,  of  Carlisle,  and  they 
had  four  children — Gen.  E.  Burd  Grubb,  minister  to 
Spain  under  President  Harrison;  Henry  Grubb; 
Charles  Ross  Grubb;  and  Euphemia,  who  is  now 
Madame  de  M.  de  Cerkez,  of  Paris,  France.  (2) 
Clement  B.  Grubb  is  mentioned  below.  (3)  Mary 
Shippen  Grubb  was  married  Sept.  2,  1845,  to  George 

Wellington  Parker,  and  her  daughter  Mary  mar- 
ried Hon.  William  Welsh,  who  was  consul  to  Flor- 
ence under  President  Grant;  his  father,  Hon.  John 
Welsh,  was  minister  to  England.  (4)  Sarah  Eliza- 
beth Grubb,  born  Nov.  19,  1818,  died  Nov.  27,  1884. 
She  was  married  Feb.  16,  1846,  to  John  G.  Ogelvie,. 
and  their  daughter,  Elizabeth,  married  Dr.  Herbert 
Norris,  of  Philadelphia.  (5)  Alfred  Bates  Grubb 
was  born  Jan.  6,  1821,  and  died  Feb.  2,  1885,  He 
was  married  'March  25,  1856,  to  Ellen  Farnum, 
daughter  of  Henry  Farnum,  of  Philadelphia,  and  to 
this  union  were  bom  Alfred  Bates  Grubb  (2),  who 
is  a  director  of  the  Manheim  National  Bank ;  Ellen ; 
Ann  Newbold,  .wife  of  George  J.  Chetwood ;  Mary 
Elizabeth;  and  Rosalie,  wife  of  Charles  Grosholtz, 
of  Philadelphia.  Henry  Bates  Grubb,  the  father, 
died  at  Mount  Hope  March  9,  1823. 

Clement  B.  Grubb,  second  son  of  Henry  Bates, 
was  bom  at  Mount  Hope  Feb.  9,  1815,  and  died  at 
his  Lancaster  residence  Oct.  31,  1899.  He  was 
but  eight  years  of  age  when  his  father  died,  at  which 
time  he  was  placed  under  the  tutelage  of  Dr.  William 
Augustus  Muhlenburg,  who  later  founded  St.  Luke's 
Hospital,  New  York  City.  Mr.  Grubb's  literary 
training  was  completed  at  Franklin  Institute,  Phila- 
delphia, and  he  was  but  seventeen  years  of  age  when 
he  took  up  the  threads  of  his  father's  business,  run- 
ning the  Mount  Hope,  Mount  Vernon,  Manada  and 
Cadorus  charcoal  furnaces,  besides  two  others — an 
anthracite  furnace,  St.  Charles,  in  Columbia,  which 
he  built,  and  the  Henry  Clay  furnace,  at  or  near  Co- 
lumbia, which  he  bought  and  rebuilt.'  Mr.  Grubb 
was  sole  owner  of  the  Chestnut  Hill  ore  bank,  and 
one  of  the  owners  of  the  Cornwall  ore  bank,  and  for 
twenty  years  was  president  of  the  First  National 
Bank  of  Lancaster.  He  was  a  very  active  business 
man  throughout  his  long  life,  giving  employment  to 
thousands  of  men,  and  he  had  the  rare  faculty  of 
being  in  perfect  sympathy  with  all  his  employes,  by 
whom  he  was  admired  and  beloved  to  a  degree  en- 
joyed by  few.  His  justness  and  liberality  to  those 
in  his  employ  were  among  the  most  marked  charac- 
teristics of  his  remarkable  business  career,  and  many 
there  were  who  attributed  their  start  in  life  and  their 
subsequent  success  to  his  advice  and  assistance.  He 
never  lost  an  opportunity  to  do  a  favor  for  his  men, 
but  his  benefactions,  though  numerous,  were  always 
unostentatious,  like  the  man  himself.  His  manners 
and  habits  were  proverbially  quiet,  and  he  was  the 
soul  of  kindness,  and  his  disposition  displayed  itself 
in  his  intercourse  with  all  his  fellow  men,  whether  in 
business  or  in  social  life.  His  gentleness  was  not 
the  result  only  of  good  nature  and  training,  but  of 
the  happy  combination  of  these  with  a  strong  char- 
acter, well  controlled  and  perfectly  balanced.  In  spite 
of  the  many  demands  upon  his  time  and  attention  he 
was  never  too  busy  to  be  obliging,  and  as  a  friend 
he  was  true  to  every  obligation  imposed  by  that 
sacred  relationship.  He  was  baptized  into  the  Epis- 
copal Church  by  Bishop  White,  the  first  American 



bishop  in  Pennsylvania.  Mr.  Grubb  was  liberal  in 
his  support  of  church  work  and  religious  enterprises, 
and  he  served  as  a  vestryman  of  St.  James  Church, 
Lancaster.  In  political  sentiment  he  was  a  stanch 
Republican,  and  he  was  one  of  the  first  members  of 
the  Union  League  Club  of  Philadelphia.  However, 
he  was  no  office  seeker,  the  attractions  of  domestic 
life  appealing  more  strongly  to  him,  and  though  he 
thoroughly  enjoyed  social  life  and  the  company  of 
his  numerous  friends,  he  was  happiest  in  the  home 
circle.  His  death,  which  occurred  Oct.  31,  1899, 
was  widely  and  sincerely  mourned. 

Clement  B.  Grubb  was  married,  Feb.  27,  1841, 
to  Mary  Brooke,  daughter  of  Charle.s  Brooke,  a  dis- 
tinguished ironmaster,  and  they  became  the  parents 
of  the  following  named  children:     (i)  Harriet  B. 
Grubb  is  the  widow  of  Stephen  B.  Irwin,  of  Phila- 
delphia.   She  has  one  son,  John  Hiester  Irwin.    (2) 
Charles  Brooke  Grubb,  born  Oct.  6,  1844,  in  Lan- 
caster, received  a  fine  education,  graduating  from 
Princeton  College.     He  has  never  married,  and  at 
present  resides  in  the  old  family  mansion  in  Lime 
street.  Lancaster.    He  was  a  partner  of  his  father  in 
the  iron  business,  succeeding  on  the  latter's  death  to 
the  different  furnaces  and  his  father's  interests  in 
the  Cornwall  ore  bank  and  the  Conestoga  ore  bank^ 
in  the  management  of  all  of  which  he  proved  himself 
a  competent  business  man  and  won  high  standing  in 
commercial  circles.     At  one  time  he  was  a  vestry- 
man of  St.  James  Church,  and  socially  he  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Masonic  fraternity.    His  political  support 
has  been  given  to  the  Republicans.    (3)  Mary  Lilly 
Srooke  Grubb  is  the  wife  of  Joseph  Bond  Beall,  of 
New  York,  who  owns  several  cotton  plantations  in 
the  South.     They  have  tliree  children,  Mary  Lilly, 
Ethel    Grubb    (wife   of    Surgeon    George    Tucker 
Smith,  of  the  United  States  navy)   and  Florence. 
(4)  Ella  Jane  Grubb  is  the  widow  of  Col.  L.  Heber 
Smith,  who  carried  on  a  furnace  at  Joanna,  Pa., 
where  his  family    still    reside.     Six  children  were 
born    to    them,    Clement  Grubb,  Heber  L.,  Mary 
Grubb,  Daisy  Emily  (wife  of  William  S.  Morris). 
Stanley    MacDonald   and    William    Howard.     Col. 
Smith  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  Civil  war.     (5) 
Daisy  Elizabeth  Brooke  Grubb  is  the  present  owner 
of  Mount  Hope.    Through  the  Shippens  the  family 
are  related  to  Gen.  McClellan,  and  also  to  Gen.  John 
R.  Brooke,  who  was  prominent    in    the    Spanish- 
American  war. 

Mount  Hope,  the  old  home  of  the  Grubb  family, 
is  an  historic  place,  long  noted  in  connection  with 
the  mines  surrounding.  The  dwelling,  which  was 
built  in  1800  by  Henry  Bates  Grubb,  is  a  spacious 
and  inviting  mansion,  and  the  grounds,  which  com- 
prise some  3,000  acres,  are  beautiful  and  artistic. 
In  1848  Mrs.  Henry  B.  Grubb  erected  a  church  on 
the  property,  and  in  1900  elaborate  additions  were 
made,  as  stated  on  the  chancel  building  comer-stone, 
"to  the  glory  of  God  and  the  memory  of  Clement  B. 
and  Mary  Brooke  Grubb." 

JOHN  WRIGHT,  the  founder  of  Wrights  Ferry, 
now  Columbia,  Lancaster  county,  was  a  Quaker, 
who  for  many  years  in  the  last  century  had  been  a 
member  of  the  Pennsylvania  Assembly.  He  was 
born  of  Quaker  parents  in  Lancashire,  England,  in 
1667,  and  came  to  Pennsylvania  in  '1714.  He  was 
elected  to  the  Assembly  from  Lancaster  county  in 
1729,  and  held  that  .office  until  in  1748.  He  was 
one  of  the  leading  citizens  of  his  day,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  securing  the  establishment  of  the 
new  county  of  Lancaster  in  1719.  Samuel  Wright, 
son  of  James,  and  grandson  of  the  above  mentioned 
John  Wright,  laid  out  the  town  of  Columbia  on 
its  present  site  in  1787.  The  place  was  one  of  three 
sites  proposed  by  Congress  in  1790,  as  the  place  for 
the  permanent  capital  of  the  United  States.  Colum- 
bia was  incorporated  by  act  of  State  Legislature  in 

SLAYMAKER.  Among  the  old  and  honored 
families  of  Lancaster  county,  there  are  a  few  which 
have  become  particularly  conspicuous  on  account 
of  their  identification  with  the  progress  and  develop- 
ment of  their  localities,  and  their  peculiar  fitness 
for  the  positions  of  trust  and  responsibility  in  which 
they  have  been  placed  by  their  fellow-citizens.  Such 
in  a  marked  degree  is  the  case  in  the  Slaymaker 

In    its    German    orthography    the    name    was 
spelled  Schleurmacher,  and  was  one  held  in  high 
esteem  in  its  native  land.    When  Mathias  Schleur- 
macher, or  Slaymaker,  left  Germany  to  find  wider 
opportunities   in  the   New   World,   his   immediate 
family  in  Strasburg,  were  people  of  position  and 
eminence,  one  being  a  clergyman  of  repute,  and 
another  a  diplomatist  of  celebrity,  being  at  that 
time  secretary  of  Legation  from  the  German  gov- 
ernment to  the  Court  of  St.  James,  afterward  be-' 
coming  Charge  d'affairs  to  the  same  place.     Ma- 
thias was  also  a  man  of  judgment  and  foresight, 
and  when  he  reached  America  in  1710,  he  made  a 
wise  selection  of  land  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania. 
His  purchase  was  1,000  acres  from  the  London  Co., 
and  its  location  was  in  what  was  then  known  as  the 
London  Lands,   then  situated  in   Strasburg,  now 
Paradise  township.     Building  his  log  cabin  near  a 
beautiful  spring  of  clear,  pure  water,  he  settled  down 
to  an  agricultural  life,  clearing  up  his  land  as  quick- 
ly as  possible,  the  whole  of  it  being  at  that  time  but 
a  wilderness.     Being  a  man  of  gigantic  size,  he 
compelled  the  respect  and  admiration  of  his  savage 
neighbors,  who  were  ever  impressed  by  physical 
strength,  while  his  honesty  and  kindness  in  dealing 
with  the  Indians  won  for  him  their  respect  and 
friendship,  a  matter  of  no  little  moment  in  that 
unsettled  region.    Mathias  Slaymaker  not  only  gave 
the  name  to  Strasburg,  but  he  liberally  contributed 
to  the  county's  improvement,  cleared  lands,  made 



roads,  built  school  houses  and  encouraged  religious 
movements,  filling  out  to  the  utmost  our  idea  of  a 
useful  and  noble  life.     He  was  permitted  a  long 
career,  and  the  work  he  did  laid  the  foundations 
upon  which  his  family  and  fellow-citizens  have  since 
builded.     His  remains  lie  in  the  old  cemetery  of 
the    Presbyterian    Church,    in   Leacock   township, 
where  many  of  the  family  rest.    The  five  sons  of 
Mathias   Slaymaker  were :     John,  Lawrence,  Ma- 
thias,  Henry  and  Daniel ;  while  his  daughters  were : 
Margaret  and  Barbara.    All  record  of  Lawrence  dis- 
appeared after  he  joined  a  band  of  pioneers  and 
went  to  the  West.     Mathias  purchased  that  por- 
tion of  the  original  i,ooo  acres  which,  in  1832,  be- 
longed to  his  great-grandsons,  John  M.  and  Nathan 
E.,  the  latter  of  whom  was  for  many  years  the  sec- 
retary and  treasurer  of  the  Lancaster  County  Mu- 
tual Insurance  Co.     John,  son  of  Mathias  the  set- 
tler, was  the  father  of  the  late  Capt.  John  Slay- 
maker  of  Paradise  township,  and  he  became  a  sol- 
dier in  Braddock's  army  at  the  age  of  twenty-two 
years,  participating  in  the  disastrous  battle  of  Brad- 
dock's  Field,  later  becoming  a  captain  in  the  Rev- 
olutionary army.     After  the  close  of  that  war  he 
returned  to   his   home  in   Lancaster   county,   and 
ended  his  long  term  of  public  service  as  commis- 
sioner of  this  county,  his  death  occurring  in  1798, 
at  the  age  of  sixty-five  years. 

Henry  Slaymaker,  the  great-grandfather  of  our 
subject,  was  also  a  very  prominent  man  in  his  State 
and  county  during  and  after  the  Revolutionary  war. 
During  its  progress  he  was  a  conspicuous  member 
of  the  Whig  party,  and  was  one  of  the  first  in  his 
neighborhood  to  take  his  stand  with  the  Colonies. 
Being  a  magistrate  at  this  time,  he  administered 
the  oath  of  allegiance  to  those  patriots  who  es- 
poused the  cause  of  the  Republic,  and  he  used 
prompt  measures  in  suppressing  efforts  on  the  part 
of  the  Tories,  and  in  punishing  them  for  furnish- 
ing the  British  army  with  horses  and  provisions. 
When  Mr.  Slaymaker  became  the  oldest  justice  in 
Lancaster  county,  succeeding  Mr.  Hubley,  he  was 
appointed  principal  judge  of  the  county  courts,  and 
presided  as  such  for  one  year.  It  was  during  this 
time  that  Judge  Slaymaker  had  the  site  cleared  for 
the  erection  of  the  old  jail  in  Lancaster  county, 
the  same  being  the  present  site  of  the  Fulton  Opera 
House,  and  a  number  of  other  places  of  business. 
His  efforts  were  ever  directed  toward  public  im- 
provement consonant  with  the  wise  administration  of 
public  money?  His  prominence  in  his  county  was 
recognized  by  his  appointment  as  a  delegate  to  the 
convention  called  for  the  formation  of  a  constitution 
of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  which  met  at  Phila- 
delphia, July  IS,  1776.  His  marriage  was  to  Miss 
Richardson,  and  the  three  sons  of  the  union  were: 
Amos,  Henry  and  Samuel. 

Amos  Slaymaker,  son  of  Henry,  also  gave  his 
State  distinguished  and  faithful  service.    He  served 

during  the  Revolutionary  war  as  an  ensign  in  the 
company  commanded  by  his  uncle,  Capt.  John  Slay- 
maker, and  belonged  also  to  an  association  formed 
for  the  suppression  of  the  Tories,  in  the  eastern  end 
of  the  county,  at  the  head  of  which  was  Col.  James 
Mercer,  afterward  conspicuous  in  the  State.     Mr. 
Slaymaker  built  and  operated  a  hotel  until  1804,  on 
the   Lancaster   and   Philadelphia  pike  road.     For 
many  years  he  served  as  a  magistrate;  was  county 
commissioner  from  1806  to  1 810;  and  was  a  member 
of  the  State  Senate  from  1810  to  181 1 ;  a  member  of 
Congress  during  1814-15,  and  it  was  during  this 
period  that  he  became  peculiarly  useful  to  his  gov- 
ernment.   With  a  small  number  of  other  substan- 
tial  and  upright  citizens,  he  lent  his   credit  and 
endorsed  notes  which  were  placed  in  the  George- 
town   Bank,    which    enabled    the    Government    to 
safely  tide  over  its  financial  crisis  at  the  time  when 
it  was  necessary  to  raise  funds  for  the  speedy  de- 
fense of  New  Orleans.    Hs  was  public-spirited  and 
liberal,  and  his  recor^i  is  that  of  unsullied  states- 

In  association  with  his  two  brothers,  Henry  and 
Samuel,  Amos  Slaymaker  was  one  of  the  promoters 
and  proprietors  of  the  great  stage  line  which  ran 
from  Philadelphia  through  Lancaster,  the  accepted 
line  of  transportation  at  that  time,  whith  was  prior 
to  the  development  of  the  great  railroad  system  of 
later  years.  Amos  Slaymaker  died  in  1835,  at  the 
age  of  eighty-five  years,  full  of  honors  and  esteemed 
far  and  wide  for  his  high  character.  His  family 
consisted  of  six  sons  and  four  daughters,  and  those 
of  whom  we  have  record  are:  Jasper;  Henry 
died  on  the  old  farm;  William  died  in  Virginia; 
Amos  died  in  Maytown,  this  county;  Isabella  mar- 
ried Evan  Green;  Mrs.  Mott;  Elizabeth  married 
Barton  Henderson;  and  Hannar  married  Samuel 

Jasper  Slaymaker,  the  father  of  our  subject,  also 
became  a  distinguished  citizen  of  Lancaster  county. 
His  early  death  at  the  age  of  thirty-nine  years 
cut  short  a  career  which  promised  to  attach  higher 
honors  to  an  already  eminent  family  name.  He  was 
born  in  Salisbury  township,  and  was  afforded  super- 
ior educational  advantages.  He  was  a  student  with 
James  Buchanan,  at  Dickinson  College,  at  Carlisle, 
and  in  the  office  of  James  Hopkins,  Esq.,  at  Lancas- 
ter. He  was  early  in  his  career  admitted  to  the 
Lancaster  Bar,  was  the  first  prosecuting  attorney 
of  the  mayor's  court,  and  served  with  honor  for  two 
years,  1816  and  1817,  and  1817  and  1818,  in  the 
State  Legislature.  He  was  well  known  through  the 
county,  and  was  regarded  as  one  of  its  most  prom- 
ising public  men.  His  death  occurred  Aug.  27, 
1827,  at  the  age  of  thirty-nine  years.  His  mar- 
riage to  Jane  Evans  resulted  in  the  birth  of  these 
children :  Amos,  of  this  sketch ;  Frances,  who  mar- 
ried Rev.  Solomon  McNair,  a  Presbyterian  clergy- 
man, and  died  in  1876 ;  Samuel,  who  married  Char- 



lotte  Tate,  and  was  a  prominent  stock  broker  in  Phil- 
adelphia, where  he  died  in  1887;  James  B.,  who 
married  a  Miss  Wilson,  and  is  a  nurseryman,  far- 
mer and  fruit  grower  in  Delaware ;  and  Jasper,  who 
married  Sarah  Elder,  and  is  a  retired  merchant  at 
Sunbury,  Pa.  The  mother  of  our  subject  was  born 
in  Donegal  township,  in  1800,  and  died  in  1885,  at 
the  age  of  eighty-five  years.  She  was  a  daughter 
of  Samuel  and  Frances  (Lowery)  Evans,  of  Done- 
gal township  (more  extended  mention  of  the  Evans 
family  being  found  elsewhere). 

Amos  Slaymaker,  who  for  many  years  was  one 
of  the  leading  attorneys  of  Lancaster  county,  the 
eldest  son  of  Jasper  and  Jane  (Evans)  Slaymaker, 
was  born  in  the  city  of  Lancaster,  in  June,  1819. 
Until  her  death  he  remained  with  his  mother,  except 
for  a  period  when  she  resided  with  a  daughter.  His 
early  education  was  obtained  in  the  city  schools,  a 
study  of  the  languages  being  pursued  in  Lancas- 
ter Academy,  which  was  followed  by  a  period  of 
study  in  Delaware  College  in  Newark.  From  there 
he  entered  the  sophomore  class  in  Dickinson  Col- 
lege, at  Carlisle,  where  three  years  were  passed, 
and  where  he  graduated  with  honors  in  1838. 

Mr.  Slaymaker  naturally  adopted  the  law  as  his 
profession  and  in  its  study  became  a  pupil  of  Hon. 
John  R.  Montgomery,  in  Lancaster.  His  prepara- 
tion was  such  that  in  1841,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
Bar,  and  immediately  entered  upon  a  long  and  suc- 
cessful practice  which  was  terminated  by  his  re- 
tirement from  its  cares  and  triumphs,  in  1885.  In 
1867  he  was  made  registrar  in  bankruptcy  of  this 
Congressional  district,  under  the  Bankrupt  Law, 
discharging  the  duties  of  this  office  with  an  eye 
single  to  the  public  good. 

Although  not  connected  by  membership,  Mr. 
Slaymaker  is  a  constant  attendant  and  a  con- 
tributor to  the  Episcopal  Church.  As  a  man  of 
means,  leisure  and  high  intellectual  attainment, 
Mr.  Slaymaker  takes  a  prominent  place  in  Lan- 
caster. While  he  is  retired  from  all  active  busi- 
ness life,  his  interest  continues  in  public  afifairs, 
and  he  can  usually  be  found  in  his  costly  library^ 
where  he  is  surrounded  with  the  best  thought  of 
the  past,  as  well  as  the  latest  disquisitions  and  pol- 
ished literary  efforts  of  the  present. 

JOHN  D.  SKILES,  president  of  the  Fulton  Na- 
tional Bank,  and  connected  with  many  other  enter- 
prises that  have  added  greatly  to  the  material  de- 
velopment and  prosperity  of  the  city  of  Lancaster, 
enjoys  the  distinction  of  being  perhaps  the  only  man 
in  this  community  who  has  been  continuously  in 
business  for  a  period  of  half  a  century,  the  fiftieth 
anniversary  of  his  advent  into  commercial  circles 
having  occurred  in  April,  1902. 

John  D.  Skiles  was  born  April  29,  1829,  in 
Leacock  township,  this  county,  where  he  passed  his 
boyhood.  At  the  age  of  ten  years  he  entered  the  gen- 
eral store  of  Moses  Eby,  at  Intercourse,  where  he 

clerked  for  three  years.  For  the  succeeding  three 
years  he  was  employed  in  John  Wenger's  store,  in 
West  Earl  township,  and  in  1845  secured  employ- 
ment with  Michael  Peiper,  a  grocer  in  Lancaster. 
At  the  end  of  five  years  he  entered  the  dry-goods 
store  of  FonDer smith  &  Herr,  where  he  continued 
for  about  two  years,  at  the  expiration  of  that  time 
embarking  in  business  for  himself  as  a  grocer  at  the 
corner  of  East  King  and  Duke  streets,  and  remain- 
ing there  until  1858,  when  he  bought  the  property 
owned  by  the  Lancaster  County  Bank,  corner  of 
East  King  and  Christian  streets ;  there  he  engaged  in 
the  grocery  business  until  1865.  At  that  time  he 
bought  out  a  dry-goods  business  on  East  King 
street,  and  devoted  his  attention  to  that  branch  of 
trade  until  1878,  when  he  sold  out  and  retired  from 
that  line.  In  1861  he  had  invested  in  a  leaf  tobacco 
business  with  his  brother-in-law,  James  B.  Frey, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Skiles  &  Frey,  and  he  has 
been  continuously  in  the  leaf  tobacco  business  since 
1861,  handling  immense  quantities  of  tobacco,  which 
is  packed  in  the  firm's  warehouse  located  on  North 
Duke  street. 

On  Dec.  i,  1854,  Mr.  Skiles  married  Emily  M. 
Frey,  daughter  of  Jacob  Frey,  one  of  the  early  set- 
tlers, and  formerly  a  merchant  of  Lancaster.  The 
only  child  of  this  union,  William  P.,  died  at  the  age 
of  nineteen  years.  Mrs.  Skiles  entered  into  rest  in 
January,  1897.  Mr.  Skiles  married,  a  second  time, 
his  present  wife  having  been  Miss  Rebecca  M. 
Porter,  of  Newark,  N.  J.  One  son,  John  D.  Skiles, 
Jr.,  was  born  of  this  union  March  29,  1900 — ^his 
mother's  joy  and  his  father's  pride. 

Mr.  Skiles  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Ful- 
ton National  Bank  and  of  the  Lancaster  Trust  Com- 
pany. He  was  a  director  in  the  Fulton  National 
Bank  until  the  death  of  John  R.  Bitner,  succeeding 
that  gentleman  as  president  of  the  bank  on  Sept.  6, 
1897;  and  he  has  been  a  director  of  the  Lancaster  ' 
Trust  Company  from  its  organization  to  the  present 
time.  Indeed,  his  influence  has  been  felt  in  almost 
every  notable  public  enterprise  looking  to  the  de- 
velopment and  prosperity  of  the  city,  for  an  ordin- 
ary lifetime,  and  among  his  most  conspicuous  busi- 
ness interests  may  be  mentioned  his  connection  with 
the  Pennsylvania  Traction  and  Conestoga  Traction 
Companies,  as  director;  he  is  still  connected  with 
some  of  the  suburban  trolley  lines,  having  been  as- 
sociated with  the  trolley  systems  of  Lancaster  since 
1893.  He  is  president  of  the  board  of  managers  of 
the  Lancaster  Cemetery  Company;  has  been  for 
thirty  years  (and  is  still)  treasurer  of  the  Mechanics' 
Building  &  Loan  Association ;  a  member'of  the  board 
of  trustees  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College ;  a  trus- 
tee of  the  Reformed  Theological  Seminary  of  the 
L'nited  States,  at  Lancaster ;  a  director  of  the  Y.  M. 
C.  A. ;  and  has  many  other  business  connections.  He 
served  ably  for  three  years  as  prothonotary  of  the 
court,  from  1885  to  1888.  Socially  he  is  a  member 
of  Lodge  No.  43,  F.  &  A.  M.,  and  of  the  Lodge  of 
Perfection  and  the  Commandery;  and  he  was  one 



of  the  organizers  and  directors  of  the  Hamilton 
Club.  Religiously  he  is  a  member  of  St.  Paul's  Re- 
formed Church,  in  which  he  has  been  a  trustee  for 
many  years,  and  in  the  upbuilding  of  which  church 
he  has  taken  an  active  and  substantial  interest.  So 
many  have  been  his  enterprises,  so  great  his  activity, 
so  sound  his  judgment,  so  far-reaching  the  aims  and 
purposes  of  his  life,  that  it  is  difficult  to  determine 
in  what  particular  path  his  influence  for  good  has 
been  most  felt ;  but  it  is  a  notable  fact  that,  with  all 
the  varied  interests  he  has  had  in  hand,  he  has  never 
for  a  moment  lost  sight  of  the  leaf  tobacco  trade,  in 
which  he  is  still  a  prominent  figure.'  In  banking 
circles,  in  the  mercantile  world,  in  the  leaf  tobacco 
trade,  in  the  church,  in  the  social  circles,  everywhere, 
the  name  of  John  D.  Skiles  stands  for  all  that  is  en- 
terprising, progressive,  liberal  and  honorable. 

WILLIAM  HAYES  GRIER,  printer,  editor 
and  politician,  was  born  in  the  village  of  McEwens- 
ville,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa.,  in  1841.  His  grand- 
father. Rev.  John  Hayes  Grier,  was  a  native  of 
Bucks  county,  and  was  born  in  1788.  He  graduated 
at  Dickinson  College,  Carlisle,  in  the  same  class  with 
James  Buchanan,  who,  in  1857,  became  the  fifteenth 
president  of  the  United  States.  Entering  the  min- 
istry, soon  after  his  graduation,  Mr.  Grier  was 
placed  in  charge  of  the  Great  Island  and  Jersey 
Shore  Churches,  in  the  West  Branch  Valley  of  the 
Susquehanna.  This  was  in  1814,  and  he  remained 
there  until  1854,  when  he  retired,  after  having  been 
actively  engaged  in  the  ministry  for  fifty-six  years. 
He  died  at  his  home  in  Jersey  Shore,  in  February, 
1880,  at  the  mature  and  mellow  age  of  ninety-two 

Dr.  John  Hayes  Grier,  eldest  son  of  the  venera-i 
ble  clergyman  arid  father  of  our  subject,  was  born 
in  Brandywine  Manor,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  June  2, 
1813.  After  receiving  a  preparatory  education  he 
was  graduated  from  Jefferson  Medical  College, 
and  entered  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession  in 
McEwensville  in  1840.  There  he  remained  for  fif- 
teen years,  when,  in  1855,  he  removed  to  Jersey. 
Shore,  where  he  practiced  until  1859.  He  then 
settled  in  Oriole,  in  the  beautiful  valley  of  Nippe- 
nose,  where  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life,  fol- 
lowing his  profession  until  his  death,  which  oc-- 
curred  Nov.  19,  1894,  in  his  eighty-second  year. 
He  married  Amanda  M.  Quiggle,  who  died  Aug< 
I,  1897,  in  her  eighty-first  year. 

William  Hayes  Grier,  the  subject  of  this  notice, 
is  the  eldest  son  of  the  Doctor.  He  received  his 
primary  education  in  the  public  schools,  after  which 
he  entered  the  academy  at  McEwensville,  and  spent 
four  years  in  that  institution.  On  Oct.  20,  1856, 
he  was  apprenticed  to  learn  the  trade  of  a  com-i 
positor  in  the  office  of  the  Jersey  Shore  Vidette,  and 
remained  there  until  1858,  when  he  accepted  a 
position  to  teach  school  in  Clinton  county,  for  a 
term  of  four  months,  at  a  salary  of  $25  per  month. 

Having  finished  his  school  in  1859,  young  Grier  re- 
moved to  Akron,  Ohio,  and  entered  the  office  of 
the  Democrat,  remaining  there  until  1861,  when, 
owing  to  the  impending  war,  he  returned  to  Jersey 
Shore,  and  resumed  work  in  the  office  of  the 
Vidette,  where  he  had  learned  his  trade.  There  he 
remained  until  Fort  Sumter  was  fired  upon,  when 
he  enlisted  April  18,  1861,  becoming  a  private  in 
the  Jersey  Shore  Rifles,  known  as  Company  A, 
5th  Pennsylvania  Reserve  Regiment.  They  were 
assigned  to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  passed 
through  all  the  battles  of  that  division  from  Dranes- 
ville  to  Cold  Harbor,  with  the  exception  of  Chancel- 
lorsville.  On  June  27,  1862,  our  subject  was 
wounded  in  the  leg  at  the  battle  of  Gaines  Mills, 
and  was  laid  up  for  six  weeks  in  a  hospital  at 
Washington.  He  rejoined  his  regiment  in  time  to 
participate  in  the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run.  In 
March,  1863,  he  was  promoted  to  first  sergeant, 
and  on  June  4,  1864,  was  commissioned  second 

On  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  enlistment  in 
1864,  Lieut.  Grier  returned  home  and  became  fore- 
man of  the  printing  department  and  associate  editor 
of  the  Columbia  Spy,  remaining  with  that  paper 
until  October,  1866,  when  he  was  nominated  by  his 
party  (Democratic)  for  the  State  Senate  against 
his  old  Colonel,  Joseph  W.  Fisher,  but  was  de- 
feated because  his  party  was  in  the  minority.  Soon 
after  his  political  experience  he  founded  the  Colum- 
bia Herald,  printing  the  first  copy  on  a  hand  press. 
His  enterprise  proved  successful,  and  he  continued 
the  publication  of  his  paper  until  1870,  when  he  was 
appointed  traveling  agent  for  the  Columbia  Mutual 
Fire  Insurance  Company.  After  six  months  ex- 
perience in  the  insurance  business  he  resigned,  and 
until  1873  successfully  conducted  a  job  printing 
office  in  the  city.  That  year  he  purchased  the  Her- 
ald, and  was  employed  in  its  publication  until  Jan- 
uary, 1885,  when  he  sold  out. 

From  early  life  Mr.  Grier  took  an  active  part 
in  politics,  serving  his  party  repeatedly  in  county 
conventions,  and  he  was  delegate  to  the  national 
convention  which  nominated  Samuel  J.  Tilden  for 
president.  He  served  as  a  member  of  the  State  com- 
mittee for  several  years,  was  on  the  county  com- 
mittee, and  was  chairman  of  that  body  through  the 
important  campaign  of  1874.  Although  his  party 
was  in  the  minority  in  Lancaster  county,  he  did 
much  to  preserve  its  organization,  and  in  1878  again 
sacrificed  himself  for  State  Senator.  Ever  active 
and  aggressive  as  a  politician,  WilliiStrHayes  Grier 
was  never  discouraged  over  defeat.  In  1883  he 
was  a  candidate  for  auditor  general,  when  many 
distinguished  men  were  brought  forward,  and  on 
the  second  ballot  he  received  the  second  highest 
vote.  The  first  political  office  he  held  was  that  of 
assistant  assessor  of  internal  revenue,  to  which 
he  was  appointed  in  1866  by  President  Johnson. 



Subsequently  he  was  clerk  of  the  Council  for  two 
years,  was  tax  collector,  and  was  appointed  by  Gen. 
William  McCandless,  who  was  secretary  of  inter- 
nal affairs  in  1875,  chief  of  the  bureau  of  statistics- 
He  has  frequently  served  his  fellow  citizens  in  many 
local  and  minor  offices,  and  in  1876  was  elected 
school  director  in  his  district  for  a  term  of  three 
years.  In  1881  he  was  justice  of  the  peace,  and 
in  1883  was  appointed  superintendent  of  public 
printing  at  Harrisburg,  by  Gov.  Pattison,  to  fill  a 
vacancy.  On  the  expiration  of  the  term  he  was  re- 
appointed for  a  full  term,  from  July  i,  1885,  to  July 
I,  1889,  which  he  served.  In  1887  he  was  tendered 
the  office  of  chief  of  the  Southern  division  of  the 
Pension  Bureau,  Washington,  but  declined.  On 
Gov.  Pattison's  re-election  in  1890,  he  was  re-ap- 
pointed superintendent  of  public  printing,  and  he 
filled  the  office  with  credit,  retiring  in  1894. 

Col.  Grier  has  been  twice  married.  His  first 
wife,  Miss  Mary  E.  White,  whom  he  wedded  in 
1865,  died  in  1884,  leaving  two  daughters.  In  1890 
he  married  (second)  Miss  Annie,  daughter  of  Gen. 
William  Patton,  of  Columbia.  He  is  a  Freemason, 
and  has  taken  both  the  Blue  Lodge  and  Royal  Arch 
degrees.  For  a  man  of  such  political  activity  as 
Col.  Grier,  it  was  impossible  after  his  long  career  as 
an  editor  and  publisher,  to  do  without  an  organ 
after  the  sale  of  the  Herald,  in  1885.  Consequently 
but  a  short  time  elapsed  until  in  December,  1889, 
he  started  the  Independent,  a  weekly  paper,  which 
he  is  still  publishing. 

CORNELIUS  F.  ROLAND,  president  of  the 
New  Holland  National  Bank,  and  a  man  of  high 
standing  and  recognized  worth  at  New  Holland,  was 
born  at  that  point  May  30,  1822,  a  son  of  Henry  and 
Margaret  ( Seeger)  Roland.  His  father  was  born  in 
Hinkletown,  and  his  mother  in  New  Holland,  and 
the  family  was  long  and  intimately  associated  with 
the  best  interests  of  Lancaster  county. 

Henry  Roland  was  a  farmer,  and  the  most  of  his 
earlier  life  was  spent  in  New  Holland.  While  still  a 
young  man  he  removed  to  Philadelphia  to  take  a  po- 
sition as  a  clerk  in  a  general  store,  where  he  remained 
until  the  death  of  his  father,  when  he  returned  home 
to  care  for  the  large  estate  left  by  his  father.  He 
died  in  January,  1847,  at  the  age  of  sixty-seven.  His 
widow  long  survived  his  loss,  and  died  at  the 
age  of  eighty-two.  They  were  buried  in  the  New 
Holland  cemetery.  Both  belonged  to  the  Lutheran 
Church,  of  which  he  was  an  officer  for  many  years, 
and  a  most  earnest  and  devoted  worker. 

Henry  ^jQjrjid  and  his  wife  were  the  parents 
of  the  following  family:  Catherine,  who  mar- 
ried Esaias  Kinzer,  of  Leacock  township,  both  de- 
ceased; Jonathan  H.,  who  married  Elizabeth  James, 
was  a  farmer,  and  died  at  the  age  of  fifty-four ;  Will- 
iam, a  physician,  who  died  in  York,  Pa.,  at  the  age  of 
eighty-two ;  John  F.,  a  graduate  of  West  Point,  who 
died  in  Charlestown  Harbor,  where  he  had  command 

of  a  fort,  at  the  age  of  thirty-six ;  Henry  A.,  a  farm- 
er and  miller,  who  died  in  1901,  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
two  ;  Cornelius  F. ;  Julia,  the  widow  of  Hon.  Will- 
iam H.  Heister,  at  one  time  the  secretary  of  the 
Commonwealth,  and  representative  from  Berks 
county  in  the  State  Legislature. 

The  paternal  grandparents  of  Cornelius  F.  Ro- 
land were  Jonathan  and  Catherine  (Huber)  Roland, 
farming  people  of  prominence  and  wealth  in  Earl 

Cornelius  F.  Roland  was  married  in  New  Hol- 
land Oct.  26,  1846,  to  Elizabeth  Shirk,  the  ceremony 
being  performed  by  Rev.  Mr.  Barnitz.  Born  to  this 
union  were  the  following  children :  Charles  A.,  who 
died  at  the  age  of  three  years ;  Horace,  an  attorney  in 
Reading,  married  to  Ellen  Daly,  by  whom  he  has 
had  four  children;  Henry  S.,  unmarried  and  living 
at  home ;  Cornelia,  who  died  unmarried  at  the  age 
of  thirty-five.  Mrs.  Roland  was  born  in  New  Hol- 
land, and  died  in  April,  1887,  at  the  age  of  seventy 
years.  Her  remains  rest  in  the  New  Holland  ceme- 
tery. She  was  a  daughter  of  Henry  and  Mary  (Oil- 
ier) Shirk,  both  of  Lancaster  county. 

Mr.  Roland  was  reared  in  New  Holland,  and 
when  fourteen  years  of  age  attended  the  Lititz  Acad- 
emy, and  later  the  school  at  West  Chester.  In  1839 
he  went  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  clerked  for  a  short 
time  in  a  general  store.  Business  was  prostrated  by 
a  panic  shortly  after  his  arrival,  and  he  came  back  to 
New  Holland,  to  farm  for  several  years.  For  three 
years  he  was  engaged  in  a  store,  but  gave  up  that 
work  in  1871.  In  1881  he  organized  the  present 
bank,  of  which  he  is  still  the  capable  and  energetic 
president,  and  which  ranks  very  high,  the  stock  be- 
ing now  quoted  at  over  200  per  cent.  Mr.  Roland 
is  a  large  landed  proprietor,  owning  a  number  of 
valuable  farms.  In  religion  he  belongs  to  the  Luth- 
eran Church,  of  which  he  is  a  liberal  supporter  and 
a  hard-working  member. 

JOHN  KOHR,  who  has  been  bishop  of  the  New 
(or  Reformed)  Mennonite  Church  since  1896,  is  a 
retired  farmer,  living  in  the  Kohr  homestead  in 
Manheim  township,  one  and  a  half  miles  northeast 
of  the  city  of  Lancaster,  on  the  Fruitville  pike. 

Bishop  John  Kohr,  father  of  our  subject,  was  the 
successor  of  John  Herr,  reformer  of  what  is  known 
as  the  Old  Mennonite  Church,  or  rather  an  adherent 
to  the  true  principles  of  the  founder,  Menno  Simon, 
early  reformer  of  the  Catholic  Church.  The  church 
has  no  discipline  save  the  plain  indisputable  word  of 
Christ,  the  principle  and  character  briefly  described 
by  Bishop  Elias  Hershey,  under  his  naine  in  this 
work,  which  is  well  worth  referring  to.  Bishop 
Kohr  faithfully  filled  the  office  of  Bishop  for  many 
years,  and  being  well  preserved  in  body  and  faculties 
to  the  close  of  his  long  life,  was  able  to  the  end  to 
serve  diligently  and  profitably  in  his  high  calling 
m  the  church.  His  death  occurred  in  the  fall  of 
1887,  after  a  brief  illness  with  pneumonia,  when  he 
was  nearly  eighty  years  of  age.    The  vacancy  was 



deeply  felt,  and  in   1896  his  son,  John  Kohr,  was 
called  by  the  church  to  be  his  successor. 

John  Kohr  was  born  in  1847,  one  mile  from  his 
present  home.  He  accepted  the  faith  in  the  fall  of 
1868,  and  was  admitted  into  the  church  by  water 
baptism  in  the  fall  of  1869.  Bearing  evidence  of 
his  faithfulness  and  godly  zeal,  the  church  called 
him  to  the  ministry  to  publicly  declare  the  doctrines 
of  Christ,  in  the  fall  of  1879.  I"  1896,  as  before 
stated,  he  was  called  to  the  office  of  Bishop.  Having 
retired  from  all  the  active  duties  of  life,  his  time  is 
now  given  for  the  most  part  to  the  church.  Mr. 
Kohr  occupies  the  home  where  his  father  lived  to  the 
close  of  his  days. 

In  the  fall  of  1876  Mr.  Kohr  was  united  in  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Ida  N.  Weaver,  daughter  of  Anna 
and  Martin  (Herr)  Weaver,  of  Strasburg  township, 
and  this  union  has  been  blessed  with  two  children, 
Enos  and  Mary.  The  daughter  died  in  her  first 
year.  The  son  has  erected  on  his  father's  farm 
property  a  number  of  greenhouses,  which  he  man- 
ages successfully,  being  engaged  in  growing  flowers, 
etc.,  principally  for  the  cut-flower  trade.  Enos 
Kohr.  accepted  the  faith  of  his  ancestors  at  the  age 
of  twenty-one  years.  He  was  united  in  marriage  to 
Miss  Viola  Godshak,  of  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.,  in 
the  spring  of  1903. 

John  Kohr  has  one  brother,  Jacob,  and  four  sis- 
ters, Annie,  Hettie,  Mary  and  Lizzie. 

rejoices  in  an  ancestry  that  came  to  this  country 
in  1737,  and  they  date  back  a  good  deal  more  than 
that  as  members  of  the  Reformed  Church.  The 
Gerhards  are  descendants  of  Paul  Gerhardt,  the 
great  German  poet,  who  lived  two  hundred  and 
fifty  years  ago.  The  first  Gerhardt  (as  the  name 
was  originally  spelled)  of  this  family  of  whom  we 
have  any  record  was  Christian  Gerhardt  who  was 
Burgomaster  of  Gruesenhaerichen,  Germany,  in 
1637.  He  had  five  children,  of  whom  one  was  the 
poet  Paul.  The  poet  had  one  son,  Paul  Frederick, 
and  his  son  was  Christopher ;  Christopher's  son  was 
William,  and  his  son  was  Frederick,  who  was  born 
March  26,  1714,  in  Langenselbold,  a  town  in  the 
Wittrau,  Hesse-Cassel.  Frederick's  parents  were 
members  of  the  Reformed  Church,  and  he  was 
brought  up  in  that  faith — a  faith  that  has  been  zeal- 
ously clung  to  by  all  the  descendants  to  the  present 
day.  On  Jan.  22,  1737,  Frederick  Gerhardt  married 
Elizabeth  Fischer,  and  soon  after  came  to  America, 
settling  in  Philadelphia,  where  a  son,  Peter,  was 
born  Oct.  28,  1737,  and  not  long  after,  his  wife  died. 
Frederick  then  moved  to  the  vicinity  of  Heidelberg, 
Berks  county,  where  on  Feb.  14,  1740,  he  married  a 
widow  whose  maiden  name  was  Barbara  Reiger. 
From  this  union  there  were  nine  children,  five  sons 
and  four  daughters.  One  of  these  sons  was  Fred- 
erick, born  Sept.  23,  1744,  and  his  son  Frederick 
was  born  in  1770. 

Rev.  William  T.  Gerhard,  Rev.  D.  W.  Gerhard's 

father  was  born  on  Dec.  10,  1809,  and  died  Aug. 
20,  1886,  having  been  for  many  years  one  of  the 
most  prominent  figures  among  the  clergy  of  Lancas- 
ter. He  married  Miss  Elizabeth  Seibert,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Jacob  Seibert,  a  prominent  farmer  of  Lebanon 
county.  From  this  union  eight  children  were  born, 
five  sons  and  three  daughters,  of  whom  three  sons 
survive,  as  follows  :  Rev.  Darius  W.,  of  Lancaster ; 
Dr.  J.  Z.,  of  Harrisburg,  where  he  spent  twenty- 
one  years  as  resident  physician  at  the  State  Insane 
Asylum,  but  is  now  enjoying  a  large  private  prac- 
tice, in  which  he  gives  special  attention  to  nervous 
troubles ;  and  Dr.  M.  U.,  of  Lancaster,  where  he  en- 
joys a  fine  practice. 

Rev.  Darius  William  Gerhard,  A.  M.,  was  born 
in  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  March  21,  1838,  was  educated  in 
the  public  schools  of  his  native  county,  and  pre- 
pared for  college  in  the  Allentown  Seminary.  Be- 
fore entering  college,  he  taught  school  for  two  win- 
ters, and  was  graduated  from  Franklin  and  Marshall 
College  in  1862,  taking  one  of  the  class  honors,  the 
German  oration.  He  graduated  in  July  and  entered 
the  army  in  August,  enlisting  in  the  nine  months' 
service  in  Co.  E,  135th  P.  V.  1.,  and  serving  nine 
months  and  sixteen  days,  when  he  was  honorably 
discharged.  He  then  entered  the  Reformed  Theo- 
logical Seminary  at  Mercersburg,  from  which  he 
was  graduated  in  1866.  He  served  the  Reformed 
congregation  at  McConnellsburg  for  one  and  one- 
half  years  during  his  theological  course,  and  was 
called  there  and  ordained,  remaining  another  year  as 
an  ordained  minister.  His  next  field  of  labor  was 
New  Holland  but  he  served  four  congregations — 
New  Holland,  Zeltenreich,  Vogansville  and  Salem 
(at  Heller's),  for  twenty  and  one-half  years,  at  the 
end  of  which  time,  he  began  confining  his  labors  to 
Salem  (at  Heller's)  and  Willowstreet,  which  be- 
came part  of  his  charge.  This  continued  for  six 
years,  when  Conestoga  Center  was  added.  In  the 
spring  of  1888,  Willowstreet  and  Conestoga  Center 
were  made  one  charge,  and  from  this  time  on,  Rev. 
Gerhard  was  pastor  of  Salem  only.  Here  he  built 
up  one  of  the  largest  congregations  of  any  rural 
church  in  this  section,  his  congregation  having 
reached  three  hundred  and  fifty  communicants  in 
1900,  while  the  Sunday  school  numbered  fully  two 
hundred.  Under  his  earnest  pastorate,  the  church 
was  remodeled  and  enlarged  in  1896,  and  with  its 
Gothic  windows,  symmetrical  tower  and  magnificent 
location,  it  is  one  of  the  most  attractive  church  edi- 
fices in  Lancaster  county.  Rev.  Gerhard  planted 
near  the  church  a  little  sprig  of  Virginia  juniper, 
taken  from  near  the  tomb  of  Washington  at  Mt. 
Vernon,  and  it  is  now  six  feet  high,  and  another  tree 
which  he  planted,  a  rnagnolia,  towers  above  the 
church.  This  church  (Salem)  is  the  oldest  Re- 
formed church  in  the  Conestoga  valley,  the  congre- 
gation having  been  organized  in  1722. 

Besides  all  the  pastoral  labors  of  Rev.  Gerhard 
he  has  done  some  literary  work.  Simply  to  be  pastor 
of   Salem .  (Heller's)    church   for  thirty-five  years. 



driving  through  all  kinds  of  weather  in  visitations 
among  a  large  rural  congregation,  is  a  big  work ;  but 
this  was  only  a  small  part  of  all  that  this  devout  and 
devoted  pastor  has  done.  For  fifteen  years  past,  he 
has  published  The  Pastor's  Helper,  a  well  edited  and 
interesting  publication  which  the  people  to  whom  our 
subject  has  ministered,  as  well  as  many  outside  the 
Reformed  Church,  have  learned  anxiously  to  look 
for.  No  clergyman  in  Lancaster  has  been  more  gen- 
erous in  assisting  the  reporters  of  the  daily  news- 
papers in  reporting  college  commencement  exercises 
and  the  proceedings  of  local  Reformed  gatherings 
generally;  and,  besides  all  this,  he  has  been  a  fre- 
quent contributor  to  the  church  publications,  not- 
ably The  Reformed  Messenger  and  The  Guardian. 
He  wrote  and  published  a  history  of  the  New  Hol- 
land Charge  (four  congregations)  in  1877,  in  which 
he  gave  in  his  introduction  a  resume  of  the  history  of 
the  Reformed  Church  in  general;  and  the  late  Dr. 
Thomas  G.  Apple,  in  an  article  in  the  Reformed 
Quarterly  Review,  says  this  of  the  history:  "We 
have  not  seen  anywhere  a  more  satisfactory  account 
of  the  Reformed  Church  in  so  small  a  space.  The 
facts  are  carefully  gathered  and  well  arranged;  the 
style  is  good.  It  is  well  adapted  to  convey  a  cor- 
rect knowledge  of  the  Reformed  Church  to  those 
who  may  seek  for  light  on  this  subject."  These 
are  precious  words  to  Mr.  Gerhard,  coming  from  so 
learned  a  source.  Mr.  Gerhard  also  wrote  and  pub- 
lished a  history  of  Lancaster  Classis  covering  its  en- 
tire history  of  fifty  years.  The  New  Era  says  "he 
lias  admirably  performed  his  task." 

Mr.  Gerhard  has  been  stated  clerk  of  Lancaster 
classis  of  the  Reformed  Church  without  interrup- 
tion, since  1869;  has  been  secretary  of  the  Alumni 
Association  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College  for 
twenty-three  years,  and  was  elected  to  his  twenty- 
fourth  term  in  the  summer  of  1902 ;  has  been  dele- 
gate to  Synod  and  the  General  Synod  time  and 
again,  and  was  president  of  the  district  synod  in 
1898;  has  been  repeatedly  secretary  and  press  re- 
porter of  the  Lancaster  Ministerial  Association,  de- 
clining these  positions  finally  because  of  his  in- 
creased pastoral  and  other  duties  ;  and  is  class  secre- 
tary of  his  college  class,  which  was  graduated  in 
1862,  and  he  published  a  history  of  the  class  at  its 
twenty-fifth  annual  reunion,  in  1887.  Surely  Mr. 
Gerhards  stands  an  unchallenged  champion  in  ac- 
tivity and  hard  work  among  the  clergy  of  his  age. 

Rev.  Gerhard  married  Miss  Mary  C.  Geise,  of 
Reading,  Pa.,  a  daughter  of  Jacob  Geise,  a  coal 
dealer  and  farmer.  From  this  union  there  were  five 
children  born  as  follows  :  ( i)  Paul  Lambert,  A.  M., 
a  graduate  of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  and  of 
the  Theological  Seminary  at  Lancaster,  Pa.,  is  now 
a  missionary  teacher  in  Sendai,  Japan,  where  he 
occupies  the  chair  of  English  language  and  literat- 
ure. (2)  Elizabeth  R.,  a  graduate  of  the  Lancaster 
High  School,  was  in  1900  assistant  matron  at  Beth- 
any Orphan  Home,  but  is  now  living  at  home.     (3) 

Mary  E.,  a  graduate  of  the  Lancaster  High  School 
and  of  the  Woman's  College,  Frederick,  Md.,  re- 
ceiving from  the  latter  institution  the  degree  of  A. 
B.,  is  the  teacher  of  the  Brick  Hill  school  in  East 
Drumore  township,  Lancaster  county.  (4)  Martha 
E.,  a  graduate  of  the  Lancaster  High  school,  and 
the  Millersville  Normal  School,  is  a  teacher  in  Tay- 
loria.  Little  Britain  township.  (5)  William  S.  is 
a  member  of  the  class  of  1903,  in  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College.  These  are  descendants  of  a  fam- 
ily that  has  been  noted  for  its  piety  and  devotion 
to  the  Reformed  Church  for  generations,  and  who, 
like  their  father,  are  worthy  descendants  of  a  time- 
honore4  and  respected  family. 

JACOB  BAUSMAN  was  born  Oct.  18,  1812, 
in  Lancaster  township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  and  was 
the  fourth  in  the  family  of  John  Bausman  (Feb.  5, 
1780-N0V.  20,  1861)  and  Elizabeth  Peters  (Dec. 
i9>  1779-Dec.  18,  1851),  who  were  married  April 
4,  1805.  His  paternal  ancestry  is  traced  back  to 
Philip  Bausman,  born  in  1539,  in  Hockenheim,  two 
miles  from  the  city  of  Kreuznach,  in  Rhine-Prussia, 

The  family  in  Germany  were  uniformly  farmers 
and  vine-dressers.  John  Bausman,  the  father,  born 
Feb.  5,  1780,  in  Freilaubersheim,  son  of  Johann 
Heinrich  Bausman  (Oct.,  1746 — April,  i793)and 
his  wife,  Barbara  Bernhardt,  came  to  America  in 
1802,  to  become  the  heir  of  his  uncle,  Andreas  Baus- 
man (Feb.  25,  1734— Sept.  15,  1814)  and  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  Weigel  (Aug.  10,  1728 — Sept.  26,  1813), 
who  were  childless.  Andreas  left  Germany  in  1755, 
and  settled  near  Lancaster,  where  others  of  his  kin 
had  lived  for  a  number  of  years.  He  invested  his 
money  in  real  estate  and  amassed  a  large  fortune. 
[See  record  of  his  will,  proved  Sept.  22,  1814,  Reg- 
ister's Office,  Lancaster,  Will  Book  K,  Vol.  I,  Page 
639,  &c.]  He  lived  and  died  on  his  lands  between 
Lancaster  and  Millersville,  which  are  still  in  the 
Bausman  family. 

The  first  of  the  name  to  settle  in  Lancaster  came 
in  1725,  and  after  that  the  name  occurs  frequently 
in  the  early  baptismal  records  of  the  First  Reformed 
Church,  as  shown  in  Vols.  IV  and  V  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania German  Society.  Members  of  the  family  held 
various  positions  of  more  or  less  importance.  Will- 
iam Bausman  (July  i,  1724 — March  30,  1784)  mar- 
ried to  Elizabeth  Hiester,  a  collateral  ancestor,  was 
chief  burgess  of  Lancaster  in  1774-1775,  a  member 
of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  and  master  of  the 
barracks  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  in  all  of 
which  positions  he  rendered  conspicuous  service. 
[See  Pennsylvania  Archives.]  He  built  in  1762  the 
old  stone  residence  at  Nos.  121-123  East  King  street, 
Lancaster,  which  is  still  used  as  a  dwelling  house. 
His  son  William  (June  i,  1759 — April  25,  1833) 
was  register  and  recorder  of  the  county  from  i8og 
to  1818. 

Andreas    Bausman,    whose    lands    we   have   re- 




f erred  to,  bought  317  acres  along  what  is  now  the 
turnpike  to  Millersville,  for  the  equivalent  of  $680, 
from  which  a  single  acre  has  since  been  sold  for 
nearly  as  much,  and  out  of  the  products  of  a  single 
acre  of  which  nearly  as  much  has  been  realized  in 
one  year  as  the  total  original  investment.    When  he 
died,  in  1814,  he  was  probably  the  richest  farmer  in 
Lancaster  county,  and  his  nephew,  John  Bausman, 
became  his  executor  and  chief  heir,  and  founder  of 
the  prominent  family  of  his  name;  which,  though 
having  distinguished  members  in  professional  and 
mercantile  circles,  has  been  pre-eminent  in  the  agri- 
cultural life  of  the  county,  and  now  holds  under  cul- 
tivation many  hundreds  of  acres  of  land,  almost  ad- 
joining the  city,  in  Manor  and  Lancaster  townships, 
the  richest  and  most  populous  section  of  this  great 
county.     As  one  rides  out  along  the  Millersville 
street  railway  or  turnpike  about  half  the  distance, 
he  sees  a  beautiful  private  residence,  built  on  the 
right  of  the  way.    To  the  left  is  a  commodious  and 
comfortable  one  story  and  a  half  farm  house,  and 
near  by  a  substantial  stone  spring  house.     These 
buildings  illustrate  right  fitly  the  progress  of  the 
best  type  of  the  Lancaster  county  farmer.     That 
spring  house  was  built  by  Andreas  Bausman  in  1775, 
when,  he  made  whiskey  and  shipped  it  to  Pittsburg 
in  casks — two  of  them  strapped  upon  a  horse's  back. 
Upon  this  site  he  established  the  homestead,  which 
bids  fair  to  remain  in  the  family  for  generations  to 
come.     Here  came  John,  after  he  had  reared  his 
family  and  quit  farming,  and  here  his  son  Philip 
built  the  present  mansion  house,  which  is  now  owned 
and  occupied  by  Philip's  son,  David. 

Nine  children  blessed  the  marriage  of  John  Baus- 
man and  Elizabeth  Peters  (who  was  the  sister  of 
the  late  Hon.  Abraham  Peters),  eight  sons  and 
one  daughter.  The  youngest  son  is  Rev.  Dr.  Ben- 
jamin Bausman,  the  famous  preacher  of  the  Re- 
formed Church,  editor,  oriental  traveler  and  author, 
of  Reading,  Pennsylvania. 

Jacob  Bausman,  the  subject  proper  of  this  ar- 
ticle, died  Feb.  11,  1894,  in  the  eighty-second  year 
of  his  age,  but  his  portrait  will  still  be  recognized  as 
that  of  one  of  the  most  conspicuous,  influential  and 
busy  citizens  of  Lancaster  in  his  day.  Probably  no 
man  in  the  county  was  better  known,  and  for  half  a 
century  he  was  recognized  as  one  of  its  most  stable, 
firosperous  and  farsighted  business  men.  His  early 
education  was  received  in  the  district  school  near 
his  home.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  his  father  sent 
him  to  the  famous  boys'  school  of  John  Beck,  at 
Lititz,  from  which  vi^ent  forth  so  many  well  equipped 
youths  of  that  day.  He  remained  two  years  under 
the  instruction  of  Father  Beck.  Farmers'  boys  sev- 
enty-five years  ago  left  school  and  went  to  work'  a 
little  earlier  than,  as  a  rule,  they  do  now.  So  it 
happened  that  when  young  Bausman  was  about  nine- 
teen he  was  put  to  the  mill  at  Wabank,  then  one 
of  the  most  extensive  of  the  local  manufactories. 
He  did  not  confine  himself  strictly  to  the  dull  grind- 
ing of  the  millstones,  but  very  soon  displayed  that 

aptitude  for  trade  and  shrewdness  of  business  ven- 
ture which  characterized  his  subsequent  life.  At  that 
time  probably  no  gristmill  here  did  so  large  a  busi- 
ness as  the  Wabank.    It  was  owned  by  Jacob  Huber, 
subsequently  high  sheriff  of  the  county,  and  Mr. 
Bausman,  about  1835,  was  conducting  it  for  him  on 
shares.     That  was  the  year  of  a  wonderful  wheat 
crop,    which    in    the    succeeding   year    was    almost 
an  utter  failure  in  this  county.    As  early  as  April, 
in  1836,  it  was  to  be  seen  that  the  fly  had  destroyed 
the  crop,  but  before  that  Mr.  Bausman  had,  on  his 
own  account,  begun  to  buy  up  heavily  of  the  grain 
then  in  store.     Wheat  commanded  from  $1.10  to 
$1.20  a  bushel,  and  during  the  entire  winter  he  con- 
tinued making  large  investments  of  this  kind.  About 
this  time,  too,  there  was  a  revival  in  the  condition 
of  navigation  along  the  Conestoga.     The  old  com- 
panies having  failed,  their  rights,  sold  at  sheriff's 
sale,  were  bought  by  the  Colemans,  who  built  new 
packets,  which  connected  at  Safe  Harbor  with  the 
Tide  Water  canal.  The  latter  had  a  dam  at- Safe  Har- 
bor to  float  boats  across,  and  with  seventeen  miles 
of  slack  water  navigation,  seventy-one  chains,  with  a 
fall  of  sixty-four  feet,  there  was  a  valuable  water- 
power  at  every  locU,  and  times  were  brisk  along 
our  great  local  waterway.    Arks  loaded  with  flour, 
whiskey  and  other  products  of  agricultural  develop- 
ment were  being  loaded  and  floated  off  from  every 
port,  and  trade  and  commerce  flourished.  Mr.  Baus- 
man, as  has  been  stated,  bought  largely  of  wheat. 
It  advanced  rapidly  in  price ;  so  did  flour,  in  antici- 
pation of  a  light  wheat  crop ;  and  so  rapid  was  the 
rise  that  on  one  occasion,  when  an  arkload  of  500 
barrels  of  flour  was  detained  for  a  short  time  to 
remove  the  heads  of  the  barrels,  as  they  had  become 
wet,  to  prevent  damage  to  the  entire  contents,  flour 
advanced  $1  a  barrel  during  the  detention,  and  Mr. 
Bausman  made  $500  by  the  accident.     During  the 
year  of  the  grain  famine  very  little  grain  or  flour 
was   shipped  away  from  the  county.     The   entire 
product  of  Mr.  Bausman's  operations  was  needed 
for  the  local  demand;  flour  brought  $11   a  barrel 
in  Lancaster  city.    After  seven  years'  experience  in 
the  Wabank  Mill,  young  Bausman,  accompanied  by 
John  Linter,  concluded  to  try  his  fortunes  in  the 
West,  then  offering  glittering  inducements  to  ener- 
gy, enterprise  and  capital.    The  far  West  then  was 
Ohio,  and  between  Springfield  and  Dayton  the  Lan- 
caster county  boys  engaged  in  distilling  and  farm- 
ing.    In  the  fall  their  fathers  came  out  to  view  the 
situa.tion,  and,  not  being  entirely  satisfied  with  it, 
induced  the  young  men  to  return  to  Pennsylvania, 
which  they  did. ,  Jacob  Huber  failed  in  the  mean- 
time.    His   assignee,   Christopher  Hager,   exposed 
the  Wabank  mill  property  for  sale  and  it  was  bought 
by   Mr.   Bausman  and  Col.   William  B.   Fordney. 
When  he  engaged  in  business  for  himself  Mr.  Baus- 
man rapidly  extended  and  enlarged  his  operations, 
and  for  fifteen  years  they  were  of  a  very  extensive 
character.    He  became  known  all  over  eastern  Penn- 
S3'lvania  as  a  large  dealer  in  grain,  lumber,  flour 



and  cattle,  and  the  sawmill  connected  with  his  grist- 
mill did  a  large  business.  During  the  year  of  "the 
Irish  famine,"  in  1847,  he  dealt  largely  in  corn, 
making  frequent  purchases  or  engagements  to  de- 
liver as  much  as  10,000  bushels  at  one  transaction 
m  the  Philadelphia  Corn  Exchange. 

jVlr.  Bausman  sold  his  mill  property  to  the  Wa- 
bank  Hotel  Company,  the  story  of  whose  venture 
(.0  establish  a  summer  resort  on  the  Conestoga  is 
still  remembered  by  our  older  citizens.  From  the 
Wabank  Company  the  mill  passed  to  the  Oberholt- 
zers.  Meantime  Mr.  Bausman,  who  was  almost  a 
daily  visitor  to  Lancaster  city,  and  was  constantly 
associated  with  its  active  business  and  commercial 
concerns,  engaged  in  many  local  enterprises,  and 
ventured  without  stint  or  timidity  into  judicious 
speculations.  He  was  one  of  the  original  and  con- 
tinuous members  of  the  Lancaster  Gas  Company, 
which  had  such  a  prosperous  career.  He  was  early 
in  the  direction  of  the  cotton  mills,  and  one  of  the 
joint  owners  of  No.  3  until  it  was  sold  to  John 
Farnum  &  Co.  He  was  a  part  owner  of  the  Beaver 
Street  Cotton  Mill,  which  was  sold  after  the  death 
.  of  Dr.  John  L.  Atlee,  one  of  its  joint  proprietors. 
He  was  one  of  the  managers  of  the  Lancaster  Fire 
Insurance  Company  during  its  existence.  One  of 
his  largest  business  interests,  and  what  proved  to  be 
an  ufifortunate  venture,  was  his  association  with 
Thomas  Baumgardner  and  B.  F.  Shenk  in  the  En- 
terprise Coal  Company,  of  the  Shamokin  region. 
But  the  greater  part  of  Mr.  Bausman's  time  and 
attention  during  the  last  twenty-five  years  of  his 
life  was  devoted  to  the  management  of  the  affairs 
of  the  Farmers'  National  Bank.  That  institution 
has  a  history  of  nearly  a  century.  It  was  established 
first  on  Jan.  10,  1810,  with  a  capital  of  $300,000 
at  that  early  day.  Conrad  Schwarz  was  its  first 
president;  George  Graeff  succeeded  him  in  1814, 
and  the  line  of  his  successors  embraces  the  names  of 
William  Jenkins,  George  Louis  Mayer,  George  H. 
Krug  and  Christopher  Hager.  Mr.  Bausman  be- 
came a  director  of  the  institution  in  1855,  and  in 
1868  was  elected  to  the  presidency,  which  position 
he  filled  and  adorned  until  January,  1892,  when  by 
reason  of  his  age  he  declined  a  re-election  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  J.  W.  B.  Bausman,  Esq.  Mr. 
Bausman  owned  a  number  of  farms,  and  took  an 
active  interest  in  their  management.  He  was  one 
of  the  first  stockholders  of  the  Manor  Turnpike 
Road  Company,  and  served  as  a  director  until  his 
death.  He  was  identified  with  the  Millersville  State 
Normal  School  from  the  time  of  its  institution,  and 
for  many  years  was  trustee  of  Franklin  and  Mar- 
shall College,  and  the  treasurer  of  its  board  for 
twenty-eight  years.  He  was  a  prominent  member  of 
the  First  Reformed  Church  of  Lancaster,  and  a  liber- 
al contributor  to  every  form  of  church  benevolence. 

Mr.  Bausman  was  not  married  in  early  life,  and 
made  his  home  at  his  father's  residence  until  he  was 
over  forty  years  of  age.  On  Jan.  31,  1854,  he  mar- 
ried Mary  Baer,  who  died  Feb.  11,  1862;  the  only 

child  of  their  union  is  John  W.  B.  Bausman,  a  well- 
known  citizen  of  Lancaster,  and  a  sketch  of  whose 
career  follows  this.  Jacob  Bausman  after  his  mar- 
riage lived  on  his  farm  on  the  Columbia  turnpike, 
about  three  miles  west  of  Lancaster  city,  until  1883, 
when  he  and  his  son  moved  into  the  mansion  at  the 
corner  of  West  Chestnut  and  Concord  streets,  Lan- 
caster, where  his  son  still  resides.  Until  the  time  of 
his  death,  in  February,  1894,  he  was  a  familiar  figure' 
on  the  streets  of  the  city.  Every  day  found  him  at 
the  bank,  which  chiefly  engaged  his  attention,  and 
where  he  gave  direction  to  business  interests.  He 
was  widely  known  as  a  business  man  of  sagacity, 
integrity  and  stability.  He  took  great  pride  in  his 
native  county,  in  the  ancestral  vocation  of  his  fam- 
ily, and  in  the  wealth  and  high  cultivation  of  the 
lands  of  the  Manor  on  which  his  ancestors  settled, 
and  where  their  children  remained  among  the  first 
citizens  of  the  community.  He  recalled  with  clear 
recollection  the  dififerent  stages  of  his  career  and 
noted  the  development  of  our  material  interests. 

The  miller  of  to-day  has  to  watch  more  closely 
than  in  years  gone  by  the  fluctuations  of  the  grain 
market ;  the  farmer  no  longer  has  a  distillery  on  his 
premises,  nor  offers  the  bottle  to  every  hand  before 
every  meal ;  but,  in  the  main,  agricultural  modes  of 
to-day  are  not  radically  different  from  those  of  half 
a  century  ago  in  Lancaster  county ;  and  in  the  his- 
tory of  what  makes  for  prosperity,  stability  and  per- 
manency, no  name  shows  to  better  advantage  in  local 
annals  than  that  of  Bausman. 

nent and  influential  citizen  of  Lancaster,  was  born 
March  12,  1855,  in  East  Hempfield  township,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  only  child  of  Jacob  Bausman  (Oct. 
18,  1812 — Feb.  II,  1894)  and  Mary  Baer  (May  25, 
1816 — Feb.  II,  1862),  who  were  married  Jan.  31, 
1854.  The  record  of  his  paternal  ancestry  is  set 
forth  in  the  preceding  sketch  of  his  father.  His 
mother,  Mary  Baer,  was  a  daughter  of  Henry  Baer 
(Oct.  16,  1783 — Oct.  15,  1843)  and  Anna  Hershey 
(Sept.  9,  1791 — April  15,  1861).  Henry  Baer  was 
a  son  of  Martin  Baer  (March  14,  1755 — Aug.  19, 
1838),  who  was  married  to  his  cousin,  Elizabeth 
Baer  (Aug.  25,  1765 — July  3,  1849).  Martin  Baer 
was  a  son  of  Benjamin  Baer  (Feb.  16,  1727 — Aug. 
10,  1799)  and  Maria  Meylin  (April  10,  1735 — July 
27,  1806),  and  Benjamin  Baer  was  a  son  of  Henry  i 
Baer  (died  July  10,  1750)  and  Barbara,  his  wife,  the  \ 
great-great-great-grandfather,  and  original  settler, 
who  came  from  the  Canton  of  Berne,  Switzerland, 
to  Lancaster  county,  Pa.,  in  the  early  part  of  1717. 
With  a  view  to  acquiring  land  he  made  application 
on  the  27th  of  July,  of  that  year,  to  William  Penn's 
deputies  for  a  warrant  for  500  acres.  [See  Everts  &  / 
Peck's  History  of  Lancaster  County,  page  866.]/ 
The  warrant  was  issued  May  4,  1718,  and  the  land/ 
"surveyed  and  laid  out"  on  the  30th  of  the  same 
month.  On  June  20,  following,  a  patent  was  granted 
by  the  Proprietaries  of  the  Province  [see  Rolls  Office 



Mr.  Harris  was  reared  in  the  political  school  of 
Jefferson,  and  was  inclined  from  the  attack  upon 
Sumter,  to  frown  upon  the  armed  subjugation  of 
the  South,  deeming  it  without  the  range  of  the 
Federal  Constitution.  The  fearless  utterance  of  his 
sentiments  on  this  topic  led,  on  Feb.  20,  1863,  to  his 
arrest  by  military  authority,  but  he  was  discharged 
from  custody  by  habeas  corpus  the  following  day. 
Mr.  'Harris  wrote  and  published  his  Geographical 
Hand  Book  in  1862 — a  useful  book  of  reference  for 
the  student,  teacher  and  general  reader.  During  the 
same  year,  1862,  he  wrote  and  published  a  pamphlet 
of  eighty-six  pages  entitled  "The  Cause  of  the  War 
Shown,"  an  utterance  of  his  sentiments  which  had 
largely  led  to  his  before  mentioned  arrest.  Having 
written,  in  1872  he  published,  his  "Biographical 
History  of  Lancaster  County,"  an  octavo  of  600 
pages,  containing  sketches  of  the  early  settlers  and 
eminent  men  of  the  county.  In  1876  he  published 
his  "Review  of  the  Political  Conflict  in  America," 
the  same  being  a  condemnation  of  the  coercive  prin- 
ciples of  the  banner  of  victory  against  the  Southern 

Mr.  Harris  has  been  quite  an  investigator,  es- 
pecially in  the  field  of  religious  thought.  Having 
•early  freed  himself  from  one  of  the  most  stubborn 
schools  of  protestant  thought  into  a  change  of  faith, 
he  was  baptized  into  the  Roman  Catholic  Church 
Feb.  23,  1863.  His  articles,  however,  on  Frederick 
Schleiermacher  Origen,  the  ancient  divine,  and 
others  that  appeared  in  the  Mercersburg  Review  in 
1873  and  afterwards,  evince  a  rationalistic  change 
of  thought  to  have  taken  place  from  that  whfch  he 
■first,  upon  investigation,  adopted. 

Mr.  Harris  is  quite  a  linguist,  and  has  ever  had 
great  fondness  for  that  kind  of  study.  Besides  be- 
ing fairly  conversant  with  the  classical  languages 
of  Greek  and  Latin,  a  large  part  of  his  library  is 
made  up  of  the  writings  of  German  and  French 
authors,  which  languages  he  reads  with  ease.  Out- 
side of  his  mother  tongue  he  has  devoted  most  time 
to  the  mastering  of  the  German  language,  for  a 
clearer  understanding  of  the  great  writers  and 
thinkers  in  all  departments  of  science  and  phil- 
osophy, who  have  left  their  brightest  and  best 
couched  only  in  the  language  of  their  native 

AMOS  ELLMAKER.  Lancaster  county  has 
produced  few  men  of  intellectual  attainments  so 
brilliant  as  those  of  Amos  Ellmaker,  lawyer,  jurist 
and  statesman.  Fitted  by  mental  endowment  to  fill 
the  highest  political  stations  in  the  land,  admired  by 
a  wide  constituency,  courted  by  men  of  eminence 
and  renown,  he  possessed  that  equable  nature 
which  was  unmoved  by  the  glitter  of  political  prefer- 
ment, and  though  he  filled  many  positions  of  im- 
portance and  eminence  he  declined  many  others,  pre- 
ferring the  practice  of  his  profession  in  Lancaster 

Mr.  Ellmaker  was  a  native  of  Lancaster  county. 

born  Feb.  2,  1787,  son  of  Nathaniel  Ellmaker.  Giv- 
ing in  his  early  youth  abundant  evidence  of  superior 
ability.  Amos  was  afforded  by  his  father  the  oppor- 
tunity of  acquiring  a  liberal  education.  He  was  sent 
to  Princeton  College,  there  completing  his  classical 
education,  and  choosing  the  law  as  his  profession  he 
attended  the  then  celebrated  law  school  at  Litchfield, 
Conn.,  conducted  by  Judge  Reeves.  Admitted  to  the 
Bar,  Mr.  Ellmaker  began  practice  at  Harrisburg,  and 
he  speedily  established  himself  as  one  of  the  leading 
members  of  the  Pennsylvania  Bar.  His  professional 
life  became  one  of  great  activity.  He  was  an  officer 
in  the  army  that  marched  from  Pennsylvania  to  the 
defense  of  Baltimore  in  the  war  of .  1812.  He  was 
appointed  prosecuting  attorney  for  Dauphin  county, 
and  from  the  same  county  was  three  times  elected  to 
the  State  House  of  Representatives.  In  1814  he 
was  elected  to  Congress,  but  declined  to  serve;  for 
the  same  year  he  was  appointed  Presiding  Judge  for 
the  district  composed  of  Dauphin,  Lebanon  and 
Schuylkill  counties.  Resigning  this  judgeship  later, 
he  was  appointed  Attorney  General  of  the  Common- 
wealth, which  office  he  also  resigned,  in  1821. 

Removing  that  year  to  Lancaster,  Mr.  Ellmaker 
there  entered  upon  the  practice  of  law,  and  met  with 
extraordinary  success.  Completing  a  brilliant  career 
as  an  advocate,  he  retired  in  affluence  a  number  of 
years  later.  Judge  Ellmaker  was  in  1832  a  candidate 
of  the  anti-Masonic  party  for  Vice  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  two  years  later  he  received  next 
to  James  Buchanan  the  highest  legislative  vote  for 
United  States  senator.  Upon  the  accession  of  James 
Monroe  to  the  Presidency  Mr.  Ellmaker  was  ten- 
dered, but  declined,  the  cabinet  appointment  of  Sec- 
retary of  War,  a  position  for  which  he  was  admirably 
qualified,  and  though  urgently  solicited  by  his  many 
friends  to  accept  he  preferred  the  enjoyments  of  a 
quiet  life.  He  was  a  natural  leader  of  men  and 
political  thought,-  and  during  the  anti-Masonic  and 
the  Whig  campaigns  of  his  active  life  his  political 
views  and  sentiments  were  widely  sought.  He  com- 
manded a  wide  influence  in  professional  and  political 
'circles,  and  though  deaf  to  many  beckoning  calls  to 
honors  and  preferments  he  retained  and'  cherished 
to  the  last  the  affections  and  admiration  of  the  peo- 
ple of  Pennsylvania. 

Judge  Ellmaker  married,  in  1816,  Mary  Rachel 
Elder,  of  Harrisburg,  a  member  of  a  distinguished 
pioneer  family  of  Pennsylvania,  many  representa- 
tives of  which  attained  high  political  and  profes- 
sional honor.  She  was  a  granddaughter  of  Rev. 
John  Elder,  a  native  of  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  .and 
for  more  than  a  half  century  pastor  of  the  church 
at  Paxton,  Pa.  Several  of  his  sons  were  officers  in 
the  Revolutionary  army.  Judge  Amos  Ellmaker 
died  Nov.  28,  185 1.  His  family  consisted  of  six 
children,  Franklin,  Nathaniel,  Catharine  C,  Eliza- 
beth E.,  Thomas  and  Levi. 

Thomas  Ellmaker,  M.  D.,  a  retired  physician 
of  Lancaster,  and  perhaps  the  oldest  member  of  the 
medical  profession  in  that  city,  is  a  son  of  Hon. 



Amos  and  Mary  Rachel  (Elder)  Ellmaker.  He  was 
born  in  Lancaster  county  March  22,  1825,  and  in 
the  schools  of  Lancaster  city  received  his  early  edu- 
cation, subsequently  attending  St.  Paul's  Episcopal 
College,  on  Long  Island.  Attending  lectures  at  Jef- 
ferson Medical  College,  he  graduated  from  that  in- 
stitution March  24,  1846,  and  at  once  began  the 
practice  of  medicine  at  Landisville,  this  county.  He 
continued  successively  in  practice  for  a  period  of  five 
years,  and  then  removed  to  Lancaster,  where,  on 
West  King  street,  he  successfully  conducted  for 
twenty  years  a  drug  store.  Dr.  Ellmaker  then  re- 
tired from  active  life.  He  has  since  retained  his 
residence  at  Lancaster,  but  has  traveled  considerably 
through  the  West.  He  is  proficient  in  the  French, 
Latin  and  Greek  languages,  and  is  well  read  in  the 
sciences  also.  He  is  the  owner  of  a  large  and  well- 
selected  library,  which  he  keeps  up  to  date  by  judici- 
ous purchase.  He  has  been  a  member  of  the  Lan- 
caster City  and  County  Medical  Society,  of  the 
State  Medical  Society,  and  of  the  American  Medical 
Association.  He  served  as  president  of  the  Lan- 
caster Medical  Society,  and  as  secretary  for  three 
years.  In  politics  Dr.  Ellmaker  is  a  Republican.  He 
is  an  attendant  of  and  a  liberal  contributor  to  the 
Presbyterian  Church,  and  among  the  social  organiza- 
tions he  is  prominently  affiliated  with  the  Order  of 
United  American  Mechanics.  He  also  has  promi- 
nent business  and  financial  connections. 

Dr.  Ellmaker  has  never  had  need  to  use  glasses, 
and  he  is  a  remarkably  well  preserved  man  for  his 
age.  The  city  and  county  of  Lancaster  have  no 
warmer  friend  than  Dr.  Ellmaker.  He  has  been 
identified  with  many  business  interests,. and  in  any 
cause  for  public  improvement  his  aid  is  ever  ready. 

well-known  member  of  the  Lancaster  County  Bar, 
who  has  retired  after  an  active  practice  of  thirty- 
seven  years,  resides  in  one  of  the  handsomest  and 
most  comfortable  residences  in  Ephrata — a  village 
which  has  become  noted  for  its  attractive  residences 
and  air  of  solid  comfort. 

The  Seltzer  family  is  of  German  extraction. 
Three  brothers  came  from  Germany  to  America, 
one  of  them  settling  in  Berks  county.  Pa.,  one  in 
Lebanon  county,  and  the  third  in  Virginia.  It  was 
the  settler  in  Berks  county  who  founded  the  branch 
in  which  William  Konigmacher  Seltzer  traces  his 
direct  ancestral  line.  For  many  years  his  respected 
grandfather,  John  Seltzer,  was  a  leading  farmer 
in  the  vicinity  of  Womelsdorf. 

Jacob  Van  Reed  Seltzer,  son  of  John,  and  the 
father  of  William  K.,  was  a  wholesale  merchant  in 
Philadelphia  for  a  number  of  years,  remaining  in 
business  until  his  health  failed.  Returning  to  his 
old  home  in  Berks  county,  after  six  years  of  retire- 
ment, he  died  there  in  1853,  ^t  the  early  age  of 
thirty-six  years.  He  married  Mary  Konigmacher, 
daughter  of  the  late  William  Konigmacher,  the  well- 

known  farmer,  tanner  and  stone  contractor,  who 
furnished  all  the  fine  stone  for  Franklin  and  Mar- 
shall College;  St.  Mary's  Catholic  Church  of  Lan- 
caster ;  the  courthouse ;  the  Lancaster  county  prison ; 
the  store  front  of  the  building  erected  by  the  late 
John  N.  Lane,  now  owned  by  J.  R.  Foster;  and 
many  other  of  the  city's  most  notable  buildings. 
The  stone  was  furnished  from  the  famous  quarries 
which  are  located  near  Durlach,  this  county,  and 
which  cannot  be  equalled  in  the  State. 

The  Konigmacher  family  has  an  old  and  honor- 
able record  also,  great-grandfather  Dr.  Jacob  Konig- 
macher being  an  eminent  physician  of  his  time. 
Among  the  prized  possessions  in  Mr.  Seltzer's  home 
is  a  veritable  "great-grandfather's  clock,"  which 
was  once  used  by  this  ancestor,  and  which  still 
serves  its  purpose,  although  its  face  has  looked  out 
upon  the  domestic  life  of  its  owners  for  fully  125 

Upon  the  death  of  Jacob  Van  Reed  Seltzer  his. 
widow  removed  to  Ephrata,  which  was  her  old 
home,  taking  her  nine-year-old  son,  William  K., 
with  her,  and  through  all  these  years  mother  and 
son  have  been  spared  to  one  another,  the  tender  af- 
fection between  them  realizing  the  highest  maternal 
and  filial  love.  Mrs.  Seltzer  is  a  woman  of  superior 
mind  and  attainments,  mentally  equipped  and  phy- 
sically as  strong  as  many  women  who  have  not  yet 
passed  the  half-century  life  mark. 

William  Konigmacher  Seltzer  was  born  Aug.  8,. 
1844,  at  Womelsdorf,  Pa.,  and  was  educated  in  the 
schools  there  and  in  Lancaster  county.  For  a  time 
he  pursued  higher  branches  at  the  State  Normal 
School  at  Millersville,  after  which  he  taught  school 
for  several  years,  all  the  time,  however,  having  his 
mind  fixed  on  the  study  of  the  law.  Finally,  with 
this  end  in  view,  he  went  to  New  Haven,  Conn., 
and  there  took  a  preparatory  course,  later  entering 
the  Yale  Law  School.  Upon  his  return  to  Lancas- 
ter county  he  entered  the  law  office  of  the  revered 
Hon.  Nathaniel  Ellmaker,  of  the  city  of  Lancaster, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  his  profession 
in  September,  1865.  Later  he  was  admitted  to  the 
Supreme  and  Superior  courts,  and  for  a  period 
of  thirty-seven  years  engaged  in  successful  practice. 
For  twenty-five  years,  as  justice  of  the  peace,  Mr, 
Seltzer  administered  impartial  justice.  Although  a 
lifelong  Republican,  and  active  in  the  work  of  the 
party,  he  received  his  first  appointment  to  this  posi- 
tion from  a  Democratic  governor,  Pattison.  Mr. 
Seltzer  resigned  the  office  some  four  years  ago. 
For  a  number  of  years  he  was  also  a  notary  public, 
and  as  such  attended  to  a  great  deal  of  business. 
As  stated  above,  Mr.  Seltzer  is  a  lifelong  Republi- 
can, and  it  can  also  be  said  'that  his  Republicanism 
is  such  that  where  he  stands  politically  is  not  ques- 
tioned. He  has  served  as  delegate  to  county.  State 
and  National  conventions,  and  was  one  of  the  fam-. 
ous  306  who,  in  the  Republican  National  Convention 



of  1880,  believed  so  strongly  in  the  wisdom  of  Gen. 
Grant's  serving  a  third  term  as  President  that  they 
went  down  to  defeat  with  their  colors  nailed  to  the 

Mr.  Seltzer's  interest  in  educational  matters  has 
made  him  a  particularly  useful  member  of  the  school 
board,  on  which  he  has  served  for  five  years,  and 
he  is  serving  his  second  year  as  its  efficient  presi- 
dent. Although  he  is  a  most  effective  speaker, 
arid  a  most  desirable  candidate  for  almost  any  office 
in  the  eyes  of  his  friends,  he  has  steadily  declined 
political  preferment,  private  life  being  more  to 
his  taste.  Since  June,  1866,  he  has  been  president 
of  the  Northern  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company  of 
Lancaster  county,  which  manages  about  $18,000,- 
000  of  local  insurance. 

In  his  early  manhood  Mr.  Seltzer  was  sworn  in 
as  a  militiaman  and  served  during  the  Civil  war, 
for  one  year  as  a  member  of  Battery  I,  Pa.  Light 
Artillery,  under  Capt.  Nevin.  In  this  connection, 
as  in  other  relations  of  life,  he  gave  faithful  and 
satisfactory  service.  For  nearly  twenty  years  he  has 
been  a  vestryman  in  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  for 
a  considerable  period  was  superintendent  of  the 
Sunday-school.  Fraternally  he  is  a  Thirty-second 
degree  Mason,  a  member  of  the  Consistory  and  all 
the  bodies  leading  up  to  that  honorable  body. 

In  1869  William  K.  Seltzer  married  Miss  Emma 
Keller,  daughter  of  Jacob  B.  Keller,  a  retired  mer- 
chant of  Ephrata,  who  had  also  been  a  prominent 
miller  and  farmer  in  his  day.  Six  children  were 
born  to  this  union,  five  of  whom  are  still  living: 
Henry  Kent,  who  graduated  from  Lehigh  Univers- 
ity, class  of  1895,  is  now  following  a  successful 
career  as  a  civil  engineer  in  Kansas  City,  being 
connected  with  the  responsible  firm  of  Waddell  & 
Hedrick,  consulting  engineers,  the  senior  member 
of  this  well-known  firm  having  received  a  decoration 
from  the  Emperor  of  Japan.  Jacob  Franklin  died 
at  the  age  of  ten  years.  Naomi  M.  was  educated 
at  Ladies  College,  Hagerstown,  Md.  Lillian  R. 
was  educated  at  Wilson  College,  Chambersburg,  Pa, 
Mabel  R.  was  a  student  at  the  excellent  Quaker, 
George  School,  near  Newtown,  Bucks  county,  which 
is  under  the  supervision  of  the  Society  of  Friends, 
and  at  present  is  attending  Irving  College,  at  Me- 
chanicsburg.  Pa.  William  Van  Reed,  also  a  student, 
is  at  home. 

The  professional  life  of  Mr.  Seltzer  has  been  3, 
successful  one,  but  the  business  affairs  of  the  great 
company  which  he  so  efficiently  directs  leave  hin^ 
no  time  to  continue  in  that  line.  His  familiarity  with 
the  risks  and  responsibilities  of  the  business  has 
made  him  highly  valued  by  his  associates,  and  gained 
him  the  confidence  of  the  public.  A  pleasant,  gen- 
ial gentleman,  overflowing  with  the  milk  of  human 
kindness,  with  an  open  hand  and  a  ready  smile,  Mr. 
Seltzer  is  one  of  the  most  popular  and  highly  es- 
teemed citizens  of  Ephrata. 

PATRICK  McEVOY  (deceased),  who  was  one 
of  Lancaster's  most  prominent  men,  was  born  in 
Mount  Mellick,  Queen's  County,  Ireland,  in  1805, 
and  came  to  America  in  1823.  He  found  employ- 
ment with  a  railroad  contractor,  but  in  a  few  years 
embarked  for  himself  in  the  same  business.  Return- 
ing to  Ireland,  he  in  1835  was  married  there  to  Julia 
Maher,  a  native  of  the  same  place  as  himself.  With 
his  wife  he  returned  to  America,  and  purchasing  a 
tract  of  land  just  outside  the  limits  of  Lancaster,  re- 
sided there  until  his  death.  He  became  the  business 
partner  of  Mr.  Malone  and  in  a  few  years  was  one  of 
the  most  extensive  railroad  contractors  in  the  coun- 
try. He  had  large  contracts  in  the  construction  of 
the  Pennsylvania  railroad,  the  New  York  and  Erie, 
and  on  the  Susquehanna  tide-water  canal.  One  of 
the  finest  pieces  of  railroad  in  the  United  States  is 
the  section  of  the  Central  Pennsylvania  railroad  at 
Kittanning  Point,  and  this  was  constructed  by  Mr. 

In  1867  Mr.  McEvoy  became  a  member  of  the 
banking  house  of  Evans,  McEvoy  &  Co.,  in  Laricas- 
ter ;  he  was  the  owner  of  considerable  real-estate,  a 
stockholder  of  the  Pennsylvania  Central  railroad ;  a 
director  of  a  number  of  turnpike  companies  and  also 
of  the  old  Lancaster  Bank.  In  1864  he  was  a  Presi- 
dential elector  on  the  Democratic  ticket.  He  was  a 
very  liberal  man  and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
Buchanan-McEvoy-Reynolds  Relief  Fund  of  Lan- 
caster city,  and  he  bequeathed  various  amounts  to 
the  Boys'  Orphan  Asylum,  Philadelphia;  and  the 
Catholic  Seminary  at  Overbrook,  Pa.  He  died  Feb. 
I,  1870,  and  is  interred  in  St.  Mary's  Catholic  Ceme- 
tery, Lancaster. 

REV.  JACOB  R.  HERSHEY.  The  Hershey 
family  is  not  only  one  of  the  most  prominent,  but  is 
also  one  of  the  oldest  families  in  Lancaster  county, 
having  been  founded  in  1719.  Its  numerous  repre- 
sentBtives  have  been  noted  for  their  excellence,  as  far- 
mers, their  intelligence  and  morality  as  citizens,  and 
for  their  work  and  influence  in  the  Mennonite 

Andrew  Hershey  was  born  in  Switzerland  in 
1702.  His  father  removed  to  the  Palatinate,  and  be- 
came a  member  of  the  court  of  Freidensheim.  In 
1719  the  records  tell  that  with  his  father  and  brother 
Benjamin,  Andrew  Hershey  emigrated  to  America 
and  settled  in  Lancaster  county.  Pa.  The  other 
brother.  Christian,  was  forced  to  remain  behind  at 
the  court,  but  in  1739  he  also  came  to  America  and 
joined  the  two  brothers  who  had  preceded  him. 
They  were  all  serious-minded,  worthy  men,  and 
were  chosen  to  be  ministers  in  the  Mennonite 
Church.  Andrew  Hershey  lived  to  the  age  of  ninety 
years,  and  died  in  1792.  He  had  the  following 
children:  Christian,  Andrew,  John,  Benjamin, 
Jacob,  Abraliam,  Isaac,  Herii-y,  Peter,  Catheririe> 
Maria  and  Adli. 



Andrew  Hershey  (2),  son  of  Andrew,  was  born 
in  Lancaster  county,  and  married  Magdelina  Bach- 
man.  He  was  a  farmer  all  his  life  and  died  July 
16,  1806 ;  his  widow  survived  until  Sept.  10,  1833. 

Jacob  Hershey,  son  of  Andrew  (2)  was  a  well- 
known  farmer  of  Lancaster  county.  He  married 
Anna  Newcomer,  and  their  children  were :  John, 
Christian,  Abraham  and  Joseph.  Jacob  Hershey 
died  in  1825,  at  the  age  of  eighty  years,  while  his 
widow  survived  until  1830,  dying  at  the  age  of 
eighty-one  years. 

Bishop  Joseph  Hershey,  son  of  Jacob  and  father 
of  Rev.  Jacob  R.  Hershey,  was  for  many  years  a 
bishop  in  the  Mennonite  Church,  and  by  precept  and 
example,  promulgated  his  belief;  His  residence  was 
on  the  old  Hershey  estate  in  SaUsbury  township, 
where  he  died  in  1855,  at  the  age  of  sixty-four 
years.  His  wife,  Magdalena  (Roop)  Hershey,  a 
daughter  of  Andrew  and  Esther  (Kauffman)  Roop, 
died  April  19,  1887,  aged  eighty-nine  years  and  ter^ 
months,  and  was  laid  to  rest  by  her  husband's  side 
in  the  old  Hershey  cemetery,  in  Salisbury  township, 
this  quiet  spot  having  been  a  part  of  the  original 
estate.  The  children  born  to  this  union  were :  Rev. 
Jacob  R.,  of  this  sketch ;  Christian,  who  died  at  the 
age  of  eighteen  years;  Barbara,  deceased  wife  of 
David  Hoover;  Anna,  who  died  young;  John,  who 
died  young;  and  Abraham. 

Rev.  Jacob  R.  Hershey,  son  of  Bishop  Joseph 
and  Magdalena  (Roop)  Hershey,  was  bom  on  his 
present  farm,  Aug.  9,  1817,  and  there  grew  to  man- 
hood. For  many  years  he  was  well  known  in  agri- 
cultural circles,  but  he  retired  from  all  active  labor 
in  1877.  Brought  up  under  Christian  influences, 
in  a  pious  and  godly  home,  his  beloved  parents 
setting  him  noble  examples,  the  young  man  early 
professed  religious  conviction  and  became  a  minister 
in  the  Mennonite  Church.  In  1858  he  was  ordained 
to  the  work,  and  for  forty-two  years  has  been  a 
faithful  laborer  in  the  field  of  usefulness  in  which 
he  was  placed.  He  is  known  and  beloved  over  a 
wide  extent  of  territory,  and  particularly  in  the 
Old  Road  and  Paradise  charges,  where  hjs  labors 
have  been  much  blessed.  Although  no  politician,  his 
sympathies  have  always  been  with  the  Republican 
party.  For  a  considerable  period  he  served  as 
school  director,  and  has  taken  a  deep  interest  in 
educational  matters.  With  the  exception  of  four 
years  passed  on  a  neighboring  farm,  the  one  he 
now  occupies  has  always  been  his  home.  Here  he 
is  surrounded  by  all  that  makes  advanced  life  com- 
fortable, is  the  center  of  loving  relatives  and  friends, 
and  appears  much  younger  than  many  of  his  con- 
temporaries, as  he  reads  without  glasses.  With  the 
exception  of  a  hardness  of  hearing,  he  shows  that 
Time  has  touched  him  very  gently. 

On  Nov.  29,  1839,  in  Lancaster,  Rev.  Hershey 
was  married  to  Margaret  Eby,  born  July  14,1819,  in 
Salisbury  township,  daughter  of  Peter  Eby  (whose 

wife  was  a  member  of  the  Weaver  family),  and 
sister  of  Bishop  Eby.  (For  sketch  of  Eby  family, 
see  another  part  of  this  volume).  To  Rev.  Jacob 
R.  and  Margaret  (Eby)  Hershey  were  born  nine 
children,  of  whom  we  have  the  following  record: 
Josiah;  Magdalena,  the  wife  of  John  R.  Buck- 
walder,  of  Kinzers,  Pa. ;  Peter,  who  went  to  the 
West  and  has  never  been  heard  from;  Ephraim',  a 
farmer  in  Salisbury  township;  Mary,  who  married 
Christian  Metzler,  a  farmer  of  Paradise  township; 
Jacob,  a  farmer  of  Salisbury  township ;  Lizzie,  who 
died  young;  and  Margaret,  also  deceased. 

Ephraim  Hershey,  the  third  son  of  Rev.  Jacob 
R.  and  Margaret  (Eby)  Hershey,  was  born  on  the 
old  homestead,  in  Salisbury  township,  Dec.  6,  1844. 
Until  his  marriage  he  remained  under  the  parental 
roof,  and  then  took  charge  of  the  farming  opera- 
tions there  for  three  years.  He  next  removed  to  his 
present  excellent  farm  of  ninety-three  acres,  and 
has  developed  them  in  the  same  excellent  manner.  In 
his  locality  he  is  much  esteemed,  and  he  and  family 
belong  to  the  Mennonite  Church.  He  belongs  to  no 
political  party,  casting  his  vote  as  he  deems  best 
for  all  concerned. 

On  Jan.  i,  1867,  Ephraim  Hershey  was  married 
to  Susan  E.  Leaman,  of  Paradise  township,  and  to 
this  union  were  born  the  following  children:  Ira, 
who  married  Sarah  Kreider,  is  a  farmer  in  Salisbury 
township,  and  has  six  children;  Emma  M.,  who 
married  John  G.  Wenger,  lives  in  Salisbury  town- 
ship, and  they  have  four  children;  Frank  B.,  who 
married  Lydia  W.  Buckwalter,  is  a  farmer  in 
Salisbury  township;  and  Omer  E.,  Elam  W., 
Ephraim  K.,  Jacob  R.,  Jr.,  and  Alice  W.  are  at  home. 
Mrs.  Susan  E.  (Leaman)  Hershey  was  born  May  3,  , 
1845.,  ill  Leacock  township,  daughter  of  Jacob  and 
Lydia  (Buckwalter)  Leaman,  the  former  of  whom 
was  a  farmer,  and  for  many  years  a  school  director 
of  East  Lampeter  township.  He  died  in  1891,  at  the 
age  of  seventy  years,  and  was  buried  in  Mellinger's 
cemetery,  near  Lancaster.  His  widow  resides  in 
Paradise  township,  with  her  daughter,  Mrs.  John 
Kreider.  Both  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leaman  were  members 
of  the  Mennonite  Church.    • 

Jacob  E.  Hershey,  general  farmer,  was  born 
in  Salisbury  township,  on  his  present  farm,  Sept. 
13,  1856,  son  of  Rev.  Jacob  R.  and  Margaret  (Eby) 
Hershey.  He  was  reared  to  farm  life  and  has 
followed  agricultural  pursuits  exclusively,  on  this 
farm,  all  his  ictive  life,  with  the  exception  of  three 
years  spent  on  a  neighboring  estate.  Mr.  Hershey 
like  the  other  members  of  his  family  is  highly  es- 
teemed as  a  man  of  honor  and  reliability,  and  belongs 
to  a  family  which  is  one  of  the  most  substantial  in  this 
part  of  Lancaster  county.  He  has  shown  a  deep 
interest  in  educational  matters,  and  has  served  as 
school  director  for  the  past  fifteen  years.  In  politics 
he  is  a  Republican.  With  his  family  he  belongs  to, 
and  assists  in  supporting,  the  Mennonite  Church. 



On  Oct.  26,  1876,  in  Lancaster,  Mr.  Hershey  was 
married  to  Miss  Mary  Esbenshade,  and  the  children 
born  to  this  union  were  as  follows:  Herbert,  at 
home;  Clayton,  who  married  Ella  Buchwalder,  has 
one  child,  and  lives  in  Paradise  township;  Milton, 
Elwood,  Bertha,  Mabel,  Edna  and  Margerie,  are  at 
home;  and  Willis  died  young. 

Mrs.  Mary  (Esbenshade)  Hershey  was  born  in 
Earl  township,  Nov.  25,  1852,  daughter  of  Jacob  and 
Susannah  (Bushong)  Esbenshade,  of  Lancaster 
county,  both  of  whom  died  in  East  Earl  township, 
where  they  were  farming  people  all  their  lives.  The 
father  of  Mrs.  Hershey  died  in  1898,  aged  sixty- 
nine  years,  and  the  mother  died  in  August,  1901, 
aged  seventy-oiie  years.  Both  parents  were  interred 
in  Eaby's  cemetery  in  West  Leacock  township,  hav- 
ing long  been  members  of  the  German  Baptist 
Church.  They  had  these  children  born  to  them, 
besides  Mary,  who  is  the  wife  of  Jacob  E.  Hershey ; 
Elizabeth,  deceased  wife  of  John  Kochel;  Sarah, 
wife  of  Rife  Myers,  a  farmer  of  Earl  township; 
Emma,  wife  of  Frank  Buckwalder,  of  Paradise 
township ;  Susan,  wife  of  Elam  Kreider,  of  West 
Leacock  township ;  Lydia,  wife  of  Martin  Ebersole, 
of  Paradise  township;  Amanda,  wife  of  Walter 
Mays,  of  East  Earl  township ;  and  Adam,  a  farmer 
of  East  Earl  township. 

NATHANIEL  ELLMAKER,  lawyer,  philan- 
thropist and  Christian  gentleman,  was  born  in  Har- 
risburg.  Pa.,  April  27,  1817.  He  was  descended 
from  that  sturdy  German  stock  that  came  to  Penn- 
sylvania early  in  the  eighteenth  century  and  did  so 
much  to  give  tone  and  direction  to  Pennsylvania 
during  its  formative  period.  The  first  comer  of  the 
name  was  Leonard  EUmaker,  who  reached  Lancas- 
ter county  in  1724.  He  became  a  prominent  and 
well-to-do  citizen.  His  son,  Nathaniel,  became  still 
more  prominent  in  the  afifairs  of  the  Commonwealth, 
being  honored  with  election  to  the  State  Senate  in 
1796.  He  was  a  man  of  more  than  average  ability, 
of  much  independence  of  character,  great  probity, 
^nd  an  unswerving  lover  of  truth.  Still  more  promi- 
nent in  public  affairs  was  Amos  EUmaker,  son  of 
the  last  named,  who  was  born  in  Lancaster  county 
Feb.  2,  1787.  From  boyhood  he  manifested  a  ten- 
dency toward  something  higher  than  the  rural  life 
to  which  he  was  bom,  and  his  father  wisely  allowed 
him  to  follow  the  bent  of  his  inclinations  by  sending 
him  to  Princeton  College,  where  he  was  graduated. 
Later  he  studied  law.  He  began  the  practice  of  his 
profession  in  the  city  of  Harrisburg.  He  was  ap- 
pointed prosecuting  attorney  of  Dauphin  county, 
and  was  thrice  sent  to  the  State  Legislature  by  the 
same  constituency.  In  1814  he  was  elected  to  Con- 
gress, but  declined  to  serve,  having  been  appointed 
President  Judge  of  the  district  composed  of  Dau- 
phin, Lebanon  and  Schuylkill  cotinties.  Still  higher 
honors  awaited  him.  Resigning  his  judgeship,  he 
was  made  Attornev  General  of  the  Commonwealth. 

He  resigned  that  position  also,  and  in  1821  came  to 
Lancaster,  where  he  resumed  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession. His  success  was  remarkable.  He  became 
prominent  in  politics  also,  and  he  was  the  Anti-Ma- 
sonic candidate  for  the  Vice-Presidency  in  1832. 
Two  years  later  he  was  a  candidate  for  the  United 
States  Senate,  his  vote  being  next  to  that  of  James 
Buchanan,,  who  was  the  successful  candidate.  He 
declined  the  position  of  Secretary  of  War,  tendered 
him  by  President  Monroe.  Amos  EUmaker  was  the 
father  of  Nathaniel  EUmaker,  whose  name  intro- 
duces this  article. 

With  such  a  father,  and  under  such  training  as 
his  home  life  so  generously  gave,  young  EUmaker 
naturally  developed  those  sterling  traits  of  character 
which  became  so  conspicuous  during  his  long  and 
useful  later  career.  As  already  said,  Nathaniel  Ell- 
maker  was  born  in  1817  in  Harrisburg,  where 
his  father  at  that  time  resided.  His  early  education 
was  carefully  attended  to  at  his  own  home.  Upon 
his  father's  removal  to  Lancaster,  in  1821,  home  in- 
struction was  supplemented  by  the  private  schools 
of  that  city.  Still  later  he  attended  the  well-known 
school  at  Lititz,  taught  by  that  eminent  instructor, 
John  Beck,  In  due  time  he  graduated  from  thence 
to  complete  his  education  at  an  academy  of  high  re- 
pute in  Burlington,  N.  J.  Young  EUmaker  was 
bright  and  quick,  and  emerged  from  that  institution 
with  a  mind  well  equipped  for  the  battle  of  life  which 
he  was  soon  to  enter. 

Making  choice  of  the  law  as  his  life  work,  he 
took  the  full  course  at  the  Yale  College  Law  School. 
At  its  conclusion  he  entered  the  ofi&ce  of  his  illus- 
trious father,  where  the  real  practical  duties  of  his 
profession  were  fully  and  quickly  mastered.  On 
May  2,  1838,  his  aspirations  were  finally  realized  by 
his  admission  to  the  Lancaster  Bar,  which  he  was 
destined  for  a  period  of  sixty  years  to  adorn  with 
his  legal  abilities  and  eloquence,  and  to  uplift  by  his 
dignity  and  high  personal  character.  Ably  equipped 
as  he  was  for  the  duties  of  his  profession,  he  quickly 
acquired  a  large  practice  at  a  Bar  noted  for  its 
strong  lawyers.  In  conducting  the  business  of  his 
large  clientage  he  was  continually  brought  into  those 
intellectual  combats  in  which  the  strong  lawyer, 
conscious  of  his  powers,  delights.  The  eloquent  Col. 
Eraser,  the  learned  and  sarcastic  Stevens,  the  well- 
read  Franklin,  and  a  host  of  other  eminent  celebri- 
ties, were  the  men  young  EUmaker  was  time  and 
again  called  upon  to  meet  in  legal  combat,  nor  did 
these  veterans  always  escape  without  marks  of  the 
legal  fray.  He  sought  rather  than  shunned  them, 
for  he  well  knew  that  the  highest  honors  were  won 
in  honorable  battle  with  the  giants  of  his  profession, 
and  not  with  its  weaklings.  He  became  a  favorite 
with  the  people  of  the  county,  as  his  father  had  been 
before  him,  and  his  practice  in  the  Common  PleaS 
was  large  and  lucrative.  His  wide  legal  knowledge, 
united  with  his  elevation  of  character  and  suavity 
of  manner,  made  him  a  dangerous  opponent  before 
a  jury.    His  love  of  justice,  and  his  natural  hatred 

^^7^-b.^^--^-  ^Ye^ 



of  wrongdoing  in  all  its  forms,  impressed  themselves 
on  the  community,  and  his  clients  generally  were  of 
the  best  class  in  it.  This  confidence  was  transmitted 
from  father  to  son,  and  to  be  once  his  client  was  to 
remain  so  always.  His  practice  in  the  Orphans' 
court,  than  which  there  can  hardly  be  a  higher  test 
of  confidence,  was  admittedly  the  largest  ever  en- 
joyed by  a  member  of  the  local  Bar. 

Mr.  Ellmaker,  as  may  be  inferred  from  what  has 
already  been  said,  never  took  a  retainer  in  a  case 
which  he  knew  to  be  unjust.  For  this  reason,  no 
doubt,  was  his  early  resolve  never  to  act  for  cor- 
porations, where  perhaps  such  cases  might  confront 
him,  and  to  the  last  he  preferred  to  stand  with  the 
people,  refusing  all  corporation  business.  That  de- 
termination cost  him  much  money.  But  what  of 
that  ?  His  conscience  remained  calm  and  serene,  and 
that  was  greater  reward  to  him  than  great  gains  won 
in  an  unworthy  cause.  Pages  might  be  written  of 
those  noble  traits  of  character  which  marked  every 
step  of  his  career  in  his  long  and  useful  life.  It  is 
certain  that  Mr.  Ellmaker  imbibed  his  lofty  ideas  of 
propriety  and  duty  from  his  illustrious  father,  in 
whom  they  were  also  conspicuous. 

In  addition  to  the  claims  of  an  arduous  profes- 
sion upon  him,  Mr.  Ellmaker  found  time  to  do  a 
large  amount  of  miscellaneous  reading.  The  result 
was  that  few  men  were  so  thoroughly  informed  of 
what  was  going  on  in  the  .great  world  of  to-day  as 
he  was.  His  general  knowledge  had  a  wide  range, 
and  was  fullv  at  his  command,  making  him  an  ad- 
mirable companion  in  social  life. 

Although  his  father  was  in  public  life  as  states- 
man, politician  and  a  holder  of  high  party  trusts,  he 
cautioned  his  son  from  pursuing  a  like  course.  The 
request  was  heeded,  and,  although  from  his  being 
so  well  known  to  the  public,  and  a  member  of  the 
dominant  party,  almost  any  local  political  honor  was 
within  his  easy  reach,  he  turned  aside  from  the  allur- 
ing temptation  and  remained  until  the  end  an  ardent 
lover  of  his  first  mistress,  the  law. 

Mr.  E'llmaker  was  at  once  one  of  the  most  lib- 
eral and  most  modest  of  men.  His  hand  and  his 
purse  were  ever  open  to  the  calls  of  charity.  Every 
worthy  organization  in  the  community  had  in  him 
a  friend  and  a  patron.  His  benefactions  were  lib- 
eral, but  they  seldom  reached  the  public  ear,  and 
only  when  publicity  was  unavoidable.  Truly  his 
charity  was  of  the  kind  spoken  of  by  the  Master 
when  he  said,  "Let  not  thy  left  hand  know  what  thy 
right  hand  doeth,"  and  many  a  deserving  local  char- 
ity has  had  cause  to  regret  his  departure. 

Nathaniel  Ellmaker  was  married  to  Cecilia 
Hager.  daughter  of  Christopher  Hager,  a  prominent 
merchant  of  Lancaster.  No  children  came  to  bless 
this  happy  union.  The  widow  is  still  living.  Mr. 
EUm.aker's  early  religious  affiliations  were  with  the 
Episcopal  Church,  but  later  he  united  himself  with 
the  Lutheran  Church. 

It  is  difficult  in  a  brief  sketch  like  this  to  do  full 
justice  to  a'  life  so  pure  and  beautiful  as  that  of 


Nathaniel  Ellmaker.  Although  he  was  decided  and 
firm  in  his  opinions,  they  were  advanced  in  a  man^ 
ner  not  calculated  to  wound  or  give  offense,  but  his 
sense  of  right  was  so  strong  that  nothing  could 
swerve  him  from  it.  In  accepting  a  legal  work,  he 
made  it  his  aim  never  to  defend  a  case  he  believed 
unjust.  He  believed  in  the  justice  of  it  so  strongly 
that  his  sincerity  impressed  itself  upon  the  jury,  and 
carried  the  day.  Although  reluctant  to  intrude  his 
opinions  upon  the  public,  any  public  scheme  intended 
to  deceive  or  defraud  was  pretty  sure  to  be  sharply 
antagonized  by  a  communication  from  his  pen  in  the 
public  journals.  In  all  the  relations  of  life  Mr.  Ell- 
maker was  justly  regarded  by  the  community  as  a 
high-toned,  upright,  conscientious  gentleman;  a 
model  man,  in  fact,  of  whom  no  praise  was  too 
strong  and  no  words  too  eulogistic.  We  can  only 
say  the  world  was  better  because  of  his  having  lived 
in  it,  and  poorer  because  of  his  departure. 

To  those  who  knew  Mr.  Ellmaker  in  his  lifetime,, 
or  had  dealings  with  him,  his  personal  character 
could  not  have  failed  to  become  well  known.  To 
those,  however,  of  the  next  generation,  for  whom 
this  book  rriust  be  principally  intended,  his  person- 
ality cannot  be  so  readily  comprehended  without  a 
brief  sketch  of  the  man  himself. 

In  stature  he  was  six  feet  or  over,  weighing  in 
his  best  days  i8o  pounds  or  more,  had  a  light  com- 
plexion, light  hair,  worn  short,  a  face  cleanly  shaven, 
an  honest,  open  countenance,  kindly  manners,  free 
from  all  affectation,  guile  or  trickery,  a  hand  shapely 
as  a  lady's,  with  a  clasp  friendly  and  true.  He  was 
brisk  in  his  movements,  walked  fast,  and  frequently 
cautioned  himself  against  undue  haste  in  his  work 
by  repeating  the  admonition,  "The  more  hurry,  the 
less  speed."  He  dressed  in  good  taste,  without  any- 
thing flashy  or  loud ;  carried  his  watch  on  a  braided 
guard,  without  seal  or  ornament. 

Whatever  talents  may  have  come  down  from  his 
distinguished  father,  much  of  his  physical  and 
mental  activity  and  love  of  the  humorous,  no  doubt, 
he  inherited  from  his  mother,  who  was  in  all  respects 
a  superior  woman.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Thomas 
Elder,  in  his  time  a  leading  lawyer  of  the  Dauphin 
County  Bar,  under  whom  his  father,  Amos  Ell- 
maker, studied  law. 

Although  raised  in  two  cities,  Harrisburg  and 
Lancaster,  it  should  be  remembered  that  Mr.  Ell- 
maker stored  up  vitality  for  after  life  by  spending 
much  of  his  vacation  time  when  a  boy  in  the  country, 
partly  with  his  grandfather,  Thomas  Elder,  visiting 
the  latter's  farm  in  Dauphin  county,  but  oftener  with 
his  relatives  and  friends  down  in  the  Earl  townships, 
taking  part  in  the  work  that  was  to  be  done,  assist- 
ing in  a  country  store,  driving  an  ox  team,  and  help- 
ing wherever  he  could  be  useful.  There  he  formed 
friendships  that  lasted  all  his  life,  and  funny  things 
happened  to  him,  of  which  he  loved  to  tell  in  after 
years,  one  of  which  only  we  have  space  to  relate — ■ 
though  we  cannot  tell  it  in  his  humorous  manner. 
He  was  on  a  visit  to  his  favorite  coiisin  and  attended 



church  with  him.  When  service  began,  the  singers, 
after  several  efforts,  failed  to  start  the  hymn.  Then 
an  old  Presbyterian  elder  took  the  matter  in  hand 
and  started  the  hymn,  but  by  mistake  started  it  in  a 
metre  too  long  for  the  verses ;  nothing  daunted,  how- 
ever, he  stuck  to  it  bravely,  repeating  parts  of  the 
verses  where  the  metre  was  too  long,  in  a  most 
laughter-provoking  manner,  to  the  end.  The 
cousin,  who  had  given  Mr.  Ellmaker  a  front  seat, 
kept  his  eyes  with  a  long-drawn  face  on  Mr.  Ell- 
maker, who  was  struggling  hard  against  an  explo- 
sion of  laughter,  while  some  of  the  younger  folks 
behind  him  were  tittering — all  of  which  the  cousin 
greatly  enjoyed.  On  the  way  home  from  church, 
each  man  driving  his  own  team  and  accompanied  by 
his  wife,  the  cousin  commenced  racing,  driving 
around  and  past  Mr.  Ellmaker  several  times.  When 
at  home  Mr.  Ellmaker  threatened  to  report  him  to 
the  church  for  racing  on  Sunday,  whereupon  the 
cousin  declared  he  did  not  race,  but  that  his  horse 
had  run  away  with  him.  In  some  such  manner  the 
two  cousins,  when  old  in  years,  still  young  at  heart 
and  in  friendship  true,  innocently  enjoyed  themselves 
whenever  they  met. 

Mr.  Ellmaker  did  not  delight  much  in  the  subtle 
intricacies  of  the  law,  outside    of    a    well-prepared 
brief  of  the  authorities  needed  to  support  his  case. 
He  would  have  the  witnesses  called  together,  ex- 
amined, and  their  testimony  taken  down  before  the 
trial,  and  if  possible  have  everything  ready  when  the 
case  was  called.    After  the  jury  was  selected,  case 
opened,  and  witnesses  called,  his  abilities  came  into 
play.     Fully  convinced  that  his  client's  case  was  a 
just  one  (as  already  stated,  he  would  not  take  a  case 
that  he  did  not  consider  just),  the  expression  of  his 
face  and  demeanor  fully  indicated  that  fact,  and  no 
doubt  often  helped  to  impress  the  jury  with  a  simi- 
lar opinion.    There  was  no  levity,  no  laughing  mat- 
ter, with  him,  but  a  serious  watchfulness,  searching 
questions  to  a  witness,  and  telling  replies  to  oppo^ 
site  counsel,  "shots  on  the  wing"  when  opportunity 
offered.    When  he  objected  to  the  evidence  offered 
he  cited  his  authorities,  stated  his  reasons  without 
delay  or  any  display  of  oratory,  and,  if  overruled, 
took  his  exceptions  and  let  the  trial  go  on.     When 
the  testimony  was  closed,  and  it  came  to  addressing 
the  jury,  then  his  reserve  force  would  show  itself. 
The  Bar  knew  this,  and  when  an  important  case  in 
which  he  was  engaged  was  to  be  won,  and  he  could 
be  given  the  last  speech,  he  would  generally  win  it. 
He  would  move  the  jury  by  his  sincerity  of  manner 
and  earnestness  of  pleading,  while  he  would  de- 
molish his  opponent's  case  by  his  irresistible  ridi- 

Judge  Brubaker  declared  him  a  dangerous  man 
before  a  jury;  and  Col.  Dickey,  who  was  engaged 
both  with  him  and  against  him  in  a  number  of 
cases,  said  "Mr.  Ellmaker  was  the  strongest  man 
in  his  day  before  a  jury  at  the  Lancaster  Bar." 
Give  him  a  case  of  an  innocent  maiden  against  her 
false-hearted  lover,  for  a  breach  of  promise  of  mar- 

riage; or  a  suit  against  a  rich  railroad  company, 
for  running  down  the  wife  of  a  market  farmer  and 
mother  of  his  children,  and  there  was  no  telling 
how  high  the  verdict  would  be.  Once  a  high  ver- 
dict case  was  sent  back  by  the  Supreme  court  prin- 
cipally on  that  account,  and  the  second  verdict  was 
higher  than  the  first.  In  another  suit  against  a  rail- 
road for  damages  the  company  moved  for  a  change 
of  venue,  alleging  that  a  fair  trial  could  not  be  had 
in  the  county.  It  was  but  a  short  road,  and  the  idea 
that  it  would  affect  the  entire  population  of  the  coun- 
ty he  made  to  appear  so  ridiculous  that  he  had  mem- 
bers of  the  Bar  shaking  in  their  seats  with  laughter, 
the  court  refused  the  application,  and  the  company 
thought  best  to  settle  their  case. 

As  already  stated,  Mr.  Ellmaker  took  an  inter- 
est in  public  affairs,  especially  anything  that  closely 
affected  his  own  community.  He  was  one  of  the  men 
who,  with  Dr.  F.  A.  Muhlenberg  and  Bishop  Bow- 
man, had  the  manner  of  the  ringing  of  the  church 
bells  changed  from  the  old  way  of  ringing  them  all 
at  the  same  time,  causing  a  deaferiing  and  confused 
clangor,  which,  if  not  noisy  enough  to  waken  the 
dead,  was  at  least  sufHcient  to  hurry  the  sick  and 
dying  out  of  the  world.  The  mode  was  changed 
through  their  efforts  to  an  alternate  ringing,  as  prac- 
ticed up  to  the  present  day. 

Politically  Mr.  Ellmaker  was  a  Silver  Gray, 
Henry  Clay,  Whig,  and  opposed  to  the  Ultra-Aboli- 
tionist, but  joined  the  Republican  party  and  voted 
for  Lincoln,  and  when  the  news  came  that  Fort 
Sumter  had  been  fired  upon  all  former  party  lines  ■ 
were  wiped  out  with  him — the  Union  party  embraced 
both.  R.epublican  and  Democrat,  all  joined  to  save 
the  Union,  and  a  mixed  county  ticket  was  nominated 
by  the  committee  of  which  he  was  an  active  member. 
He  was  one  of  the  solicitors  instrumental  in  having 
the  non-combatant  people,  who  thought  it  wrong  to 
bear  arms  (many  of  whom  were  his  clients),  ex- 
cused from  the  war  draft. 

Mr.  Ellmaker  was  a  broad  churchman,  and  said 
one  of  the  pleasant  sights  he  loved  to  behold  was 
Bishop  Bowman,  the  Episcopalian,  Parson  Baker, 
the  Lutheran,  and  Father  Keenan,  the  Catholic 
priest,  walking  together  to  visit  the  public  schools, 
of  which  they  were  directors. 

In  his  home  life  the  wish  of  the  German  poet  was 

O,  zarte  Sehnsucht,  sueszes  Hoffen, 
Der  ersten  Liebe  goldne  Zeit  ! 
O,  dasz  sie  ewig  gruenen  bliebe, 
Die  schoene  Zeit  der  jungen  Liebe. 

Between  him  and  his  life's  .partner  love  never 
grew  old.  It  was  beautiful  to  see.  Wherever  one 
went  the  other  went — whether  to  cross  the  ocean  to 
visit  foreign  lands,  to  climb  the  Alps,  or  search 
among  the  old  German  Church  records ;  whether  to 
rest  from  their  year's  labors  and  enjoy  life  for  a 
season  along  the  seashore,  or  among  the  mountains ; 
or  whether  confined  to  the  sick  room ;  wherever  the 



one  was,  there  the  other  was  sure  to  be,  in  faithful 
attendance  while  life  lasted. 

In   i860  he  and  his  wife  built  their  charming 
country    home,    the    beautiful    "Friedenthal,"    now 
thickly   embowered   among  the   stately   trees   they 
planted,  and  sacredly  guarded  and  kept  by  his  sur- 
viving life  partner,  in  all  respects  as  he  loved  to  see 
it.    No  gun  was  then,  or  is  yet,  allowed  to  be  fired  to 
disturb  the  wild  birds  that  come  in  the  spring  to 
build  their  nests,  rear  their  young,  sing  their  songs, 
and  spend  the  summers ;  thrushes  pick  up  crumbs  at 
the  kitchen  door,  and  Phoebe  sometimes  chooses  a 
place  for'  her  nest  under  the  roof  of  the  library  porch. 
In  this  lovely  place  they  shared  their  generous  hos- 
pitality in  an  unostentatious  and  befitting  manner. 
The  old  and  young,  learned  and  unlearned,  priest 
and  layman,  rich  and  poor,  were  kindly  welcomed 
and  entertained,  not  in  large  assemblies  with  music 
and  dancing,  but  in  smaller  parties,  wisely  chosen  to 
be  congenial  to  each  other.     A  Sunday-school  was 
for  a  time  taught  by  the  mistress,  and  a  German 
class  met  at  stated  evenings,  where  college  profes- 
sors and  learned  ministers  took  part  in  the  study 
and  discussion    of    the    German  classics,  and  fre- 
quently became  engaged  in  warm  disputes  as  to  the 
proper  interpretation  of  word  or  sentence,  to  the  en- 
joyment of  the  host  and  hostess.  Having  no  offspring 
or  their  own,  nephews  and  nieces  in  part  supplied 
the  place,  and  uncle  and  aunt  enjoyed  their  com- 
pany, and  even  sometimes  took  part  in  their  plays 
and  amusements.     One  autumn  day,  for  instance, 
the  children  suggested  that  uncle  should  take  them 
chestnut  hunting.    Doubting  whether  any  nuts  could 
be  found,  and  to  avoid  disappointing  them  in  their 
expectations,  he  provided  himself  with  nuts  from  the 
kitchen,  and  when  under  the  trees  dropped  them  un- 
noticed by  the  children  among  the  fallen  leaves  and 
allowed  the  children  to  pick  them  up.    On  returning 
home,  however,  it  was  discovered,  to  the  surprise  of 
both  uncle  and  children,  that  the  nuts  were  boiled, 
and  uncle  had  to  own  up  to  what  he  had  done,  to 
the  great  merriment  of  the  children ;  he  enjoyed  the 
joke  as  much  as  they,  although  it  had  been  somewhat 
turned  upon  himself. 

Nothing  better  need  be  written  of  Mr.  Ellmaker 
than  to  quote  from  v/hat  was  said  by  his  brother  at- 
torneys at  a  Bar  meeting  held  soon  after  his  death : 
"For  sixty  years  of  practice  at  the  Bar,"  they  said, 
■"he  had  all  the  time  maintained  the  highest  standard 
of  professional  honor.  His  private  life  was  pure  and 
simple,  and  his  integrity  and  fidelity  were  never 
doubted  by  either  his  professional  brethren,  by  his 
clients,  or  by  the  community  in  which  he  lived.  He 
was  alwavs'kind  and  courteous,  full  of  pleasantries, 
and  entertaining,  and,  whether  grave  or  humorous, 
in  all  he  said  or  related,  there  was  never  anything 
unseemly.  Nothing  ever  passed  his  lips  that  could 
not  have  been  spoken  with  propriety  in  the  most 
polite  circle  or  uttered  in  the  hearing  of  innocent 

JOHN  B.  ESHLEMAN,  Esq.,  one  of  the  best 
county  commissioners   that  Lancaster   county  has 
ever  known,  comes  from  an  old  and  honored  family. 
His  grandfather,  David  Eshleman,  was  born  in  one 
of  the  Hempfields,  and  died  in  West  Hempfield  in 
September,  1834.     He  married  Maria  Summy,  and 
their  children  were:    Anna,  who  died  in  1834,  un- 
married; Jacob  S. ;  Benjamin,  deceased;  Peter,  now 
living  in  Grant  county,   Ind. ;   David,  and  Martin, 
both   of   Lawrence    county,    111. ;    John,    deceased ; 
Henry,  living  in  Lancaster  county ;  Elizabeth,  widow 
of  Joseph  Musser;  Mary,  deceased;  Barbara  (Mrs. 
Wilhelm),  now  deceased,  and  Elizabeth,  living  in 
Clark  county,  Ohio.     The  father  of  this  interesting 
family  was  a  farmer  in  West  Hempfield  township. 
Jacob  S.  Eshleman,  father  of  John  B.  Eshleman, 
was  born  in  Hempfield  township  and  was  a  far- 
mer.   He  was  a  prominent  citizen  and  held  the  of- 
fice of  supervisor  and  other  positions  of  trust.     He 
married   Fannie  Greider  Bruckart,  and  his   other 
children  besides  our  subject  were:    Mary,  who  died 
in  childhood ;  Elizabeth,  widow  of  the  late  John  L. 
Gingrich,  of    West    Donegal    township,  Lancaster 
county ;  Jacob,  who  died  Dec.  24,  1864,  in  the  Rebel 
prison  at  Salisbury,  N.  C,  while  serving  in  the  Un- 
ion army  as  a  member  of  Company  B,  45th  P.  V.  I. ; 
Samuel,  of  West  Hempfield  township ;  Anna,  wife 
of  Ephraim   Bard,   of  West  Hempfield  township; 
Martha,  deceased  wife  of  Fred  Johns,  of  Lancaster ; 
Peter,  of  West  Hempfield,  and  Eugenie,  deceased. 
John  B.  Eshleman  was  born  Feb.  11,  1839,  in 
West  Hempfield  township,  and  has  spent  the  greater 
part  of  his  life  there,  where  he  was  educated  in  the 
public  schools.     He  began  teaching  in   1857,   and 
taught  in  that  township  and  in  Columbia  borough 
for  thirty-six  years.     In  1880  he  was  elected  to  the 
Legislature.    He  served  one  term  as  justice  of  the 
peace  in  West  Hempfield  township.    In  1893  he  was 
elected  a  county  commissioner,  and  so  well  did  he 
perform  the  duties  of  that  responsible  office  that  the 
Republicans  of  Lancaster  county — to  whose  inter- 
ests he  has  been  devoted  for  many  years — re-elected 
him,  by  a  magnificent  majority,  to  a  second  term, 
and  he  had  the  honor  of  being  the  president  of  the 
board  of  commissioners  during  the  entire  period. 

Mr.  Eshleman  was  married,  in  West  Hempfield, 
to  Miss  Martha  B.  Kauffman,  a  daughter  of  David 
and  Susan  (Bishop)  Kauffman,  and  the  children 
born  of  this  union  were:  Minnie,  wife  of  Fred  B. 
Daum,  living  in  Philadelphia ;  Susan,  wife  of  Georga 
M.  Weller,  of  West  Hei-npfield ;  Stella,  wife  of  Mor- 
ris Witte,  of  West  Hempfield;  J.  Guy,  sten- 
ographer with  Hon.  W.  U.  Hensel  at  Lancaster,  Pa., 
and  Clara  N.,  at  home. 

Mr.  Eshleman  is  a  P.  G.  of  Susquehanna  Lodge, 
No.  80,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  of  Columbia,  and  a  P.  C.  P. 
of  Shawnee  Encampment,  No.  23,  also  of  Columbia ; 
he  has  been  and  is  now  a  trustee  of  both  and  a  repre- 
sentative to  the  grand  bodies  of  both  organizations* 
He  is  also  identified  with  Olivia  Lodge  (Rebekahi 


Degree,  Odd  Fellows),  of  Wrightsville,  and  Lan- 
caster Canton.  His  family  attend  the  United 
Brethren  Church. 

An  earnest  Republican,  yet  never  officiously  ob- 
truding his  views  on  others;  a  Christian  gentle- 
man, and  with  a  public  record  (officially)  of  which 
any  man  might  well  be  proud,  John  B.  Eshleman  is 
naturally  a  strong  man — politically,  socially  and  in 
the  business  world,  and  in  his  present  retirement 
from  office  he  carries  with  him  the  well  wishes  of 
hosts  of  friends  and  admirers. 

ceased. For  a  number  of  years  the  late  Capt.  Henry 
N.  Breneman,  whose  death  occurred  Oct.  lo,  1901, 
was  a  very  conspicuous  figure  in  Lancaster  county, 
having  worthily  held  offices  of  trust  and  responsi- 
bility in  military,  official  and  business  life. 

Henry  Neff  Breneman  was  born  on  the  old 
homestead  in  Strasburg,  Lancaster  county,  Jan.  13. 
1830.  The  family  is  of  Swiss  origin  and  the  grand- 
father of  the  late  Henry  Breneman  was  Rev.  Henry 
Breneman,  a  preacher  of  the  Old  Mennonite  Church. 
The  parents  of  Capt.  Breneman  were  Henry  and 
Elizabeth  (Neff)  Breneman,  the  former  of  whom 
was  a  miller  and  farmer  near  Strasburg.  His  chil- 
dren were  as  follows :  Anna,  deceased,  married 
Daniel  Herr,  who  is  also  deceased;  EHzabeth  mar- 
ried Henry  Musser,  and  both  are  deceased ;  Susan 
married  Amaziah  Herr  of  Strasburg,  and  is  de- 
ceased ;  Henry  N.,  of  this  sketch. 

The  early  education  of  Capt.  Henry  N.  Breneman 
was  acquired  in  the  public  schools,  and  he  finished 
in  the  Lititz  Academy.  At  the  age  of  twenty-one 
years  he  went  to  learn  the  milling  business  at  the 
mill  at  Camargo,  owned  by  his  father,  remaining 
there  five  years  and  subsequently  engaging  in  the 
mercantile  business  in  the  store  of  Henry  H.  Bren- 
eman &  Co.,  in  Camargo.  He  then  engaged  in 
farming,  and  until  he  came  to  Lancaster  was  a 
resident  of  Strasburg  township,  except  for  one  year, 
when  he  was  a  resident  of  Strasburg  and  was  a 
member  of  the  firm  of  Herr,  Breneman  &  Co.  In 
1866  he  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  agricultural 
implements,  erecting  a  factory  near  his  house,  and 
carried  on  both  this  enterprise  and  farming  for  some 

Capt.  Breneman  took  an  active  part  in  Republi- 
can politics,  and  served  his  town  as  assessor,  school 
director  for  twelve  years,  and  justice  of  the  peace 
for  fifteen  years.  During  the  Civil  war  he  served 
as  1st  Lieut,  of  Co.  G,  22d  P.  V.  I.,  until  compelled 
to  return  home  by  reason  of  illness.  Immediately 
after  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  he  raised  and  became 
captain  of  a  company  of  three  months'  men,  which 
was  attached  to  the  15th  Regiment  of  Pennsylvania 
Militia  as  Company  B.  In  1875  he  was  elected 
sheriff  of  Lancaster  county,  serving  three  years. 

On  May  24,  1894,  Capt.  Breneman  removed  with 
his  family  to  Lancaster,  after  which  time,  in  part- 
nership  with  his   son,   Joseph,   under  the   style  of 

H.  N.  Breneman  &  Son,  he  became  prominent  as 
a  builder  and  contractor.  This  firm  did  much  con- 
tract work  in  Lancaster  and  the  adjacent  country^ 
their  most  notable  buildings  in  this  city  being  the 
Court  House  annex,  the  "Lincoln  Hotel,"  the  silk 
mills  and  the  new  "Wheatland  Hotel"  on  North 
Queen  street. 

On  March  17,  1858,  Mr.  Breneman  was  married 
to  Anna  M.,  daughter  of  the  late  Joseph  Potts,  of 
Strasburg,  and  she  and  nine  children  survive*  as- 
follows :  Winona  S.,  wife  of  Abraham  F.  Strickler,. 
of  Lancaster  township ;  Dr.  Park  P.,  a  practicing 
physician  of  Lancaster ;  Anna  M. ;  Joseph  P.,  a  con- 
tractor of  Lancaster ;  Elizabeth  B.,  wife  of  Milo  B> 
Herr,  of  Lancaster ;  Maud  M. ;  Herbert  N.,  as- 
sistant superintendent  of  Motive  Power  of  the  C. 
M.  &  St.  P.  R  R. ;  May,  at  home,  and  Li  da  L.,  at 
home.  Capt.  Breneman  was  a  member  of  Washing- 
ton Lodge,  No.  156,  F.  &  A.  M.,  of  Quarryville,  and 
the  Lodge  of  Perfection,  and  Lancaster  Com- 
mandery.  Knights  Templar,  of  Lancaster.  By  na- 
ture he  was  kind  and  genial  and  was  much  be- 
loved by  all  who  knew  him.  Although  during  his 
last  years  he  was  no  longer  active  in  politics,  his- 
former  efficient  services  were  always  remembered. 

Mrs.  Anna  M.  (Potts)  Breneman  was  born  ia 
the  village  of  Lampeter,  daughter  of  Joseph  and 
Eliza  (Miller)  Potts,  of  Lancaster  county.  For  a 
number  of  years  Mr.  Potts  carried  on  a  lumber  busi- 
ness in  Strasburg,  but  for  seven  years  prior  to  his- 
death  he  was  a  farmer  of  Strasburg  township.  Het- 
held  many  of  the  town  offices,  and  was  long  one  of 
the  school  directors.  He  was  born  in  1813  and  died 
in  1856.  The  mother  of  Mrs.  Breneman  was 
born  in  1813  and  died  in  1880.  Both  par- 
ents were  laid  to  rest  in  the  Strasburg  cem- 
etery. Two  children  were  born  to  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Potts  :  Anna  M.,  who  became  Mrs.  Breneman ; 
and  Joseph,  unmarried,  who  lives  retired  in  Stras- 

BROWN.  Among  the  early  settlers  of  Lan- 
caster county  were  the  Browns,  generally  known  as- 
"the  Browns  of  Nottingham."  As  early  as  the  year 
1680,  James  and  William  Brown,  of  England,  mem- 
bers of  the  Society  of  Friends,  immigrated  to  Amer- 
ica and  settled  near  Marcus  Hook,  on  the  Delaware 
river.  James  married  Honour  Clayton,  and  they 
had  six  children,  four  sons  and  two  daughters,  of 
whom  their  third  son,  Jeremiah,  was  the  ancestor  of 
the  family  we  propose  to  follow. 

In  the  year  1669  a  colony  of  Friends  took  up 
eighteen  hundred  acres  of  land  in  Nottingham, 
Chester  county,  forty  miles  from  Marcus  Hook. 
WilHam  Penn  donated  them  forty  acres  of  land  for 
a  meeting  house,  graveyard,  etc.  Among  those 
Friends  were  James  and  William  Brown,  befora 
mentioned,  and  from  these  brothers  have  descended 
most  of  that  name  now  residing  in  the  southern  ends 
of  Chester  and  Lancaster  counties,  Pa.,  and  the 
northern  end  of  Cecil  county,  in  Maryland. 



Jeremiah  Brown,  third  son  of  James,  in  1710, 
Tnarried  Mary  Cole,  of  Nottingham,  and  became  the 
father  of  Patience,  Jeremiah,  Joshua  and  Isaac. 

In  the  year  1758,  Joshua  Brown,  son  of  Jere- 
miah, purchased  five  hundred  acres  of  land  in  that 
part  of  Little  Britain  now  known  as  Fulton  town- 
ship, Lancaster  county,  and  removed  thereto,  his 
■eldest  son,  Elisha,  remaining  on  the  farm  in  Not- 
tingham. On  this  farm,  situated  in  the  Conowingo 
valley,  a  substantial  brick  dwelling  house  was  erect- 
ed, which  has  braved  the  storms  of  more  than  a 
century.  Joshua  Brown  was  an  eminent  minister 
in  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  for  the  love  of  the 
gospel  traveled  extensively  to  all  the  meetings  of 
the  society  in  the  different  colonies.  During  the 
time  of  the  Revolutionary  war  he  felt  it  his  duty  to 
^isit  Friends  at  Winchester,  Virginia,  who  had  been 
Vanished  from  their  homes  in  Philadelphia  for  no 
crime  but  their  faithful  adherence  to  their'  well- 
Tcnown  peace  principles.  While  on  that  visit  one  of 
their  number  died.  After  attending  his  funeral,  and 
•encouraging  Friends  to  faithfulness  under  their  suf- 
fering, he,  in  company  with  Achilla  Douglas,  of 
Virginia,  proceeded  to  visit  the  meetings  of  Quakers 
in  Virginia,  North  Carolina,  and  South  Carolina 
and  encourage  Friends  during  that  trying  period  to 
stand  fast  to  their  Christian  testimony  against  all 
wars  and  fightings.  In  the  latter  State  the  two  were 
arrested  by  the  authorities  as  spies  and  cast  into 
prison.  Friend  Brown  showed  the  officers  his  cre- 
dentials of  unity  with  his  friends  at  home  and  the 
object  of  his  mission  among  them.  After  a  thorough 
investigation,  the  judge  of  the  court  admitted  he 
lielieved  them  to  be  innocent  men ;  he  nevertheless 
committed  them  to  prison.  The  jailor  and  his  wife 
were  kind  to  them,  and  soon  they  were  allowed  the 
freedom  of  the  town  by  day,  returning  to  the  jail 
in  the  evening  to  lodge.  They  held  religious  meet- 
ings in  the  court-house  frequently,  which  the  citi- 
zens attended  with  openly  expressed  satisfaction. 
The  prisoners  were  offered  their  release  on  condi- 
tion "they  would  leave  the  State,  never  to-  return." 
This  they  could  not  conscientiously  consent  to,  and 
after  a  detention  of  about  six  months  they  were 
■discharged.  Notwithstanding  this  long  and  unex- 
pected imprisonment,  Joshua  felt  it  a  religious  duty 
to  visit  the  meetings  of  Friends  in  the  Carolinas  and 
Virginia.  This  valuable  Friend  and  undaunted 
Christian  died  on  Oct.  15,  1798,  in  the  eighty-sec- 
ond year  of  his  age,  a  faithful  minister  of  the  gos- 
pel for  forty-eight  years. 

Joshua  Brown  was  born  March  5,  1717,  and 
Oct.  15,  1736,  married  Hannah  Gatchell,  who  bore 
him  eleven  children,  of  whom  ten  grew  to  ma- 
.  turity.  Of  these,  four,  Mary  (intermarried  with 
Vincent  King),  Jeremliah,  Isaiah,  and  Joshua,  set- 
tled and  remained  on  the  homestead  or  in  the  neigh- 
iDorhood.  Vincent  and  Jeremiah  King,  sons  of  Mary 
(Brown)  King,  were  noted  physicians.  Jeremiah 
purchased  of  his  father  his  grist  and  saw-mill,  which 
he   enlarged,   and   it   ultimately  became    the    chief 

merchant  mill  in  southern  Lancaster  county.  Isaiah 
was  a  humble  blacksmith,  who  inherited  forty  acres 
of  land,  a  part  of  his  father's  farm ;  he  died  in  the 
year  1805,  leaving  one  son,  who  subsequently  re- 
moved to  Illinois.  Joshua,  the  youngest  son,  died 
in  1823  on  the  mansion  farm,  leaving  no  children. 

Jeremiah  Brown,  as  has  been  stated,  purchased 
his  father's  mills  and  a  portion  of  his  farm.  He 
was  a  man  possessed  of  great  energy  and  persever- 
ance and  was  eminently  successful  in  business.  His 
supplies  of  grain  at  that  time  were  chiefly  drawn 
from  the  rich  valleys  of  the  Pequea  and  Conestoga, 
in  Lancaster  count;^,  and  the  Codqrus  valley  in 
York  county,  from  whence  it  was  carted,  in  wagons 
to  the  mill,  and  the  flour  in  turn  carted  thirty  miles 
to  Christiana  Creek,  Del.,  where  i*-  was  shipped 
to  Philadelphia,  then  the  nearest  and  most  expedi- 
tious route  to  a  market.  About  the  year  1800  he 
purchased  the  extensive  Slate  Hill,  at  Peach  Bot- 
tom, in  Lancaster  countv,  on  the  Susquehanna  river, 
and  commenced  the  manufacture  of  roofing-slates. 
From  these  quarries,  the  first  opened  in  this  sec- 
tion of  the  State,  he  furnished  the  slate  which  yet 
covers  the  State  capitol  at  Harrisburg,  the  Friends 
Asylum  for  the  Insane  at  Frankford,  numerous  pub- 
lic buildings  in  Baltimore,  Washington,  Alexandria, 
and  Fredericksburg  in  Virginia.  These  quarries  he 
continued  to  work  successfully  until  the  year  1827, 
when  he  relinquished  them  to  his  three  sons,  Levi, 
Jeremiali  and  Slater  Brown,  who  continued  to  work 
them  until  a  recent  period.  He  was  several  times 
chosen  a  member  of  the  Legislature  of  his  native 
State  while  its  sessions  were  held  in  the  borough  of 
Lancaster,  and  during  his  term  was  instrumental  in 
procuring  the  passage  of  several  acts  of  vast  bene- 
fit to  his  constituents. 

In  the  year  1810,  he,  with  others,  established  the 
Farmers'  Bank,  at  Lancaster,  an  institution  which 
to  the  present  time,  has  stood  the  test  of  all  financial 
struggles  with  unblemished  credit ;  and  at  the  time 
of  his  decease,  in  1831,  he  was  perhaps  its  largest 
stockholder,  holding  in  his  own  name,  one  thou- 
sand shares  of  its  stock.  Although  active  and  en- 
ergetic in  business,  he  did  not  neglect  his  religious 
duties.  During  a  long  life  when  health  permitted, 
he  was  diligent  in  his  attendance  upon  all  the  meet- 
ings of  the  Society  of  Friends  and  for  many  years 
was  an  esteemed  elder  in  the  church.  Near  the  close 
of- his  life  he  built,  at  his  own  expense,  the  present 
commodious  brick  meeting-house  at  Penn  Hill, 
which  from  all  appearances  may  stand  another  cen- 
tviry  a  monument  of  his  liberality  and  devotion  to  the 
principles  and  testimonies  of  the  Society  of  which  he 
was  a  lifelong  and  consistent  member.  He  died  July 
7,  1831,  aged  nearly  eighty-two  years. 

His  children,  Sarah,  Levi,  Hannah,  Deborah, 
Jeremiah,  and  Slater  Brown,  all  married  and  set- 
tled near  their  native  home ;  many  of  their  descend- 
ants to  the  third  and  fourth  generation  reside  in 
the  township  and  vicinity.  Sarah  married  Timothy 
Haines.     Hannah  married  Isaac  Stubbs,  mother  of 



Dr.  J.  B.  Stubbs,  who  will  be  represented  on  an- 
other page.  Of  the  three  sons,  Levi  was  a  retired 
man,  a  miller  and  farmer,  much  esteemed,  who  died 
in  1846,  aged  about  seventy  years.  Slater,  the 
youngest  son,  inherited  the  paternal  mansion,  farm, 
and  mills,  was  successful  in  business,  and  took  an 
active  part  in  political  affairs ;  for  some  years  he 
served  as  one  of  the  prison  inspectors  of  the  county ; 
his  death  occurred  on  the  Sth  of  June,  1855,  aged 
sixty-eight  years. 

Jeremiah  Brown,  son  of  Jeremiah,  was  born 
April  14,  1785 ;  he  married,  "May  14,  1807,  Ann, 
daughter  of  Roger  and  Rachel  Kirk,  of  Nottingham'. 
Enjoying  a  robust  constitution,  in  early  life  he  was 
placed  in  his  father's  mill  to  learn  the  trade,  in 
which  capacity  it  was  necessary  mUch  of  the  time 
for  him  to  continue  half  of  the  night  season;  at 
other  times  he  drove  one  of  the  teams,  hauling 
wheat  to  and  flour  from  the  mills.  He  was  a  man 
of  good  natural  abilities  and  sound  judgment,  and  in 
early  life  was  frequently  chosen  for  responsible  posi- 
tions in  the  neighorhood. 

In  the  year  1826  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
State  Legislature  on  the  Federal  ticket,  and  served 
to  the  satisfaction  of  his  constituents  during  that  ses- 
sion, which  will  be  remembered  as  the  one  in  which 
the  State  inaugurated  "her  great  system  of  internal 
improvements."  The  following  year  he  was  again 
nominated,  but  owing  to  the  breaking  up  of  the 
old-  political  parties  in  that  year,  many  Federalists 
joined  in  the  Jackson  excitement  and  by  a  very  few 
votes  he  was  defeated  by  Hon.  George  B.  Porter, 
a  leading  Democrat,  afterwards  Governor  of  Mich- 
igan. In  the  year  1836  he  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  the  ticket  and  chosen  a  member  of  the  conven- 
tion to  revise  the  Constitution  of  the  State.  In 
the  year  1840  he  was  nominated  and  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  Congress  for  Lancaster  county,  in  connection 
with  Hon.  Francis  James,  of  Chester,  and  Hon. 
John  Edwards,  of  Delaware  county,  those  three 
counties  forming  the  Congressional  district.  In 
1842  he  was  again  unanimously  nominated,  and 
with  his  colleagues  re-elected  to  the  xxviith 
Congress.  Although  not  accustomed  to  public 
speaking,  he  was  assiduous  and  diligent  in  his  com- 
mittee rooms,  where,  after  all,  the  effective  work  is 
accomplished.  During  his  term  of  service  the  well- 
known  "tarifiE  of  1842"  was  enacted,  in  support  of 
which  he  took  a  conspicuous  part,  and  which,  during 
its  continuance,  proved  so  beneficial  to  the  extensive 
manufacturers  of  his  district. 

Having  completed  his  second  term  of  Congress, 
he  devoted  himself  to  his  private  affairs  until  the 
year  1850,  when  he  was  nominated  and  elected  as- 
sociate judge  of  the  courts  of  Lancaster  county  for 
the  term  of  five  years,  which  position  he  filled  to  the 
entire  satisfaction  of  his  fellow-citizens.  In  the  year 
1855  he  was  solicited  to  be  a  candidate  for  re- 
election, but  on  account  of  enfeebled  health  and 
advancing  years  he  declined  the  honor  and  retired 

to  private  life.  His  valuable  life  closed  the  2d  day 
of  March,  1858,  in  the  seventy-third  year  of  his 

Judge  Brown  left  seven  children:  Kirk  and 
Edwin,  now  deceased ;  Hannah,  deceased  wife  of 
Samuel  C.  Wood,  who  resided  on  the  mansion  farm ; 
Rachel  K.,  deceased,  who  removed  with  her  chil- 
dren and  their  families  to  Kansas;  Deborah  H., 
(widow)  residing  with  her  son  in  the  adjoining 
township  of  Little  Britain;  Alfred  M.  Brown,  re- 
siding on  his  farm;  and  Levi  Kirk,  mentioned  be- 

Levi  Kirk  Brown^  whose  death  occurred  in 
Goshen,  April  28,  1899,  was  one  of  the  most  widely 
known  men  in  his  own  and  in  Chester  counties. 
He  was  born  June  27,  1814.  At  that  time  his  father, 
Jeremiah,  conducted  a  merchandise  store  at  Goshen, 
but  the  latter's  election  to  the  legislature,  placed 
the  responsibility  for  the  management  of  the  store 
on  Levi,  who  remained  there  until  1835.  Three 
years  later  ne  removed  to  Oxford  and  purchased  a 
portion  of  the  hotel  property  formerly  owned  by 
his  uncle,  Timothy  Kirk.  He  conducted  a  general 
store  business  in  the  building  now  known  as  the 
"Octoraro  Hotel"  for  five  years.  Mr.  Brown  after- 
wards sold  the  property  to  Rev.  John*  M.  Dickey 
for  the  Oxford  Female  Seminary.  While  a  resident 
of  Oxford  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  first 
council  of  this  town,  in  May,  1838;  he  was  re- 
elected the  following  year;  in  1840  was  elected 
burgess,  and  the  next  year  he  was  re-elected  to  the 
council.  From  Oxford  he  went  to  West  Chester 
and  engaged  in  store  keeping  with  his  brother  Lewis. 
During  his  residence  there  he  purchased  the  "Ches- 
ter County  Hotel,"  changed  the  name  to  "Brown's 
Mansion  House,"  and  conducted  it  as  a  temper- 
ance house  about  four  years.  Mr.  Brown  after- 
wards engaged  in  business  in  Philadelphia  and 
Baltimore.  In  1853,  ^t  the  desire  of  his  father,  who 
was  growing  feeble,  Mr.  Brown  returned  to  Goshen 
and  managed  affairs  at  the  old  homestead. 

After  his  retuirn  to  Goshen,  Mr.  Brown  became 
one  of  the  most  prominent  and  useful  citizens  of  the 
lower  end  of  Lancaster  county.  He  was  a  man  of 
good  judgment  and  many  people  sought  his  advice 
in  legal,  financial  and  other  matters.  He  settled 
nearly  a  hundred  estates  and  assisted  in  many  ac- 
counts. He  was  a  director  of  the  National  Bank 
of  Oxford  for  about  twenty-eight  years,  and  a 
director  of  the  Conowingo  Bridge  Company  for 
about  twenty-three  years.  For  nine  years  he  was 
supervisor  of  the  new  system  in  mending  roads  in 
Fulton  township,  for  which  purpose  Mr.  Brown, 
Henry  Carter  and  Lewis  Haines  had  a  special  law 
enacted.  Mr.  Brown  was  a  member  of  the  Society 
of  Friends  for  many  years  and  served  as  clerk  and 
assistant  clerk  of  the  Baltimore  Yearly  Meeting  for 
about  twenty-eight  years.  For  many  years  the  de- 
ceased was  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the  Indians, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  secretary  of 



the  Seven  Yearly  Meetings  on  Indian  Affairs. 
Several  times  he  visited  in  an  official  capacity  the 
Indians  in  Nebraska  and  Dakota. 

In  1835  Levi  Kirk  Brown  married  Hannah  C. 
Moore,  who  was  born  in  Cecil  county,  Md.,  in  1816, 
and  died  July  29,  1893.  Of  their  children  the  fol- 
lowing survive :  WilHam  H.,  of  Philadelphia,  chief 
engineer  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railway  Company; 
Jacob  K.,  of  Goshen;  Charles  E.,  of  Philadelphia; 
Theodore  F.,  of  Pittsburg,  assistant  auditor  of  the 
Union  Freight  Line  at  Pittsburg;  Mrs.  Mary  L. 
Havaland  and  Annie  S.,  both  at  home. 

Jacob  K.  Brown  was  born  in  Oxford,  Chester 
county,  Sept.  5,  1842.  He  grew  to  manhood  on 
the  home  farm,  which  he  now  owns.  His  educa- 
tion was  acquired  in  the  well  equipped  public  schools 
of  Lancaster  county.  Early  trained  to  agricultural 
pursuits,  he  has  continued  to  follow  farming  as  his 
life  work,  cultivating  the  home  place,  which  con- 
sists of  13s  acres  of  fine  land,  well  improved  with 
substantial  buildings.  The  general  appearance  of 
the  place  proves  its  owner  a  first  class  thorough 

On  Sept.  22,  1874,  Jacob  K.  Brown  married 
Sarah  Lamborn,  and  three  children  have  brightened 
their  home:  Mary  Edna,  and  Chester  L.  are  at 
home;  Edith  died  in  childhood.  The  Republican 
party  has  found  in  Mr.  Brown  a  staunch  adherent, 
and  he  takes  a  keen '  interest  in  all  that  pertains  to 
the  public  welfare. 

SAMUEL  KENEAGY,  M.  D.  Samuel  Ken- 
eagv  was  born  June  20,  1820,  and  was  the  son  of 
Henry  Keneagy.  He  received  an  ordinary  school 
education  and  finished  at  the  Strasburg  Academy, 
after  which  he  began  to  read  medicine  in  the  ofHce 
of  Dr.  F.  S.  Burrowes,  in  Strasburg,  in  1842.  Sub- 
sequently he  attended  the  sessions  of  the  Jefferson 
Medical  College  at  Philadelphia,  from  which  he 
graduated  in  the  spring  of  1844,  and  then  began  the 
practice  of  medicine  in  Strasburg.  He  took  a  warm 
interest  in  politics  and  in  1858  he  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature,  to  which 
he  was  also  re-elected.  During  the  Civil  war  he 
was  surgeon  in  the  50th  Pennsylvania  Regiment, 
after  which,  in  1868,  he  accepted  a  professorship  of 
Anatomy  in  the  State  Agricultural  College,  located 
in  Center  countv,  Pa.  The  Doctor  was  one  of 
the  earlv  members  of  the  County  Medical  Society, 
and  also  of  the  State  Medical  Society. 

SMITH  ARMOR,  M.  D.  The  medical  history 
of  Lancaster  county  includes  the  names  of  practi- 
tioners who  for  many  years  have  been  professionally 
associated  with  their  respective  localities.  Among 
those  at  Columbia  whose  lives  have  been  devoted 
most  successfully  to  the  healing  art  is  Dr.  Smith 
Armor.  Almost  a  full  half  century  measures  the 
limits  of  his  professional  engagements  and  his 
career  is  most  intimately  related  to  the  human  wel- 
fare of  Lancaster  county. 

Dr.  Armor  is  a  native  of  Delaware.  He  was 
born  near  Wilmington,  in  .Feb.,  1824,  the  son  of 
James  and  Ann  (Lyman)  Armor,  and  the  grand- 
son of  William  Armor,  a  native  of  Scotland,  of 
Scotch-Irish  extraction,  whose  latter  days  were 
passed  in  farming  in  the  State  of  Delaware. 

James  Armor  was  born  in  Delaware,  in  1780. 
Reafed  on  a  farm,  he  followed  that  vocation  through 
life.  During  the  war  of  1812,  he  helped  enlist  a 
company  of  soldiers  and  was  commissioned  lieuten- 
ant, serving  with  that  rank.  He  died  in  1843,  aged 
sixty-three  years,  his  wife  surviving  until  1878,  then 
passing  away  at  the  ripe  old  age  of  eighty-seven 
years.  To  James  and  Ann  Armor  were  born  these 
children:  Ferris,  who  was  a  school  teacher  of 
Beaver  Co.,  Pa. ;  John ;  James ;  Thomas,  of  Em- 
poria, Kan. ;  Eleanor,  and  Smith.  All  are  now  de- 
ceased except  Smith. 

Smith  Armor  spent  his  boyhood  days  on  the 
home  farm  but  his  mind  was  active  and  he  aspired 
to  a  professional  career.  The  Wilmington  Acad- 
emy gave  him  a  good  education  and  largely  by  his 
own  efforts  he  won  his  way  through  one  of  the 
early  medical  institutions,  the  Hahnemann  School 
of  Medicine  of  Philadelphia,  graduating  in  1851  at 
the  age  of  twenty-seven  years.  Spending  a  year 
in  travel,  the  young  physician  settled  in  1852  at 
Marietta,  Lancaster  county,  where  he  practiced  suc- 
cessfully for  four  years.  Then  in  1856  he  came  to 
Columbia,  where  he  has  since  followed  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  rapidly  winning  the  recognition 
which  his  professional  attainments  warranted  and 
holding  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  his  large 
clientage  to  the  present  day. 

Dr.  Armor  married  at  Columbia,  Pa.,  in  1853, 
Sarah  Martin,  who  was  born  in  Muncy,  Pa.,  in 
April,  1824,  daughter  of  William  A.  Martin.  To 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Armor  were  born  two  daughters: 
Chellie  ■  A.,  who  married  Denison  Reeside,  a  real 
estate  agent,  and  is  now  a  widow  residing  in  Balti- 
more, Md. ;  and  Elizabeth  H.,  who  lives  at  the  old 
home  with  her  father. 

In  politics  Dr.  Armor  is  a  Republican,  but  prior 
to  the  administration  of  President  Buchanan  he  was 
a  Democrat.  In  religious  afSliations  he  is  a  member 
of  the  Presbyterian  Church.  He  has  shared  largely 
in  the  social  and  public  life  of  Columbia,  has  at- 
tained a  commensurate  financial  reward  for  his 
active  and  invaluable  professional  service,  and  holds 
a  revered  place  in  the  affections  of  his  fellow  towns- 

JACQUES  Le  tort  was  a  French-Canadian 
Indian  trader,  who  first  located  on  the  Brandywine, 
but  subsequently  established  a  trading  post  in 
Conoy  township.  His  wife  took  up  900  acres 
of  land  in  Donegal  township,  near  Sparks' 
Mill,  which  afterward  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
Zeigelers  and  Stehmans.  He  afterward  moved  to 
the  spring  bearing  his  name  in  Cumberland  county, 
near  Carlisle.    In  1727  it  was  reported  to  the  Pro- 



vincial  council  that  Le  Tort  and  some  others  had 
built  trading  posts  near  the  Conestogue  and  were 
seeking  for  minerals.  Le  Tort  was  accused  of  hav- 
ing done  some  misdemeanor  and  had  been  sum- 
moned in  1694  to  appear  before  the  council.  He 
was  arrested  and  his  goods  seized,  but  subsequently 
they  were  returned,  he  giving  bail  in  £500  with 
securities  thereon. 

HENRY  E.  MUHLENBERG,  M.  D.,  than 
whom  no  physician  in  the  interior  of  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  is  better  known,  was  mayor  of  the  city 
of  Lancaster  from  the  spring  of  1899  ^"til  April, 

The  history  of  the  Muhlenberg  family  is  an  ex- 
ceedingly interesting  one.  Frederick  Augustus 
Muhlenberg,  M.  D.,  was  the  youngest  child  of  Rev. 
Dr.  G.  Henry  Ernest  Muhlenberg,  a  celebrated  botan- 
ist, called  the  Linnaeus  of  America,  and  was  born 
March  14,  1795,  in  the  city  of  Lancaster,  where  his 
father  was  pastor  for  thirty-five  years  of  the  Evangel- 
ical Church  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  His  preliminary 
education  he  received  in  the  German  and  English 
private  and  parochial  schools  of  his  native  city  and 
under  the  tuition  of  his  father,  who  was  a  university 
scholar  and  a  gentleman  of  high  culture,  refined  tastes 
and  exalted  character.  After  the  completion  of  his 
preparatory  studies  Frederick  A.  Muhlenberg  was 
placed  as  a  student  of  medicine  in  the  oiifice  of  the 
eminent  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush,  of  Philadelphia.  Rev. 
Dr.  Muhlenberg  was  personally  acquainted  with  Dr. 
Rush,  had  been  associated  with  him  in  works  of 
general  benevolence  and  patriotism,  and  had  a  high 
appreciation  of  his  ability  as  a  physician  and  his  ex- 
-cellence  of  character.  The  son  entered  his  office 
probably  in  the  year  1812,  and  continued  with  him  as 
private  pupil,  also  hearing  his  lectures  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Pennsylvania,  until  the  spring  of  1814,  on 
April  4th  of  which  year  he  received  the  degree  of 
M.  D.  from  that  justly  celebrated  institution,  graduat- 
ing with  high  honors,  diligently  won.  After  his 
graduation  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  he 
returned  to  his  native  city,  with  the  view  of  entering 
upon  his  profession,  and,  his  father  dying  one  year 
later,  May  23,  181 5,  he  was  thrown  upon  his  own 
resources.  On  Feb.  6,  1816,  Dr.  Frederick  A. 
Muhlenberg  married  Miss  Eliza  Schaum,  a  grand- 
daughter of  Rev.  John  Helfrich  Schaum,  one  of 
the  early  ministers  of  the  Lutheran  Church  sent 
over  from  Halie ;  he  came  to  America  in  the  year 

Dr.  Muhlenberg  devoted  himself  with  all  the 
energy  of  his  nature  to  the  noble  profession  he  had 
chosen  for  his  Hfework,  and  in  the  discharge  of  the 
duties  connected  therewith,  in  the  department  of 
general  practice  and  surgery,  which  then  were  inti- 
rnately  allied,  he  spent  fiifty  years  of  the  best  part  of 
his  life  ministering  to  his  fellow  men,  and  alleviating 
the  ills  that  "flesh  is  heir  to."  In  this  long  period 
of  practice  he  built  up  for  himself  a  widespread  repu- 
tation and  a  competent  support.    In  1821-23  the  Doc- 

tor served  as  prothonotary,  having  been  appointed 
by  Gov.  Heister,  and  his  occupancy  of  this  office 
brought  him  in  contact  with  the  best,  of  the  leading 
legal  and  literary  gentlemen  of  Lancaster — a  cir- 
cumstance which  improved  his  mind  and  widened  his 
influence.  He  was  afterward  appointed  register  of 
wills  by  Gov.  Shulze,  and  served  two  terms.  As 
president  of  the  Lancaster  Bank,  with  James  Evans, 
Esq.,  cashier,  he  aided  in  rescuing  that  institution 
from  destruction,  and  in  raising  it  to  a  high  degree 
of  usefulness  and  prosperity.  With  other  gentlemen, 
he  interested  himself  for  the  improvement  of  the 
Conestoga,  by  a  series  of  locks,  to  bring  it  into  con- 
nection with  tide  water,  for  commercial  purposes ; 
and  he  used  his  influence  and  contributed  of  his 
means  to  make  this  enterprise  a  success.  The  money 
was  lost,  but  the  improvement  remains.  In  early 
life  Dr.  Muhlenberg  was  also  much  interested  in 
politics,  being  connected  with  the  Democratic  party, 
and  along  with  Mr.  Buchanan  he  aided  in  promoting 
the  measures  of  that  organization  so  long  as  they  were 
in  his  judgment  calculated  to  pi-omote  the  general 
good.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  military  com- 
pany which  in  1812,  with  Mr.  Buchanan  as  cap- 
tain, went  to  Baltimore  to  volunteer  'its  services  in 
defense  of  that  city  on  the  appearance  of  the  British. 
Oh  their  arrival  at  Baltimore,  however,  the  danger 
was  past.  Dr.  Muhlenberg  remained  a  steadfast 
friend  of  James  Buchanan  until,  as  President,  he 
took  sides  with  the  South  in  the  Kansas  trouble, 
and  failed  to  oppose  with  the  necessary  vigor  the 
efforts  of  the  Secessionists  to  dismember  our  country. 
Love  of  country  then  impelled  the  Doctor  to  forsake 
the  friend  of  his  youth  and  the  party  favoring  such 
pernicious  doctrines.  In  the  great  RebelHon  his 
voice  gave  no  uncertain  sound.  He  could  not  prefer 
party  to  the  welfare  of  his  country.  Descended  from 
a  grandfather — Rev.  Henry  Melchoir  Muhlenberg — 
who  was  called  an  "arch  rebel"  by  the  British  when 
they  were  encamped  around  his  residence,  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Valley  Forge,  and  occupying  Phila- 
delphia :  the  nephew  of  Major  Gen.  Peter  Muhlen- 
berg, who  had  served  in  the  Revolution  with  dis- 
tinction, from  its  commencement  to  its  brilliant  close 
at  Yorktown  ;  named  after  another  uncle,  Hon.  Fred- 
erick Augustus  Muhlenberg,  who  had  been  obliged 
to  flee  from  New  York  on  its  occupancy  by  the 
British  troops,  and  was  afterward  speaker  of  the  1st 
and  Illd  Congresses  of  the  United  States ;  conscious 
also  that  his  own  father  had  several  times  been 
obliged  to  flee  from  Philadelphia  in  disguise  in  order 
to  escape  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  invaders  of 
our  country,  and  had  lost  in  consequence  nearly  all 
of  his  property — by  nature  and  by  education  all  the 
pulsations  of  the  Doctor's  heart  were  for  that  glorious 
TJnion  which  had  been  secured  at  such  sacrifices. 
Without  hesitation  he  united  with  the  war  party  to 
preserve  the  Constitution  and  the  Government.  His 
aid  was  solicited  and  given  in  the  organization  of  the 
Union  League,  and  he  became  its  first  president. 
Throughout  the  entire  struggle  he  and  all  of  his 



name  were  found  on  the  side  of  their  country,  and 
none  rejoiced  more  than  he  did  on  the  final  triumph 
of  the  cause  of  the  Union. 

Dr.  Muhlenberg  found  time  also,  dsepite  his  close 
attention  to  his  practice,  to  which  he  gave  an  abso- 
lutely unselfish  devotion,  to  promote  the  cause  of 
liberal  education  in  the  community.  In  connection 
■with  several  other  gentlemen  of  Lancaster,  of  differ- 
ent denominations,  he  brought  about  the  establish- 
ment of  a  public  school  for  the  benefit  of  the  poor  of 
the  city,  and  one  of  his  nieces  was  principal,  for  a 
long  period,  of  the  female  department  of  this  school. 
Subsequently  he  helped  materially  in  the  progress 
and  success  of  the  Lancaster  County  Academy,  of 
which  he  was  one  of  the  trustees.  This  institution 
was  afterward  merged  into  Franklin  College,  .incor- 
porated in  the  year  1787  by  the  Legislature  of  Penn- 
sylvania, for  the  benefit  of  the  Germans  and  their 
•descendants,  at  about  the  same  that  the  public-school 
system  was  introduced  into  Lancaster.  The  Doc- 
tor's father  had  been  an  early  trustee  and  president  of 
Franklin  College,  and  the  son,  aided  by  other  public- 
spirited  gentlemen  of  Lancaster  of  the  Lutheran  and 
Reformed  Churches,  managed  its  finances  with  such 
care  and  ability  that  the  institution  was  put  upon  a 
very  substantial  footing.  It  was  owing  largely  to 
his  efforts  and  influence  that  it  was  finally  united 
with  Marshall  College,  the  removal  of  which  from 
Gettysburg  to  Lancaster  was  successfully  effected. 
The  college  has  since  been  known  as  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College. 

Dr.  Muhlenberg  was  a  potent  factor  in  the  wel- 
fare of  the  Lutheran  congregation  of  the  Holy  Trin- 
ity, in  Lancaster,  where  for  years  he  officiated  as  a 
member  of  the  vestry,  either  as  trustee  or  elder.  It 
was  in  a  great  measure  due  to  his  advocacy  that 
English  preaching  was  introduced  into  that  church. 
The  Doctor  was  twice  married,  the  first  time  to 
Miss  Eliza  Schaum,  before  mentioned,  and  the  sec- 
ond time  to  Miss  Ann  Eliza  Duchman.  He  had  five 
children  by  the  first  marriage,  and  nine  by  the 

Dr.  Plenry  E.  Muhlenberg,  son  of  Dr.  Frederick 
A.,  read  medicine  with  his  father  and  Dr.  Benjamin 
Rtish,  and  took  his  degree  at  the  University  of- Penn- 
sylvania with  the  class  of  1838.  After  graduation 
he  became  associated  with  his  father,  and  soon  won 
a  large  and  lucrative  clientele.  In  addition  to  his 
private  practice,  he  was  consulting  and  visiting  phy- 
sician to  the  Lancaster  County  Hospital.  He  was  an 
active  member  of  the  Board  of  Councils,  and  also 
a  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society.  In  1869 
lie  was  appointed,  by  President  Grant,  collector  of 
Internal  Revenue  of  the  9th  District,  which  office  he 
held  until  his  death,  in  July,  1877.  He  married  Miss 
Catharine  Cameron,  daughter  of  the  late  John  Cam- 
eron, a  distinguished  Pennsylvanian.  Of  their  fam- 
ily, three  sons  and  two  daughters  are  living.  Major 
John  Cameron  Muhlenberg  is  paymaster  in  the 
United  States  army,  stationed  at  Omaha,  in  the  De- 
partment of  Missouri ;  Charles  E.  is  connected  with 

the  Dayton  Cash  Register  Co.,  of  Dayton,  Ohio; 
Annie  A.  is  the  wife  of  Major  J.  P.  Cress,  in  the 
Ordnance  Corps,  United  States  Army,  stationed  at 
St.  Louis ;  and  Miss  Mary  E.  is  living  in  Lancaster, 
Pa.  Another  son,  William  C,  who  was  a  first  lieu- 
tenant in  the  2d  LTnited  States  Infantry,  died  at 
Boise  City,  Idaho. 

Henry  E.  Muhlenberg  was  born  in  the  old  family 
home  in  West  Orange  street,  Lancaster,  Jan.  18, 
1850,  son  of  Dr.  Henry  E.  and  Catharine  (Cameron) 
Muhlenberg.  After  receiving  a  partial  education  in 
the  public  schools  of  Lancaster  and  in  Yeates  Insti- 
tute he  was  appointed,  by  Congressman  Thaddeus 
Stevens,  to  a  cadetship  at  the  Naval  Academy  at 
Annapolis,  and  remained  there  three  and  one-half 
years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  he  resigned  and  re- 
turned home  to  read  medicine  with  his  father.  In 
187 1  he  was  graduated  from  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania, and  then  went  to  Texas  as  a  member  of 
an  engineering  corps,  helping  to  make  the  preliminary 
survey  of  the  Texas  &  Pacific  Railroad.  Returning 
to  lancaster.  Dr.  Muhlenberg  remained  at  home  a 
little  over  a  year,  and  then  entered  the  United  States 
Marine  Hospital  service,  in  which  he  continued  about 
four  and  one-half  years,  doing  duty  in  New  York, 
Boston  and  Philadelphia.  Returning  to  Lancaster 
in  July,  1877,  at  the  death  of  his  distinguished  father, 
he  took  up  the  work  of  that  very  successful  physician 
and  surgeon,  and  the  mantle  of  the  dead  father  fell 
on  worthy  shoulders.  After  practicing  for  a  time  in 
the  office  wEich  had  been  so  long  occupied  by  his 
father,  in  West  Orange  street.  Dr.  Muhlenberg,  in 
i88t,  removed  to  South  Prince  street,  next  door  to 
the  "Stevens  House,"  and  there  he  has  ever  since  been 
located,  enjoying  one  of  the  most  extensive  practices 
ever  accorded  to  a  physician  in  Lancaster.  A  stanch, 
energetic  Republican,  Dr.  Muhlenberg  served  as  phy- 
sician to  the  county  alms-house  and  hospital  for  two 
terms,  1872-73 ;  and  during  President  Cleveland's 
first  administration  he  was  held  over  as  a  member  of 
the  Board  of  Examining  Pension  Surgeons  of  Lan- 
caster, of  which  body  he  was  treasurer,  having  been 
first  appointed  a  member  of  the  Board  by  President 
Grant.  He  also  served  one  year  as  a  member  of  the 
common  branch  of  the  city  council  from  the  Fourth 
ward,  and  in  February,  1899,  was  elected  mayor  of 
Lancaster  by  the  largest  majority  ever  given  a  Re- 
publican for  mayor  in  Lancaster,  his  majority  having 
been  1,011.  He  at  once  began  the  work  of  conduct- 
ing the  administration  on  independent  principles, 
and,  as  a  result,  there  were  notable  depart'ires  from 
previous  administrations  of  the  highest  office  in  the 
gift  of  the  people  of  this  city.  He  retired  from  this 
incumbency  in  April,  1902. 

Dr.  Muhlenberg  was  married,  in  1879,  to  Miss 
Emma  J.  Fell,  daughter  of  the  late  John  P.  Fell,  a 
contractor  of  Wilkesbarre,  Pa.  They  have  no  chil- 
dren, and  make  their  home  at  the  "Stevens  House," 
next  door  to  the  Doctor's  commodious  offices.  These 
offices  are  particularly  interesting  because  of  Dr. 
Muhlenberg's   rare   and  valuable  collection   of   old 



china  and  antique  furniture — a  collection  that  has  no 
counterpart  m  this  section  of  the  country.  The  an- 
tique chairs  in  his  front  (or  receiving)  office  are  the 
same  that  stood  in  the  office  of  the  Doctor's  grand- 
father ;  while  in  the  private  office,  in  the  rear,  is  a 
table  that  was  made  in  1772,  and  which  has  no  nails 
in  it,  the  parts  being  put  together  with  wooden  pegs. 
In  the  same  room  stands  a  quaint  little  table  that  came 
from  the  celebrated  monastery  at  Ephrata.  The  Doc- 
tor is  a  Lutheran  in  religion,  and  is  a  member  of  the 
Masonic  Fraternity,  affiliating  with  the  Blue  Lodge, 
Chapter  and  Commandery,  holding  membership  in 
the  latter  body  in  Philadelphia.  He  is  also  a  member 
of  the  Elks,  the  Eagles,  the  Young  Republicans  and 
the  Hamilton  Club.  Progressive  and  aggressive  in 
all  things,  Dr.  Muhlenberg  was  the  first  physician 
in  Lancaster  to  administer  antitoxin  in  the  treatment 
of  diphtheria.  In  social,  professional  and  political 
affairs  he  is  thoroughly  independent,  having  opinions 
of  his  own  and  being  possessed  of  the  courage  of  his 

LEWIS  J.  KIRK,  a  member  of  the  Board  of 
Commissioners  of  Lancaster  county,  is  one  of  the 
most  intelligent  and  conscientious  officers  who  have 
ever  held  this  prominent  position. 

The  Kirk  family  belongs  to  the  best  blood  of 
Lancaster  county,  one  not  dependent  upon  a  royal 
ancestor,  but  honored  through  a  long  line  of  hon- 
est, industrious  and  intelligent  men  and  women. 
Grandfather  Roger  Kirk  was  born  in  1752,  owned 
large  estates  and  became  an  affluent  mill  owner  and 
operator  in  Chester  county,  where  his  life  was  passed 
and  where  his  memory  is  honored.  Jacob  Kirk, 
the  son  of  Roger  and  father  of  Lewis  J.  Kirk,  was 
born  in  1775  and  died  Aug.  25,  1841.  The  well- 
known  settlement  of  Kirk's  Mills,  with  attendant  in- 
dustries, was  founded  by  Jacob  Kirk,  between  1812 
and  1816,  and  as  early  as  1814  the  place  had  become 
important  enough  to  have  a  postoffice  established. 

Jacob  Kirk  was  twice  married,  his  first  wife 
being  Sarah  England,  his  second,  Hannah  H.,  a  sis- 
ter to  the  first  wife.  The  children  of  the  first  mar- 
riage of  Jacob  Kirk  were:  John,  born  in  1804; 
Mary,  born  in  1805  ;  Roger,  born  in  1807 ;  and  Han- 
nah, born  in  1809.  The  children  of  his  second 
marriage  were:  Sarah,  born  in  1817,  married  to 
Lewis  Haines ;  Rachel  E.,  born  in  1820,  wife  of 
Timothy  Haines ;  Elizabeth,  born  in  1822,  unmar- 
I'ied ;  Levi,  born  in  1825,  unmarried ;  Mary,  born  in 
1827,  who  married  William  P.  Haines,  a  nephew  of 
Lewis  and  Timothy  Haines ;  and  Lewis  J.,  born  in 
1829,  all  of  the  family  except  the  youngest  having 
passed  off  the  stage  of  life. 

Lewis  J.  Kirk  was  born  at  Kirk's  Mills  in  1829, 
and  was  educated  in  the  public  schools  and  in  the 
academy  at  Kennett  Square,  Chester  county.  His 
first  business  enterprise  was  in  the  line  of  mer- 
chandising and  milling  and  he  still  retains  possession 
of  a  mill  property.  In  1857  he  took  an  extended 
trip  in  Europe,  a  visit  which  was  a  source  of  great 

pleasure  and  profit  to  a  man  of  his  intelligence. 
Mr.  Kirk  has  not  only  been  regarded  as  a  repre- 
sentative citizen  of  his  locality,  but  of  the  whole 
county,  through  which  he  is  well  known  as  a  most 
honorable,  upright  and  law  upholding  citizen. 

Although  a  stanch  Republican,  R^r.  Kirk  has 
accepted  few  political  honors.  As  township  auditor 
he  met  every  public  demand,  and  on  Sept.  20,  1901, 
•he  was  appointed  by  Judge  Livingston  to  fill  a 
vacancy  in  the  board  of  county  commissioners.  This 
unsolicited  appointment  met  with  the  heartiest  pub- 
lic approval,  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  his  fellow- 
citizens  Mr.  Kirk  accepted  the  honor,  was  sworn 
into  office  on  September  23d,  just  three  days  after  his 
appointment,  and  has  given  to  the  office  the  same  in- 
telligent and  careful  attention  that  he  has  invariably 
bestowed  upon  his  private  affairs,  keeping  up  the  re- 
cord made  by  his  exemplary  father  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  State. 

The  Kirk  family  has  been  long  a  leading  one 
in  the  Society  of  Friends  and  Lewis  J.  was  reared 
in  this  simple  faith.  His  marriage  was  on  May 
12,  1864,  to  Miss  Adaline  Caldwell,  a  daughter 
of  the  Hon.  James  A.  Caldwell,  a  member  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Senate,  and  Adaline  (Maxwell)  Cald- 
well, who  was  a  granddaughter  of  Gen.  Steele.  The 
following  children  were  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kirk  r 
Robert  C,  born  July  10,  1866;  Mary  Adaline,  born 
May  10,  1870;  and  Natalie,  born  July  4,  1872,  who 
passed  out  of  life  Aug.  18,  1875. 

A  dignified,  intelligent  gentleman,  Lewis  J. 
Kirk  is  deservedly  a  strong  man,  personally,  politi- 
cally, and  religiously  one  who  enjoys  the  confidence 
of  all  with  whom  he  comes  in  contact. 

JOHN  B.  KIEFFER,  Ph.  D.,  of  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College,  enjoys  the  distinction  of  having 
been  largely  instrumental  in  enlisting  the  interest 
of  the  eminent  philanthropist.  Gen.  De  Peyster,  to 
the  extent  of  securing  from  him  the  magnificent 
library  building  which  now  adorns  the  campus  of 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College. 

Rev.  Ephraim  Kieffer,  Dr.  Kiefifer's  father,  was 
the  son  of  Joseph  Kieffer,  who  was  the  son  of  Ab- 
raham Kieffer,  who  was  the  son  of  Dewald  Kieffer, 
who  was  the  son  of  Abraham  Kieffer,  who  was  the 
son  of  Dewald  Kieffer,  of  Kettenheim,  Germany. 
The  progenitor  of  this  branch  of  the  family — the 
Doctor's  great-great-great-grandfather — came  to  the 
shores  of  America,  in  the  ship,  "Two  Brothers,"  in 
1848.  He  settled  in  Berks  county.  Pa.,  and  his 
grandson,  Dr.  Kieffer's  great-grandfather,  Abraham 
Kieffer,  after  serving  two  or  three  terms  of  enlist- 
ment in  the  Revolutionary  Army,  located  in  Franklin 
county,  Pa.,  where  he  acquired  considerable  prop- 
erty, and  left  behind  him  seven  sons  and  seven 
daughters,  the  ancestors  of  a  large  portion  of  the 
prolific  race  of  Kieffers. 

It  is  said,  however,  that  the  Kieffers  were  or- 
iginally French,  and  not  German,  and  that  during 
the  Huguenot  troubles  in  France  a  Michel  Tonelliers 



was  driven  from  that  country,  and  settled  in  Ger- 
many. The  better  to  conceal  his  identity  he  trans- 
formed his  name  into  Kieffer,  and,  marrying  a 
German  woman,  became  the  ancestor  of  all  the 
Kieffers  in  America.  The  name  has  various  spell- 
ings, such  as  Kieffer,  Kiefer,  Keefer,  Kifer,  Kuever, 
and  possibly  Cuvier. 

Rev.  Ephraim  Kieffer  married  Eleanor  Spang- 
ler,  only  daughter  of  Martin  and  Lydia  (Gardner) 
Spangler,  of  York,  Pa.  She  died  in  Mifflinburg, 
Pa.,  in  1847  leaving  six  children.  Of  these  one 
died  in  infancy,  and  the  rest  are  as  follows: 
Hannah  M.  Cornelius;  John  B. ;  Rev.  J.  Spangler, 
D.  D.,  for  more  than  thirty  years  the  pastor  of  the 
Reformed  Church  at  Hagerstown,  Md. ;  Mrs.  Lydia 
J.  Furst,  of  Cedar  Springs,  Pa. ;  and  Rev.  Henry 
M.,  D.  D.,  the  pastor  of  the  historic  Reformed 
Church  at  Easton,  Pa.,  and  author  of  the  "Recol- 
lections of  a  Drummer  Boy." 

Dr.  John  B.  Kieffer  was  born  in  Bellefonte,  Pa., 
Oct.  20,  1839.  His  preparation  etc., -for  college  was 
made  in  the  old  academy  at  Mifflinburg,  and  mainly 
under  the  instruction  of  Aaron  C.  Fisher.  '  He  en- 
tered the  Sophomore  class  in  Heidelberg  College, 
Ohio,  in  the  fall  of  1857,  where  he  came  under  the 
influence  of  Prof.  E.  E.  Higbee,  and  was  graduated 
with  the  first  honors  of  his  class  in  i860.  In  the 
fall  of  the  following  year,  Prof.  Higbee  having 
resigned  his  professorship,  the  trustees  of  the  in- 
stitution persuaded  young  Kieffer  to  abandon  his 
resolution  of  enlisting  in  the  Union  army,  and  to 
assume  the  charge  of  the  department  of  ancient 
languages,  of  which  he  became  professor  the  follow- 
ing year.  This  position  he  held  four  years,  and  then 
at  the  earnest  request  of  his  father,  who  wished  him 
nearer  home,  and  of  Dr.  Higbee  and  Dr.  Harbaugh, 
professors  of  Church  History  and  of  Dogmatics  in 
the  Theological  Seminary  at  Mercerburg,  Pa.,  he 
returned  to  his  native  State,  and  took  charge  of  the 
department  of  Ancient  Languages  in  Mercersburg 
College.  There  he  was  associated  for  years  with 
Dr.  Thomas  G.  Apple,  who  later  became  the  presi- 
dent of  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  and  after 
thirteen  years  of  faithful  labor  at  Mercersburg,  was 
elected  to  the  chair  of  Ancient  Languages  in  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College.  This  was  in  1878,  and 
since  that  time  he  has  been  actively  associated  with 
the  work  of  that  institution.  From  1878  to  1886 
he  was  professor  of  Latin  and  Greek,  and  since 
1886  has  been  professor  of  Greek.  In  1888  he  took 
charge  of  the  Library  of  the  College  in  addition  to 
his  other  duties.  He  is  a  member  of  the  American 
Philological  Association,  and  of  the  British  Society 
for  the  Promotion  of  Hellenic  Studies.  For  fifteen 
years  he  has  been  treasurer  of  the  Association  of  the 
Colleges  and  Preparatory  Schools  of  the  Middle 
States,  and  of  Maryland.  In  1884  he  received  the 
degree  of  Ph.  D.  from  his  Alma  Mater,  Heidelberg 
College,  and  on  the  same  day  the  same  degree  from 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College. 

Dr.  Kieffer  was  married  in  1878  to  Miss  L.  M. 

B.  Troupe,  then  of  Mercersburg,  and  formerly  of 
Clear  Spring,  Md.,  and  a  daughter  of  Joseph  and 
Sarah  (Cushwa)  Troupe.  To  this  union  was  born 
one  child,  Josephine  B.,  member  of  the  class  o£ 
1902,  of  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Pennsylvania. 

DARE.  The  Dare  family  of  Colerain  township, 
Lancaster  Co.,  comes  of  an  ancestry  dating  far 
back.  As  early  as  1686  William  Dare  was  an 
innkeeper  in  Philadelphia,  where  his  house  was 
known  as  the  "Blue  Anchor."  The  family  of  Alki- 
mah  Dare,  who  married  Ann  Dickey,  was  as  fol- 
lows: (i)  Reuben,  born  1804;  died  1812.  (2) 
Charles,  born  1785;  died  in  infancy.  (3)  George 
T.,  born  at  the  Lazaretto,  near  Philadelphia  Nov. 
30,  1806,  married  Ann  Dickey,  and  died  Nov.  13, 
1890,  at  San  Diego,  Cal. ;  he  studied  medicine  and 
followed  his  profession  in  Colerain  for  many  years. 
(4)  John  Kelsey,  born  Oct.,  1809,  died  1859.  (.S) 
Ann,  born  March,  1812,  married  Mahlon  Pusey, 
and  died  April,  1867.  (6)  Edward  P.,  born  May, 
1815,  died  December,  1893.  (7)  Mary  C,  born 
April,  1818,  married  William  Whitesides,  of  Cole- 
rain, and  died  September,  1876.  (8)  James  M., 
born  November,  1820,  died  April,  1864.  (9)  Fran- 
ces M.,  born  April,  1824,  is  still  living.  (10)  E.  O., 
born  May  3,  1827,  is  living  in  Harrisburg.  Mr. 
Dare  is  noted  for  his  phenomenal  memory,  being 
able  to  recall  dates  and  incidents  of  long  ago  with 
wonderful  exactness. 

ELISHA  W.  BAITY,  M.  D.  Among  the  promi- 
nent citizens  of  Christiana,  Lancaster  county,  is  Dr. 
EHsha  W.  Baily,  who  for  many  years  has  been  iden- 
tified with  the  interests  of  this  part  of  the  great  State 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  is  well  and  favorably  known. 
His  present  residence  is  in  Sadsbury  township,  but 
two  miles  from  the  thriving  borough  of  Christiana. 
He  was  born  in  Londonderry  township,  Chester 
covmty,  Oct.  17,  1821,  a  son  of -Israel  and  Hannah 
(Baily)  Baily,  the  former  of  whom  was  a  farmer  and 
also  an  auctioneer  in  Chester  county,  where  both 
passed  out  of  life,  the  father  in  1823,  and  the  mother 
in  1868,  at  the  age  of  sixty-eight  years,  having  been  a  ■ 
consistent  member  of  the  Hicksite  branch  of  the  So- 
ciety of  Friends.  The  mother  was  twice  married,  the 
children  of  the  first  union  being  Byard,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  nineteen;  Susan,  who  married  Kersey 
Speakman,  and  died  in  1850;  and  Elisha  W.  The 
second  marriage  of  the  mother  was  to  Joshua  Speak- 
man, and  the  children  born  of  this  marriage  were: 
Col.  Franklin  B.,  who  during  the  Civil  war  was  the 
distinguished  commander  of  the  133d  P.  V.  I.,  and 
died  Sept.  9,  1901,  the  proprietor  of  the  "Coatesville 
Hotel ;"  and  D.  Hannah,  who  is  the  widow  of  Harry 
Jones,  of  Coatesville. 

The  Baily  family  in  America  originated  from 
three  English  brothers  of  the  name,  who  in  early 
days  settled  in  New  York,  Pennsylvania  and  Vir- 
ginia, descendants  of  these  brothers  having  made  the 
name  known  all  over  the  Union.     The  grandfather 



•of  Dr.  Baily  lived  in  early  life  in  Chester  county, 
where  he  became  a  farmer  and  where  his  last  days 
were  spent.  Both  grandfathers  bore  the  name  of 

Like  very  many  other  men  who  have  attained 
prominence  later  in  life,  Dr.  Baily  was  reared  on  a 
farm,  and  was  under  the  guidance  of  a  good  and 
pious  mother  until  the  age  of  sixteen  years,  receiving 
his  preparatory  education  in  the  common  schools  of 
his  locality.  Then  he  became  a  student  in  the  Union- 
ville  Academy,  where  Bayard  Taylor  was  one  of  his 
schoolmates,  and  later  he  studied  mathematics  under 
Dr.  Baily,  of 'Andrews  Bridge,  Lancaster  county,  and 
then  engaged  in  school  teaching.  For  two  years  he' 
followed  this  profession,  in  the  meantime  reading 
medicine  under  the. wise  tuition  of  this  same  Dr. 
Baily,  and  in  the  course  of  time  became  a  private 
student  with  the  distinguished  Dr.  Pancost,  in  Jeffer- 
son Medical  College,  in  Philadelphia.  In  1844  he 
graduated  from  this  great  institution  and  located 
for  his  first  practice  in  Atglen,  Pa.  In  1856  he  re- 
moved to  Bloomfield,  Perry  county,  where  he  was 
successfully  practicing  in  1861,  when  the  outbreak 
of  the  Civil  war  changed  the  future  of  so  many  lives. 

At  this  date.  Dr.  Baily  took  medical  charge  of 
Camp  Curtin  for  three  months,  then  with  the  47th 
P.  Y.  I.,  under  Gen.  Brannon,  took  part  in  the  army 
movements  until  1863,  when  he  was  made  a  member 
of  Gen.  Woodbury's  staff.  He  had  general  charge 
of  the  Island  of  Key  West,  and  was  health  officer 
while  on  Gen.  Woodbury's  staff.  In  the  spring  of 
1864  Dr.  Baily  was  placed  in  charge  of  a  hospital 
boat  on  the  Mississippi  river  where  he  continued  un- 
til July,  alleviating  the  miseries  he  could  not  cure, 
of  the  brave  men  placed  in  his  care.  From  here  he 
was  sent  through  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  with  Gen. 
Sheridan,  taking  an  active  part  in  the  battles  of  Win- 
chester and  Cedar  Creek,  remaining  until  the  close 
•of  the  war,  being  finally  mustered  out  at  Harrisburg, 
No  greater  heroes  lived  through  those  years  than  the 
armv  physician  and  surgeon,  and  the  history  is  yet 
to  be  written  which  will  do  them  justice.  The  won- 
ders they  accomplished  and  the  miraculous  cures 
that  followed  their  necessarily  hurried  surgerv 
marked  a  degree  of  skill  which  is  not  surpassed,  al- 
though modern  discoveries  have  given  the  medical 
and  surgical  staff  of  the  present  day  so  many  ad- 

Dr.  Baily  resumed  his  practice  among  the  good 
people  of  Atglen,  and  in  1873  was  honored  by  his 
fellow-citizens  with  election  to  the  Legislature,  where 
he  spent  four  years,  representing  his  constituency 
with  great  credit.  Again  he  resumed  practice,  but 
failing  health  warned  him  that  a  change  was  nec- 
essary, and  the  next  ten  years  were  spent  in  Phila- 
■delphia,  coming  to  his  farm  on  May  31,  1892,  trust- 
ing that  the  pure  air  and  country  exercises  would 
restore  him  to  former  robustness.  In  this  hope  he 
has  been  joined  by  a  wide  circle  of  attached  friends. 

Dr.  Baily  was  married  on  Nov.  10,  1852,  in  the 
city  of  New  York,  to  Mar}-  A.  Cook,  who  was  born 

at  Point  Pleasant,  Ocean  county,  N.  J.,  a  daughter 
of  Thomas  and  Ann  (Williams)  Cook,  farming  peo- 
ple of  New  Jersey,  where  their  lives  were  passed. 
On  Jan.  8,  1903,  Mrs.  Baily  passed  her  seventy-third 
birthday.  On  Nov.  10,  1902,  the  good  Doctor  and 
his  wife  celebrated  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  their 
marriage,  and  received  the  hearty  congratulations 
and  good  wishes  of  a  host  of  prominent  people.  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Baily  had  one  daughter  born  to  them,  Ella, 
who  married  George  Martin,  and  died  at  the  age  of 
thirty-two  years ;  she  left  behind  two  children,  Nor- 
man and  Zelda,  who  have  been  adopted  by  Dr.  Baily 
and  bear  his  name.  Norman  is  attending  the  West- 
chester State  Normal  School,  and  Zelda  the  Chris- 
tiana high  school. 

In  his  political  affiliations.  Dr.  Baily  has  always 
been  a  stanch  supporter  of  the  Republican  party,  and 
he  is  in  full  accord  with  the  administration,  although 
he  is  no  officeholder.  For  many  years  he  has  been 
connected  with  the  Masonic  fraternity,  and  was 
master  of  the  Adams  Lodge,  in  Perry  county,  and 
has  ever  taken  an  active  interest  in  its  affairs.  Al- 
though not  a  member  of  any  especial  religious  or- 
ganization. Dr.  Baily  takes  an  interest  in  all  benevo- 
lent and  charitable  work,  freely  contributing  to  the 
support  of  many  enterprises.  Although  not  in  active 
practice  he  has  kept  pace  with  the  strides  made  in  his 
science,  leaving,  however,  to  younger  aspirants  the 
tests  of  medical  skill  in  which  he  once  excelled.  In 
his  neighborhood  he  is  well  known,  his  pleasant  per- 
sonality making  him  a  delightful  host.  Few  men 
are  more  universally  esteemed. 

was  born  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  July  24,  1846,  son  of 
Henry  Clay  and  Anna  Maria  (Burg)  FonDersmith. 
At  the  age  of  nine  years  he  removed  with  his  parents 
to  the  borough  of  Columbia,  and  there  during  the 
following  six  years  attended  the  parish  schools,  and 
also  acquired  a  commercial  education  in  the  dry- 
goods  establishment  of  his  father. 

At  the  early  age  of  eighteen  years  Mr.  FonDer- 
smith responded  with  alacrity  and  enthusiasm  to  the 
call  of  his  country  for  defenders.  He  became  cor- 
poral at  the  time  of  his  enlistment,  and  returned  a 
sergeant,  in  Co.  E,  195th  P.  V.  I.  At  the  close  of 
his  term  of  enlistment  he  returned  home,  where  he 
was  promptly  offered  a  position  in  the  Columbia 
National  Bank,  as  messenger  boy  and  man  of  all 
work  that  might  offer.  At  the  expiration  of  two 
years  in  that  employment  his  attention  to  his  duties 
and  his  efficiency  as  an  all-around  assistant  resulted 
in  his  election  as  a  regular  clerk,  and  a  little  later  in 
his  promotion  to  the  more  responsible  position  of  re- 
ceiving teller. 

In  those  days  the, visitation  of  the  pay  car  on  rail- 
road lines  had  not  yet  materialized.  The  Pennsyl- 
vania Railway  Company  was  accustomed  to  have  the 
banks  along  the  line  which  were  its  depositories  pay 
the  employes  nearest  at  hand,  and  it  often  fell  to  the 
lot  of  young  FonDersmith.  to  pay  the  monthly  wages 



to  the  construction  gangs  at  work  on  the  main  line 
between  Columbia  and  Philadelphia ;  in  this  work  he 
left  Columbia  as  early  as  s  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
returnmg  late  in  the  day.  The  men  who  were  em- 
?x7'^^'^-n^*  *^  excavations  at  Powelton  avenue,  in 
West  Philadelphia,  were  among  the  number.  The 
payments  were  generally  $50,000  every  month. 
What  a  contrast  with  the  business  of  that  road  to- 

In  February,  1869,  Mr.  FonDersmith  was 
ottered  and  accepted  a  situation  in  the  Farmers  Na-' 
tional  Bank,  at  Lancaster,  combining  the  duties  of 
discount  clerk  Math  that  of  receiving  teller.  He  re- 
mained in  that  responsible  dual  position  until  March, 
1882.  In  the  latter  year  the  Fulton  National  Bank 
of  Lancaster  was  chartered,  and  he  was  at  once 
elected  cashier  of  the  new  organization,  which  re- 
ceived under  his  careful  direction  the  powerful 
impetus  which  carried  it  forward  with  such  marked 
success.  But  once  more  his  old  love,  the  Farmers 
National  Bank,  needed  a  competent  and  able  man  at 
its  head  as  cashier,  and  the  directors  at  once  extended 
him  a  call  to  assume  that  position,  and  in  December, 
1886,  he  returned  to  this,  the  oldest  and  largest 
banking  institution  in  the  county,  where  he  remains 
to  this  day. 

A  little  incident  connected  with  his  return  to  the 
Farmers  Bank  shows  in  such  an  emphatic  manner 
the  confidence  and  esteem  in  which  he  is  held  by  the 
directors  of  that  institution  that  reference  to  it  here 
seems  eminently  appropriate.  A  few  weeks  after 
re-entering  upon  his  duties  he  went  before  the  board 
and  reminded  them  that  his  bond  had  not  yet  been 
presented  and  filed.  The  board,  in  answer,  replied 
that  no  outside  bond  would  be  required ;  that  it,  as  a 
body,  would  go  his  bond ;  they  did  so,  and  thus  the 
incident  was  closed.  It  would  be  difficult  to  present 
a  stronger  example  of  confidence  and  regard  between 
employers  and  employe  than  the  one  just  cited. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  brief  outline  here  given 
of  Mr.  FonDersmith's  career  that  he  has  had  a  thor- 
ough training  as  a  financier.  He  has  filled  every 
position  in  an  ordinary  bank,  from  general  utility 
boy  to  the  responsible  one  of  cashier,  and  there  is  no 
position  in  a  bank  which  he  cannot  fill,  and  fill  well, 
in  an  emergency.  No  banker  in  the  county  of  Lan- 
caster is  so  well'  known  as  he.  For  more  than  thirty 
years  he  has  been  in  close  contact  with  the  most 
influential  men  of  finance  and  trade,  and  few  have 
exercised  a  greater  influence  on  both.  His  general 
personality  and  affability  have  won  him  a  wide  circle 
of  friends"  a'nd  universal  public  esteem. 

Although  Mr.  FonDersmith  has  been  a  lifelong 
Republican  in  his  political  affiliations,  he  has  never 
been  induced  by  the  pride  of  place  or  the  emoluments 
of  office  to  enter  upon  a  political  career,  being 
another  consoicuous  example  of  that  class  of  men 
who,  while  discharging  all  the  duties  of  good  citizen- 
ship, nevertheless  refuse  to  be  drawn  into  the  mire 
of  politics.  By  education  and  by  preference  he  has 
always  been  in  hearty  communion  with  the  Lutheran 

Church,  and  she  in  return  has  bestowed  her  lay  hon- 
ors upon  him.  He  is  a  member  of  the  vestry  of 
Trinity  congregation  and  an  elder.  He  is  also  a 
member  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  Muhlenburg  Col- 
lege, one  of  the  educational  institutions  of  the  Lu- 
theran Church.  Among  other  positions  of  honor 
and  trust,  he  is  a  member  of  the  board  of  home  mis- 
sions attached  to  the  Lutheran  Ministerium  of  Penn- 
sylvania ;  one  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  Ann  C. 
Witmer  Home,  one  of  the  charitable  institutions  of 
Lancaster,  to  which  he  has  stood  in  close  relation 
since  its  organization ;  and  is  a  member  of  the  board 
of  directors  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  and  chairman  of 
the  educational  course.  He  was  one  of  the  organiz- 
ers of  the  Plamilton  Watch  Company,  and  is  largely 
interested  in  the  same.  From  1883  until  1899  he 
was  one  of  the  owners  and  operators  of  the  large 
paper-mill  on  the  Conestoga  river,  at  Eden,  an 
establishment  noted  for  the  excellence  of  its  product. 
He  has  for  years  been  a  director  of  the  Marietta 
Turnpike  Company.  He  is  at  the  present  time  presi- 
dent of  the  Lancaster  Board  of  Trade,  and  was 
largely  instrumental  in  the  founding  of  that  organi- 

In  Masonic  circles  Mr.  FonDersmith  has  been 
prominent  for  years,  being  a  member  of  nearly  all 
the  affiliated  organizations,  and  having  held  the 
highest  official  rank  in  them  all. 

Mr.  FonDersmith  has  always  been  recognized  in 
the  community  as  one  of  its  most  public-spirited  citi- 
zens. Foremost  in  every  good  and  laudable  work, 
both  his  time  and  money  have  ever  been  forthcom- 
ing when  circumstances  called  for  them.  Few  men 
in  the  commAinity  have  so  freely  placed  their  per- 
sonal services  at  the  command  of  the  public,  and 
none  have  been  more  faithful  in  the  discharge  of  the 
duties  and  responsibilities  placed  upon  them. 

It  may  be  mentioned  in  this  connection,  as  an  in- 
stance of  Mr.  FonDersmith's  progressive  character, 
that  when  the  scheme  for  the  introduction  of  electric 
light  into  Lancaster  was  f.rst  broached,  in  1886,  he 
was  the  first  man  approached  to  lend  his  endorse- 
ment to  the  project  by  a  subscription  to  the  stock  of 
the  company  then  formed,  and  he  subsequently  be- 
came one  of  the  largest  stockholders,  until  its  con- 
solidation with  the  Lancaster  Arc  Light  Company, 
in  1888,  and  ultimately  with  the  Edison  Illuminating 
Company,  in  1889. 

With  no  local  enterprise,  perhaps,  has  Mr.  Fon- 
Dersmith been  more  closely  identified  than  with  that 
noble  charity,  the  Lancaster  General  Hospital.  He 
was  one  of  its  founders,  in  1893,  and  has  been  most 
intimately  connected  with  it  ever  since ;  he  has  been 
its  treasurer  since  its  organization,  and  is  also  a 
director  and  member  of  the  executive  committee. 
Its  establishment  upon  a  permanent  basis  was,  as 
is  well  known,  a  difficult  and  thankless  work,  and 
was  achieved  through  the  tireless  and  persistent 
efforts  of  Mr.  FonDersmith  and  the  few  good  men 
and  true  co-operating  with  him.  Nothing  that  he 
has  done,  perhaps,  in  his  long  and  busy  career  can 



afiEord  him  more  pride  and  pleasure  than  his  suc- 
cessful labors  in  this  good  cause. 

In  1877  Mr.  FonDersmith  was  united  in  mar- 
riage with  Miss  Annie  Downing  Truscott.  No  chil- 
dren have  been  born  of  this  union. 

inent member  of  the  Lancaster  Bar,  is  distinguished 
by  reason  of  an  old  and  honored  ancestry,  paternal 
and .  maternal,  as  well  as  by  his  own  professional 
work,  which  has  made  him  one  of  the  leaders  of  the 
Bar.  He  was  born  in  Millersville,  April  21,  1862, 
and  is  of  English  descent.  He  was  graduated  from 
the  Millersville  State  Normal  School  in  1881,  and 
after  an  academic  cotirse  at  Yale,  where  he  was  a 
member  of  the  class  of  1885,  he  tatight  school  in 
Shortlidge's  Academy,  Media,  for  one  year,  and  then 
registered  as  a  law  student  with  the  late  Hon.  Mar- 
riott Brosius.  He  was  admitted  to  practice  law  on 
March  8,  1889,  and  two  years  later  was  admitted  to 
the  Supreme  Court,  in  which,  as  well  as  in  the  Su- 
perior Court,  he  has  had  an  extended  practice.  For 
■one  year  after  being  admitted  he  was  associated  with 
James  C.  Packer,  Esq.,  son  of  the  late  Congressman 
Packer  of  Sunbury,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa. 
James  C.  Packer  was  the  Solicitor  of  the  Philadel- 
phia and  Erie  and  Northern  Central  Railways,  and 
Mr.  Montgomery  became  the  acting  solicitor  of  these 
great  corporations  for  the  year  of  1892,  as  well  as 
assisting  Mr.  Packer  in  the  settlement  of  the  vast 
estates  left  by  his  father.  Returning  to  Lancaster 
in  1893,  Mr.  Montgomery  looked  after  legal  busi- 
ness of  his  preceptor,  Mr.  Brosius,  who  had  been 
elected  to  Congress,  and  this  brought  him  into  con- 
tact with  an  extensive  clientage. 

A  stanch  Republican,  as  well  as  personally  popu- 
lar, Mr.  Montgomery  was  strongly  urged  for  the 
position  of  coimty  sohcitor,  in  1891,  and  he  has,  for 
years  past,  been  a  member  of  the  Young  Republicans' 
Club.  He  has  taken  an  active  part  for  the  Repub- 
lican party  in  every  campaign  since  1887,  and  is  a 
pleasant  and  forceful  speaker.  Indeed  he  began 
making  speeches  for  the  Republican  party  when  a 
law  student,  and  owing  to  the  unwillingness  of  those 
who  are  at  the  head  of  the  party's  affairs,  to  permit 
him  to  give  it  up,  he  has  continued  to  perform  this 
arduous  part  of  campaign  work. 

Mr.  Montgomery  was  the  son  of  Prof.  John  V. 
Montgomery,  who  married  Sarah  T.  Wickersham. 
His  mother  came  of  Quaker  ancestry — ^being  a 
daughter  of  Caleb  and  Abigail  Wickersham,  and  a 
sister  of  the  late  Hon.  James  P.  Wickersham,  for 
many  years  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion, and  later  Minister  to  Denmark.  His  father 
held  the  chair  of  penmanship  and  drawing  in  the 
State  Normal  School,  at  Millersville,  from  its  found- 
ing to  his  death  in  1885,  with  marked  ability,  having 
we  believe,  no  superior  in  his  specialty  in  the  United 
States.  The  Pennsylvania  State  School  Journal,  the 
most  prominent  authority  in  matters  educational  in 
this  State,  declared  that  the  lamented  Montgomery 

was  one  of  the  forerhost  educators  of  his  time — a 
pioneer  and  ardent  advocate  of  industrial  education. 
Lafayette  College,  in  recognition  of  his  great  work, 
had  conferred  upon  him  the  honorary  degree  of 
Master  of  Arts.  Hugh  and  Mary  Montgomery,  the 
grandparents,  lived  in  Mechanicsburg,  this  county. 

On  Jan.  21,  1891,  Caleb  Eugene  Montgomery 
was  married  to  Miss  Mary  Reynolds,  daughter  of 
the  late  Hon.  S.  H.  Reynolds,  the  most  distinguished , 
lawyer  at  the  Lancaster  Bar  during  the  past  century, 
and  whose  descendants  wear  the  crest  that  came  from 
the  ancient  and  honored  Scotch  ancestry  of  the  Rey- 
nolds family.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Montgomery  have  be- 
come the  parents  of  three  children :  Mary  Reynolds, 
who  passed  away  at  the  tender  age  of  one  year; 
Frederick  Reynolds,  who  was  twelve  years  old  Feb. 
27,  1903 ;  and  Caleb  Eugene  Montgomery,  Jr.,  who 
was  eight  years  old  Feb.  25,  1903. 

Mr.  Montgomery  is  president  of  the  Lancaster 
Country  Club,  of  which  he  was  a  founder,  a  club  that 
numbers  in  its  membership  the  very  cream  of  Lan- 
caster's social  life,  and  which  has  built  an  elegant 
clubhouse  and  established  golf  links  and  other  ath- 
letic sports  at  Rossmere,  the  superb  new  annex  to 
Lancaster.  He  has  also  been  a  member  of  the  Uni- 
versity Club  of  Philadelphia,  belongs  to  the  Yale 
Alumni  Association  of  Philadelphia,  and  to  the  D. 
K.  E.  Fraternity  of  Yale.  Religiously  he  is  an  Epis- 
copalian. The  Montgomery  home  at  No.  802  North 
Duke  street  is  a  center  of  attraction  for  the  most  cul- 
tured social  life  of  the'  community. 

MARTIN  CHARTIERE.  One  of  the  foremost 
and  inost  noted  Indian  traders  of  Lancaster  county 
was  Martin  Chartiere.  He  was  a  French  Canadian, 
and  married  an  Indian  squaw.  He  established  his 
permanent  home  with  the  Shawnese  Indians  when 
they  came  from  the  south  and  settled  on  Pequea 
creek.  He  spoke  the  Delaware  language  fluently, 
and  had  much  influence  with  the  savages.  The  agents 
of  the  Penns  gave  to  Chartiere  a  vast  tract  of  land 
extending  from  the  mouth  of  the  Conestoga  creek 
several  miles  up  the  Susquehanna  river.  He  built 
his  trading  post  on  this  tract,  which  is  now  owned 
by  the  Shomans  near  Washington  borough.  He  died 
in  1708,  and  left  all  his  land  and  property  to  his  son 
Pierre,  who  sold  his  farm  in  Manor  to  Stephen  At- 
kinson in  r72'/,  and  moved  to  the  Yellow  Breeches 
creek,  and  from  there  went  to  Ohio.  He  gave  the 
English  and  proprietors  of  Pennsylvania  much 
trouble  during  his  lifetime. 

1899,  there  passed  away  at  his  home  in  Columbia 
one  of  its  best  known  and  most  highly  respected 
citizens,  one  who  for  many  years  had  served  as  mas- 
ter mechanic  in  the  railroad  shops  at  that  place.  Mr. 
Baker  was  born  in  Doe  Run,  Chester  Co.,  Pa.,  June 
IT,  1822,  a  son  of  Isaiah  and  Abigail  (Ortlip)  Baker, 
who  spent  their  entire  lives  as  farming  people  in  that 
countv.    Andrew  O.  was  the  fourth  in  order  of  birth 



in  their  family  of  six  children,  the  others  being  Ra- 
chel, wife  of  James  Cottier,  of  Coatesville,  Pa.; 
Alice,  deceased  wife  of  George  Booth;  Anna,  wife 
of  Isaac  Faddis,  of  Ercildoim,  Pa.;  Phineas  and 
Frank,  both  deceased. 

Andrew  O.  Baker  was  reared  by  an  uncle  and 
spent  his  early  life  on  a  farm  in  his  native  county, 
where  he  remained  until  seventeen  years  of  age  and 
then  entered  the  employ  of  the  old  State  road.  When 
the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  purchased  the 
same,  he  remained  with  them  for  a  few  years  and 
then  went  to  Pittsburg,  where  in  1847  he  became 
connected  with  the  Pittsburg  &  Fort  Wayne  railroad, 
was  made  fireman  in  Jan.,  1851,  was  promoted  to 
engineer  in  1855,  ^^id.  was  made  master  mechanic  in 
the  shops  at  Columbia  in  Sept.,  1868,  which  position 
he  most  creditably  and  acceptably  filled  until  the  date 
of  his  death. 

Mr.  Baker  was  three  times  married,  his  first  wife 
being  Rachel  Hill,  by  whom  he  had  two  children : 
William.,  deceased,  who  married  Lilly  Hinton ;  and 
Mary,  who  died  in  childhood.  His  second  wife  was 
Eliza  Dougherty,  and  to  them  were  also  born  two 
children :  Anna  Jane,  deceased  wife  of  Edward  Mc- 
Dowell, of  Philadelphia ;  and  Eliza  J.,  a  school  teach- 
f.r  of  Columbia.  On  Oct.  14.,  1858,  in  Lancaster 
Mr.  Baker  wedded  Mary  B.  Wright,  and  they  had 
eight  children,  of  whom  are  named :  Susan,  wife  of 
George  Supplee,  a  machinist  of  Columbia  ;  Nathaniel 
L.,  who  married  Amelia  Fry  and  is  a  draftsman  with 
the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  at  Altoona,  Pa. ; 
Emily  W.,  wife  of  Charles  G.  Burton,  who  is  con- 
nected with  a  music  store  in  Philadelphia;  Abigail 
O.,  wife  of  Neil  Walker,  a  machinist  of  Columbia; 
Andrew,  who  died  in  infancy ;  Mary,  who  died  in 
childhood ;  and  Alice,  wife  of  J.  Edgar  Zollinger,  of 
New  Haven,  Conn.,  master  mechanic  of  New  Haven 
Iron  &  Steel  Co. 

Mrs.  Baker  was  born  in  Columbia,  Pa.,  March 
4,  1829,  a  daughter  of  Charles  M.  and  Susan 
(Stump)  Wright,  life-long  residents  of  that  place. 
The  father,  who  was  a  large  land  owner,  never  en- 
gaged in  any  active  labor.  Religiously  he  was  a 
rnember  of  the  Society  of  Friends.  He  died  in  1861, 
aged  sixty-seven  years,  his  wife,  in  1847, 
aged  fortv-eight,  and  both  were  laid  to  rest  in  the 
old  Mt.  Bethel  cemetery.  Their  children  were: 
Sarah,  deceased  wife  of' Charles  Franciscus;  Mary 
B.,  now  Mrs.  Baker;  Catherine,  deceased  wife  of 
Wesley  Breece ;  Emily,  who  died  unmarried ;  Eliza- 
beth, deceased  wife  of  Beverly  Mayer ;  and  Rhoda, 
James  and  Charles,  who  all  died  unmarried.  Mrs. 
Baker's  paternal  grandparents  were  James  and 
Elizabeth  (Barber)  Wright,  of  Columbia.  The 
grandfather  also  was  a  wealthy  property  owner  and 
never  engaged  in  any  business.  The  maternal  grand- 
parents were  Frederick  and  Barbara  Stump,  who 
were  born  in  Germany  and  died  in  Columbia. 

During  all  his  railroad  career,  Mr.  Baker  never 
met  with  an  accident,  and  was  regarded  as  one  of  the 
most  efficient  and  trusted  employes  of  the  road.    Fra- 

ternally he  was  an  honored  member  of  Columbia 
Lodge,  No.  286,  F.  &  A.  M. :  Corinthian  Chapter, 
No.  224,  R.  A.  M. ;  and  Cyrene  Commandery,  No. 
34,  K.  T.  By  birthright  he  was  a  Quaker,  but  in 
later  years  attended  the  Presbyterian  Church.  By 
an  honorable,  upright  life,  he  won  an  untarnished 
name,  and  the  record  which  he  left  behind  him  is  one 
well  worthy  of  perpetuation. 

HON.  GEORGE  FORREST.  This  worthy  and 
representative  citizen  of  Lancaster  is  a  gentleman 
who  has  been  much  in  the  public  eye,  and  whose  high 
character  for  ability  and  integrity  has  won  to  him 
a  large  circle  of  friends  throughout  his  section  of 
the  State.  He  has  been  for  long  years  connected 
with  the  business  interests  of  the  city  as  a  tobacco 
inspector  for  some  of  the  large  dealers  of  New  York. 
He  has  served  his  county  in  the  Legislature,  and  his 
fine  executive  ability  has  been  utilized  frequently 
by  his  fellow  citizens  in  different  municipal  offices 
of  trust. 

The  family  of  which  Mr.  Forrest  is  a  member, 
is  a  very  old  one  in  Lancaster  county;  it  is  of  Eng- 
lish descent,  and  the  members  of  the  family  were 
in  America  at  the  time  of  the  Revolutionary  war 
and  took  part  in  that  sanguinary  struggle.  The 
grandfather  of  George  Forrest  was  Joseph,  a  white- 
smith, and  later  the  pioneer  harness  smith  of  the 
county.  He  married  Elizabeth  Bruner,  who  was 
a  daughter  of  Casper  and  Rebecca  Bruner,  natives 
of  Germany,  and  also  very  early  .  settlers  in  the 
county,  where  Casper  Bruner  was  for  long  years  a 
manufacturer  of  jack  screws.  Joseph  Forrest  was 
a  youth  at  the  time  of  the  war  of  1812  and  took  part 
in  that  struggle  as  a  drummer  boy.  He  died  in 
1854  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven  years,  and  his  wife 
died  in  1830,  at  the  comparatively  early  age  of 
thirty-two.  These  early  members  of  the  family  were 
highly  respected  citizens  of  the  county  and  were 
members  of  the  Lutheran  and  the  Reformed 
Churches,  respectively.  They  now  lie  buried  in 
Lancaster  cemetery.  Their  children  were :  Jacob ; 
Joseph;  Mary,  who  married  William  Payne;  Cas- 
per; Henry;  Peter;  John;  and  Susan,  who  mar- 
ried Augustus  Holbaugh,  of  Bellfonte,  Pa.  Of 
this  family  Casper  Forrest  was  the  father  of  George. 
Casper  Forrest,  the  father,  was  born  in  Lancaster, 
May  9,  1820,  and  on  March  4,  1840,  was  married  in 
the  same  place  to  Ann  M.  Milicheock.  To  the  mar- 
riage were  born:  Elizabeth,  deceased  in  1887,  was 
the  wife  of  Henry  Gentz,  a  large  brick  manufacturer ; 
Henry,  deceased  in  March,  1882,  married  Elizabeth 
Helm;  Samuel  was  accidentally  killed  on  the  rail- 
road in  the  year  1887;  Sarah,  deceased  in  1900, 
was  the  wife  of  William  Bransby,  of  Philadelphia; 
George  is  mentioned  below ;  Mary  married  Byron 
Cummings,  a  machinist  of  Lancaster;  Susan  died 
at  the  age  of  six  years;  William  is  in  the  tobacco 
business  at  Lancaster.  The  mother  of  this  family 
was  born  near  Baltimore,  Md.,  and  died  in  Lancaster 
July  22,  1887,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six  years,  and  is 



buried  in  Woodward  Hill  cemetery.  She  was  the 
daughter  of  George  and  Rebecca  (Roth)  Milicheock, 
and  was  a  lady  of  fine  strength  of  character. 

Casper  Forrest,  the  father  of  the  family,  was 
at  a  tender  age  bound  out  to  serve  an  apprenticeship 
in  the  making  of  powder  horns  and  as  a  machinist, 
in  which  trade  he  served  for  a  period  of  ten  years. 
He  then  worked  at  the  business  as  a  journeyman 
for  a  period,  but  gave  up  the  trade  and  entered  the 
flour  and  feed  business.  After  a  period  at  this, 
he  in  1870  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  brick, 
which  he  continued  for  some  three  years.  Owing 
to.  an  overconfidence  in  mankind,  he  was  led  into 
the  signing  of  bad  paper  by  designing  parties,  the 
result  of  which  was  to  bring  great  financial  re- 
verses on  him.  He  is  a  man  of  fine  grain  of  char- 
acter. He  affiliates  in  a  fraternal  way  with  the  In- 
dependent Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  is  a  member 
of  the  Lutheran  Church.  Politically  he  supports 
the  policies  of  a  Democratic  party. 

Hon.  George  Forrest  was  born  in  the  town  of 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  on  Manor  street,  in  what  was  then 
known  as  Betheltown,  Jan.  2,  1852.  He  attended 
the  public  schools,  and  after  finishing  the  high 
school  course  took  up  the  printing  trade  with  a  pub- 
lishing company,  at  the  head  of  which  was  Stuart 
A.  Wylie.  He  served  an  apprenticeship  with  them 
for  four  years,  and  one  year  longer  as  a  journey- 
man. He  then  went  to  New  Haven,  Conn.,  where 
he  ■  was  in  the  office  of  the  vice-president  of  the 
New  York,  New  Haven  &  Hartford  Railroad  Com- 
pany, engaged  in  the  office  work  of  civil  engineer- 
ing for  the  period  of  a  year.  This  employment, 
however,  was  not  to  his  taste,  and  he  went  to  Phil- 
adelphia, where  he  followed  his  trade  for  the  next 
three  years.  He  then  came  back  to  Lancaster  and 
engaged  with  the  firms  of  H.  C.  Linde  and  Hamilton 
&  Co.,  leaf  tobacco  inspectors  of  New  York,  who 
had  a  tobacco  warehouse  in  Lancaster,  in  which  his 
brother  Henry  held  the  position  of  inspector.  He 
served  under  his  brother  until  he  became  an  expert 
himself,  and  at  his  brother's  death,  in  March,  1882, 
he  succeeded  to  the  position,  which  he  has  since  con- 
tinued to  fill.  Mr.  Forrest  is  looked  upon  as  one 
of  the  best  judges  of  leaf  tobacco  in  this  part  of 
the  State,  his  services  being  highly  valuable  to  the 
company  by  whom  he  is  employed. 

During  his  career  in  Lancaster,  since  his  return 
from  Philadelphia,  Mr.  Forrest  has  been  quite  prom- 
inent in  the  political  life  of  the  county  and  city. 
His  Democracy  has  always  been  of  the  Jacksonian 
variety,  and  he  has  at  all  times  been  ready  to  engage 
in  the  work  of  organization  of  the  different  cam- 
paigns which  have  been  waged  in  the  county.  He 
thus  won  recognition  at  the  hands  of  the  leaders, 
and  his  genial  personahty  had  made  him  so  popular 
with  the  people  that  in  1892  he  was  nominated  to 
a  place  on  the  ticket  as  a  representative  to  the  Lower 
House.  He  received  a  handsome  vote,  and  served 
with  distinction  during  the  following  session.  In 
the  year  1890  he  was  elected  to  a  position  on  the 

city  school  board,  and  in  1899  became  secretary  o£ 
that  board,  an  office  in  which  he  has  since  served 
to  the  satisfaction  of  that  body.  In  matters  of  fra- 
ternal interest,  Mr.  Forrest  affiliates  with  the  In- 
dependent Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  has  filled  all 
the  chairs.  He  has  been  trustee  of  Herschel  Lodge 
for  the  past  ten  years.  He  is  a  member  of  Ridge- 
ley  encampment.  He  is  also  a  member  of  the- 
Artisans;  of  the  Jr.  O.  U.  A.  M.;  the  B.  P.  O.  E., 
in  which  he  has  filled  all  the  chairs,  also  serving 
as  trustee  for  three  years,  chairman  of  the  Social 
Room  four  years,  and  was  one  of  the  committee 
of  the  Advocate  of  New  Quarters. 

On  Nov.  10,  1881,  Hon.  George  Forrest  mar- 
ried in  Lancaster  Clemmie  C.  Pool,  who  became 
the  mother  of:  G.  Edward  and  Harry  Mortimer. 
Mrs.  Forrest  is  a  native  of  Lancaster,  a  daughter 
of  Samuel  J.  and  Mary  C.  (Stormfeltz)  Pool.  Her 
father  was  the  pioneer  silver  plater  of  Lancaster. 
He  died  July  7,  1900,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six  years,- 
her  mother  dying  in  1898  at  the  age  of  sixty-One 
years,  and  they  both  lie  buried  in  Lancaster  cem- 
etery. They  were  devout  and  highly  respected 
members  of  St.  John's  Lutheran  Church.  Their 
children  were  Mary  E.,  who  married  William  Wiley, 
of  Lancaster,  Pa. ;  Edward  C,  of  the  Lancaster 
cemetery;  Katie,  deceased  in  girlhood,  and  Clemmie- 
C,  Mrs.  Forrest. 

Courteous,  genial  and  well  informed,  Hon., 
George  Forrest  is  a  highly  respected  citizen  of  his. 
native  city,  and  has  been  prominently  and  honorably- 
associated  with  its  history. 

S.  CLAY  MILLER,  the  extensive  wine  and 
liquor  dealer  of  Center  Square,  Lancaster,  is  a  de- 
scendant of  German  ancestry,  and  his  parents  were 
well  known  residents  of  Lancaster  county.  His 
mother's  maiden  name  was  Fanny  Snyder.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Miller  had  eight  children:  Mary,  Jacob 
P.,  Fanny,  Henry,  S.  Clay,  Lizzie,  Washington  and 
Samuel.  The  father  lived  to  be  eighty-two,  and  the 
mother  was  seventy-two  at  the  time  of  her  death. 

S.  Clay  Miller  was  born  in  Manheim,  Lancaster 
county,  April  25,  1844,  and  when  eleven  years  old 
left  home  to  work  on  his  uncle's  farm,  in  Pequea 
township,  the  first  three  years  receiving  his  board 
and  clothing,  and  during  the  next  two  four  dollars 
a  month  besides.  When  he  was  sixteen  he  was  put 
in  charge  of  a  country  tavern  near  Elizabethtown, 
where  he  remained  for  a  year.  He  enlisted  Oct. 
3,  1861,  in  the  Union  army,  where  his  experiences 
were  varied  and  interesting.  For  some  months  his 
command  was  engaged  in  building  long  fortifications 
at  Port  Royal,  S.  C,  and  was  landed  at  Tybee  Island 
April  9,  1S62.  After  a  two  days'  engagement  Fort 
Pulaski  was  captured,  on  the  20th  of  the  following- 
May.  St.  John's  and  James  Island  were  also  cap- 
tured by  this  command.  Mr.  Miller  was  pushed 
overboard  and  nearly  drowned  in  the  St.  John  river, 
and  was  severely  wounded  by  a  spent  ball  which 
struck  him  on  the  left  thigh  in  the  battle  of  Poca- 



taligo,  S.  C,  disabling  him  for  some  time.  After 
the  battle  this  ball  was  found  in  his  pocket.  On  July 
i8,  1863,  at  the  second  assault  on  Fort  Wagner,  Gen. 
G.  S.  Strong,  with  Mr.  Miller  at  his  side  carrying 
the  colors,  leaped  upon  the  works,  and  both  were 
swept  back  by  a  storm  of  shell  and  musketry  fire 
from  Fort  Wagner,  Fort  Sumter,  Fort  Moultrie  and 
surrounding  batteries.  Gen.  Strong  was  fatally 
wounded,  and  recommended  the  gallant  young  sol- 
dier for  promotion  with  almost  his  last  words.  Mr. 
Miller,  if  not  the  youngest,  was  the  smallest  soldier 
to  carry  the  ilag.  He  was  given  a  medal  from  Gen. 
GiUmore,  dated  Aug.  23,  1863,  with  the  inscription, 
"S.  C.  Miller,  Company  H,  76th  Pa.  Vet.  Vol.  For 
gallant  and  meritorious  conduct.  Q.  A.  Gillmore, 
Major  General."  On  the  reverse  is  a  representation 
of  Fort  Sumter,  surrounded  with  water.  The  76th 
Pennsylvania  arrived  at  Bermuda  Hundred,  on  the 
James  River,  May  i,  1864,  and  in  June  Sergt.  Miller 
was  the  first  to  plant  the  flag  on  the  enemy's  works 
in  the  destruction  of  the  Richmond  and  Petersburg 
railroad.  Young  Miller  was  wounded  in  front  of 
Petersburg  ten  days  later,  and  on  the  22d  of  July 
was  promoted  to  color-bearer  sergeant.  At  Drury's 
Bluff,  when  the  Union  men  were  driven  back,  Sergt. 
Miller  was  one  of  the  last  to  leave  the  line,  and  saved 
his  colors  under  very  creditable  circumstances.  This 
was  the  famous  engagement  when  Gen.  Butler  was 
caught  in  the  fog.  A  retreat  being  ordered,  Sergt. 
Miller  reported  a  squad  of  Union  soldiers  captured 
by  the  Rebels,  and  rallied  men  enough  to  charge 
back  and  save  the  eight  men  from  Rebel  prisons. 
At  the  mine  explosion,  on  July  30th,  Miller,  the  boy 
soldier,  was  knocked  and  tramped  on  by  a  stampede 
of  the  colored  troops,  but  managed  to  save  his  colors 
under  heavy  fire.  On  Aug.  14,  at  Deep  Bottom,  he 
was  wounded  by  a  shell,  and  sent  to  the  hospital  at 
Fortress  Monroe  for  two  months,  but  rejoined  his 
regiment  in  front  of  Petersburg  as  soon  as  he  was 
able  to  do  so,  and  an  hour  and  a  half  after  his  arrival 
in  the  trenches  was  struck  on  the  neck  by  a  flying  bit 
of  a  shell,  which  hardly  more  than  broke  the  skin 
however.  This  young  officer  carried  the  colors  in 
nearly  all  the  engagements  in  which  his  regiment 
participated,  e?ccept  those  that  occurred  while  he  was 
lying  in  the  hospital.  Some  of  his  escapes  were  in- 
deed miraculous.  Four  times  he  was  hit  by  bullets, 
and  he  was  swept  off  the  parapet  by  the  bursting  of 
a  shell  and  knocked  back  into  the  trench  with  the 
flag  in  his  hand.  The  76th  Pennsylvania  suffered 
severely  during  the  war,  losing  over  six  hundred 
out  of  its  original  complement,  in  killed,  wounded 
and  missing.  Major  Reinoehl  said  that  on  the  night 
he  formed  his  command  for  the  charge  on  Fort 
Wagner  four  hundred  were  in  the  lines,  and  only 
two  hundred  came  back.  Sergt.  Miller  has  a  letter 
of  commendation  from  Gen.  Littel,  Major  Wdham 
Diller  and  Major  A.  C.  Reinoehl,  former  officers 
of  the  regiment. 

Upon  the  death  of  Major  A.  C.  Reinoehl,  post- 
master at  Lancaster,  Mr.  Miller  was  appointed  his 


successor,  the  honor  coming  as  a  tribute  to  his  record 
as  a  soldier  and  his  worth  as  a  citizen.  The  appoint- 
ment came  through  Congressman  Brosius,  who  had 
been  waited  upon  by  a  committee  of  prominent  Lan- 
casterians,  urging  the  claims  of  Mr.  Miller  over 
and  above  those  of  a  goodly  number  of  very  excel- 
lent men  who  were  candidates  for  the  position.  Mr. 
Brosius  (himself  a  soldier)  recognized  the  merits 
of  this  citizen-soldier,  and  gave  him  the  office,  ta 
which  he  was  inducted  March  i,  1901. 

Mr.  Miller  was  married  in  March,  1869,  to  Miss 
Louise,  a  daughter  of  William  Rudduck,  of  Phila- 
delphia, formerly  of  London,  England,  and  to  this 
union  were  born  five  children:  Leon  R.,  who  is 
an  engraver;  Herbert  C,  a  note  clerk  in  the  Lan- 
caster Trust  Co. ;  Mabel  L. ;  Effie  I. ;  and  Louise  B. 
All  except  Leon  are  at  home.  The  family  are  in  the 
membership  of  St.  James  Episcopal  Church.  Mr. 
Miller  is  a  prominent  Mason,  and  has  taken  the 
Thirty-second  degree  in  the  fraternity,  passing  of 
course  through  all  the  intervening  organizations- 
He  is  also  a  member  of  the  Royal'  Arcanum,  the 
Hamilton  Club,  the  Young  Republican  Club,  the 
Elks,  Admiral  Reynolds  Post,  No.  405,  G.  A.  R.,  and 
the  Union  Veteran  Legion.  Mr.  Miller  has  been 
chief  marshal  of  many  Republican  parades,  and 
handled  them  well  in  the  Garfield,  Harrison  and  Mc- 
Kinley  campaigns.  Fie  planned  the  great  battle  be- 
tween the  two  local  posts  of  the  G.  A.  R.,  which  was 
fought  in  Conestoga  Park  about  five  years  ago,  he 
commanding  the  Confederate  forces.  The  event  ex- 
cited widespread  interest,  and  brought  at  leats  25,000 
visitors  to  Lancaster.  Perhaps  no  man  in  the  State 
has  a  finer  record  as  a  soldier  than  S.  Clay  Miller. 

LINDLEY  MURRAY,  the  English  grammar- 
ian, was  born  in  1745  near  the  Swatara,  in  what 
was  then  Lancaster  county,  but  is  now  embraced 
within  the  territory  of  Dauphin.  His  "Grammar 
of  the  English  Language,"  which  was  issued  in 
1795,  was  for  many  years  the  standard  authority 
on  that  subject.  After  accumulating  considerable 
money  in  mercantile  pursuits,  on  account  of  his 
health  becoming  impaired  he  went  to  England, 
where  he  died  in  1826,  on  his  estate  at  the  old  gate, 
near  York. 

and  retail  druggist  of  Lancaster,  and  the  most  prom- 
inent and  largest  dealer  in  that  line  in  the  county, 
is  descended  from  an  old  family,  originally  from 
Switzerland,  which  settled  near  New  Holland,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  early  in  1700.  Mr.  Hull  was  born  in 
New  Holland  on  Washington's  birthday,  1838.  He 
was  the  son  of  Wendell  and  Margaret  (Darrow) 
Hull,  of  New  Holland. 

Wendell  Hull  was  a  shoemaker,  who  later  con- 
ducted the  Bird-in-Hand  "Railroad  House"  and 
finally  the  "Eagle  Hotel,"  in  New  Holland,  until 
his  death  in  1882  at  the  age  of  seventy-three.  His 
wife  survived  him  until  1892  at  the  age  of  seventy- 



two.  They  are  buried  in  the  New  Holland  cemetery. 
Mrs.  Hull  was  a  member  of  the  German  Reformed 
Church.  Her  husband  was  a  liberal  supporter  of 
the  church  but  not  a  member.  The  issue  of  their 
marriage  was :  Levi,  a  retired  citizen  of  New  Hol- 
land ;  Madison,  Henry  and  William,  who  all  three 
died  young;  Anna,  Mrs.  John  Piersol,  of  Indian- 
apolis, Ind.,  deceased;  George  W.,  the  subject  here- 
of; Emma,  now  the  wife  of  Tobias  Bartlett,  of 
Reading,  Pa.,  ex-tax  collector  and  a  man  of  wealth 
and  prominence;  Susan  and  Julia,  both  living  with 
their  brother,  George,  and  William  H.,  who  died 
in  1892. 

Mr.  Hull  lived  with  his  parents  and  attended 
school  until  his  fifteenth  year  when  he  went  to 
Reading,  Pa.,  and  was  for  two  years  a  clerk  in 
the  Court  House.  After  this  he  served  with  Charles 
A.  Heinitsh  for  three  and  one-half  years  as  a  clerk 
in  the  drug  business.  Thereafter  he  was  manager 
of  the  drug  store  of  Benjamin  Kauffman  for  a  year 
and  a  half,  and  after  that  again  for  another  year 
and  a  half  for  John  Markley,  who  had  bought  out 
Kauffman  and  was  no  druggist  himself.  He  then 
took  his  final  service  with  Dr.  Thomas  Ellmaker 
in  whose  drug  business  he  remained  until  May  12, 
1872,  when  he  purchased  it.  It  was  then  only  a 
single  storeroom  and  cellar  but  did  not  remain  so 
long  under  the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  Hull.  He 
soon  purchased  his  present  stand,  then  a  small  af- 
fair, and  rebuilt  it  to  accommodate  his  fast  enlarg- 
ing business.  He  expanded  into  a  wholesaler  as 
well  as  a  retailer  and  now  occupies  five  floors  with 
the  most  modern,  best  equipped,  largest  and  best 
managed  drug  business  in  Lancaster  county,  em- 
ploying ten  men. 

Mr.  Hull  is  prominent  socially  as  well  as  in  busi- 
ness, though  he  takes  but  little  interest  in  politics 
and  would  never  accept  the  trials  of  public  office. 
He  is  a  member  of  no  church  but  a  liberal  supporter 
of  all.  He  belongs  to  the  Masonic  Blue  Lodge,  and 
is  a  man  of  charitable  disposition  and  habits.  He 
has  acquired  wealth,  is  self-made,  clever,  well-known 
and  well  thought  of  by  all  who  know  him. 

REV.  WILLIAM  RUPP,  A.  M.,  D.  D.,  Profes- 
sor of  Theology  in  the  Eastern  Seminary  of  the 
Reformed  Church  of  the  United  States,  lives  in  a 
charming  home,  at  No.  602  West  James  street, 
Lancaster,  just  opposite  the  Seminary  in  which  he 
occupies  so  important  a  position. 

The  ancestors  of  Rev.  William  Rupp  were  among 
the  early  settlers  of  this  state,  his  great-great-grand- 
father, George  Rupp,  having  come  to  America, 
from  Alsatia,  in  1750,  locating  in  Lehigh  county, 
where  Chapman  station  now  is,  and  where  he  took 
up  a  large  section  of  land,  on  a  grant  received  from 
the  Penns.  Quite  a  romance  is  connected  with 
George  Rupp's  coming  to  America.  In  his  native 
land  he  had  met  Miss  Ursula  Von  Peterholtz,  whose 
family  belonged  to  the  nobility,  and  objected  to  the 
wooing  of  young  Rupp,  in  spite  of  the  fact  he  was 

a  most  superior  young  man.  Though  so  many  years 
ago,  human  nature  was  just  the  same,  and  "love 
found  a  way,"  the  young  couple  eloping  to  America, 
where  they  founded  a  family  which  has  become 
honored  in  every  locality  where  it  is  found.  Some 
of  the  descendants  of  this  fair  maid  and  gallant 
lover  still  live  on  a  portion  of  the  original  grant 
of  land. 

Solomon  Rupp,  the  father  of  Dr.  Rupp,  was  a 
farmer  of  Weisenburg,  Lehigh  county.  He  married 
Maria  Fry,  a  daughter  of  Peter  Fry,  also  a  farmer 
of  Lehigh  county,  and  to  this  union  were  born  these 
children :  Rev.  Dr.  William ;  John,  a  lawyer ;  Ben- 
jamin, deceased,  who  had  just  entered  upon  the 
practice  of  law;  Solomon,  a  farmer  and  justice  of 
the  peace,  living  on  the  old  homestead;  Henry  F., 
a  farmer  and  teacher,  living  near  Seipstown,  in 
Lehigh  county;  Alvin,  the  superintendent  of  the 
public  schools  of  Allentown;  and  Louisa  Ellen,  the 
wife  of  Benjamin  Frees,  a  farmer  of  Weisen- 

Rev.  William  Rupp  was  born  in  Lehigh  county, 
April  17,  1839,  and  after  attending  the  public 
schools  of  the  district,  took  a  course  in  the  Allen- 
town  Seminary,  which  is  now  known  as  Muhlen- 
berg College,  and  after  leaving  there,  engaged  in 
teaching  for  some  time.  In  1857,  he  entered  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College,  from  which  he  graduated 
in  1862,  at  the  head  of  his  class,  and  was  awarded 
the  highest  class  honor,  the  Marshall  oration.  Still 
in  pursuit  of  higher  learning.  Dr.  Rupp  entered  the 
Reformed  Seminary  at  Mercersburg,  from  which  he 
was  graduated  in  1864,  in  February,  1865,  being 
ordained  at  Pine  Grove,  in  Schuylkill  county. 

Immediately  Dr.  Rupp  took  upon  himself  the 
duties  for  which  he  had  been  preparing,  and  for  one 
and  three-fourths  years  he  served  two  Reformed 
congregations,  one  at  St.  Clair  and  the  other  at 
Port  Carbon,  and  then  resigned,  to  accept  a  call 
at  Berlin,  Somerset  county,  where  this  indefatigable 
worker  served  four  congregations  for  a  period  of 
ten  years  and  nine  months.  Leaving  Berlin  in  1877, 
Dr.  Rupp  went  to  Manchester,  Md.,  and  there  served 
four  congregations,  remaining  with  this  charge  for 
eleven  and  one-half  years,  and  then  accepted  a  call 
to  Meyersdale,  Somerset  county,  where  he  became 
the  beloved  pastor  of  one  congregation,  taking  charge 
in  December,  1888,  and  remaining  in  that  field  for 
the  succeeding  five  years. 

In  1892,  Dr.  Rupp  was  elected  professor  of 
Practical  Theology  in  the  Eastern  Seminary  of  the 
Reformed  Church  of  the  United  States,  his  election 
having  taken  place  at  the  meeting  of  the  Pittsburg 
Synod  at  Irwin,  and  he  was  inaugurated  the  fol- 
lowing year  at  the  meeting  of  the  Synod  at  Green- 
ville, Mercer  county,  and  he  took  up  his  residence 
in  Lancaster  in  December,  1893. 

Dr.  Rupp  was  married  in  October,  1865,  to  Miss 
Emma  A.  Hambright,  a  daughter  of  the  late  Adam 
F.  Hambright,  who  was  for  so  many  years  a  trust- 
ed and  honored  official  of  the  Pennsylvania  railroad. 



of  Lancaster.  This  union  has  been  blessed  with 
eleven  children,  nine  of  whom  are  living :  William 
N.,  a  clothier  on  West  Orange  street,  Lancaster; 
Henry  Harbaugh,  who  graduated  from  the  Re- 
formed Theological  Seminary  in  the  class  of  1901 ; 
Frederick  Augustine,  who  graduated  from  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  in  1900,  and  at  once 
became  resident  physican  in  the  M.  E.  hospital 
in  Philadelphia;  Charles  E.,  of  the  class  of  1902, 
m  Franklin  and  Marshall  College;  T.  F.,  of  the 
class  of  1903,  same  college;  Paul  B.,  of  the  class 
of  1904,  same  college;  Mary  Louise,  at  home; 
Viola  G.  is  the  wife  of  Rev.  D.  E.  Master,  of  Apollo, 
Armstrong  county;  and  Emma  A.  is  the  wife  of 
Rev.  J.  L.  Barnhart,  Saegerstown,  Pa.  One  child 
died  in  infancy,  and  Lillie  G.,  at  a  later  age. 

Dr.  Rupp  was  honored  with  the  degree  of  A. 
M.  within  three  years  after  his  graduation,  and 
with  that  of  D.  D.  in  1883.  These  degrees  were 
conferred  by  his  Alma  Mater,  the  old  Franklin  and 
Marshall  College.  Dr.  Rupp  has  been  a  thought- 
ful contributor  to  many  publications,  almost  con^ 
tinuously  to  the  Reformed  Church  Messenger,  and 
since  1868,  has  been  one  of  the  favorite  writers  for 
the  well-known  and  highly  valued  Mercersburg 
Review,  and  he  has  held  the  position  of  editor  of 
this  journal  since  1897,  and  in  addition  has  been 
the  author  of  many  valuable  papers  in  the  Ameri- 
can Journal  of  Theology,  and  a  number  of  learned 
pamphlets  have  come  from  his  pen.  A  profound 
theologian  and  scholarly  in  other  lines.  Dr.  Rupp 
has,  by  his  teaching  and  his  writing,  exerted  a  wide 
influence  for  good,  deservedly  winning  his  high 
position  in  the  Reformed  Church,  as  well  as  com- 
manding the  respect  of  religious  teachers  and  the 

B.  F.  SIDES,  M.  D.,  was  born  Sept.  26,  1822,  in 
Bart  township,  this  county,  a  son  of  John  and  Sarah 
(Barr)  Sides,  of  Lancaster  county.  John  Sides  was 
a  son  of  Peter  Sides,  of  German  ancestry,  who  was 
one  of  the  oldest  settlers  of  this  county.  The  chil- 
dren born  to  John  Sides  were :  Abraham,  who  for 
thirty  years  was  an  efficient  engineer  on  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad;  Barbara,  who  married  Dr.  Samuel 

A.  Johnson ;  Elizabeth,'  who  married  P.  W.  House- 
keeper, of  Drumore  township ;  Peter  H.,  colonel  of 
a  regiment  during  the  Civil  war,  who  married  and 
lived  in  Philadelphia;  and  our  subject.  Dr.  B.  F. 

Reared  in  the  home  of  his  Grandmother  Barr, 

B.  F.  Sides  received  careful  early  training  and  was 
kept  at  study  in  the  private  schools  of  Lancaster 
county,  and  was  later  placed  at  the  New  London, 
Mt.  Jov,  and  Strasburg  schools.  Deciding  upon  a 
medical  career,  he  then  entered  upon  the  study  of  the 
science  under  the  careful  instruction  of  Drs.  Alex- 
ander and  Patrick  Cassidy,  who  were  the  leading 
physicians  of  the  county,  at  that  period.  For  three 
years  he  benefited  by  their  instruction,  entering  then 
the   Jefferson  Medical  College,  Philadelphia,  from 

which  institution  have  graduated  many  of  the  dis- 
tinguished practitioners  of  the  country.  In  the  spring 
of  1846,  Dr.  Sides  was  graduated,  and  with  zeal  en- 
tered upon  the  practice  of  his  noble  calling,  in  the 
county  of  his  birth,  settling  among  the  good  people 
of  Drumore  township,  where  for  over  fifty-five  years 
he  has  been  and  is  still  in  active  practice. 

On  March  2,  1854,  Dr.  Sides  was  married  to  Miss 
Elenora  E.  King,  a  daughter  of  John  and  Isabella 
McSparran  King,  of  Drumore  township.  To  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Sides  three  children  were  born,  these  being : 
Janet,  who  died  in  infancy;  Sallie  B.,  who  passed 
away  in  young  womanhood;  and  Isabella  S.,  born 
Dec.  IT,  1854,  who  married  the  late  Sanders  Mc- 
Sparran, and  resides  in  Philadelphia  (she  has  two 
daughters,  Sallie  B.  and  Amelia). 

Mrs.  Sides  was  born  March  28,  1830,  her  origin 
being  Scotch-Irish,  and  her  family  one  of  the  leading 
ones  of  Lancaster  county.  The  family  is  not  a  num- 
erous one,  her  only  sister  being  Mrs.  Janet  S.  Mc- 
Cullough,  widow  of  Sanders  McCullough,  of  Ox- 
ford, Chester  Co.,  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  Sides  joined  Washington  Lodge,  F.  &  A.  M. 
No.  156,  at  Chestnut  Level,  which  later  was  moved 
to  Drumore  Center,  and  still  later  to  Quarryville, 
where  it  is  now  located.  His  political  convictions 
have  made  him  a  stanch  Democrat,  but  his  life  has 
been  too  filled  with  work  in  his  profession  to  permit 
him  to  accept  any  political  office,  no  matter  how 
flattering  the  offer.  Dr.  Sides  is  a  truly  representa- 
tive man,  one  of  the  class  whose  lives  reflect  honor  on 
good  old  Lancaster  county. 

REV.  JAMES  LATTA  was  pastor  of  the  Chest- 
nut Level  Presbyterian  Church,  and  also  principal 
for  some  years  of  an  academy  held  there.  His  pas- 
torate began  in  1771,  and  covered  a  period  of  thirty 
years.  When  he  was  called  to  the  charge  his  salary 
was  fixed  at  £100  Pennsylvania  currency,  and  this 
was  never  increased  and  sometimes  was  not  paid  in 
full.  He  manifested  a  deep  interest  in  the  cause  of 
American  Independence.  On  one  occasion  he  ac- 
companied the  soldiers  on  their  campaign,  and  also 
acted  as  chaplain  for  some  time.  In  1785  he  vigor- 
ously defended  the  church  incorporation  acts,  and 
this  action  on  his  part  incensed  a  number  of  the  mem- 
bers of  his  congregation  against  him.  He  advocated 
the  introduction  of  Watt's  Psalmody  in  church  ser- 
vice, but  they  were  not  adopted  into  general  use,  un- 
til years  after  his  death.  He  received  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Divinity  from  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. His  death  occurred  in  January,  1801.  Fran- 
cis Latta,  his  son,  was  pastor  of  the  same  church  from 
1810  to  1825. 

the  eccentric  German  Baron  Steigel  began  his 
strange  career.  He  had  for  many  years  been  man- 
ager of  the  Elizabeth  Iron  Works  for  Benezet  &  Co., 
of  Philadelphia.  After  purchasing  200  acres  from 
the  Messrs.  Stedman  of  Philadelphia,  said  acres  be- 



ing  located  in  Lancaster  county,  he  built  a  grand 
mansion,  and  afterwards  laid  out  a  town  which  he 
named  after  his  native  city  in  Germany — Manheim. 
This  town  was  laid  out  in  1762,  and  in  1763  it  had 
three  houses.  Among  the  first  settlers  of  the  town 
were  the  Naumans,  Kaisers,  Longs,  Heintzelmans, 
Minnichs  and  Wherlys.  Baron  Steigel  also  erected 
a  glass  works,  and  becoming  bankrupt  he  was  im- 
prisoned in  1774  for  debt,  whereupon  the  Assembly 
passed  a  special  act  for  his  relief.  During  the  Revo- 
lution he  was  a  Tory. 

Baron  Steigel  landed  at  Philadelphia  Aug.  31^ 
1750,  having  emigrated  to  this  country  on  the  ship 
"Nancy."  He  married  Elizabeth  Huber,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Jacob  Huber,  an  iron-master,  and  in  17.57  he 
purchased  his  father-in-law's  iron  furnace  in  Eliza- 
beth township,  tearing  down  the  old  structure  and 
erecting  a  new  one,  which  he  named  "Elizabeth  Fur- 
nace." His  wife  died  in  1758,  and  he  then  married 
Elizabeth  Holtz,  of  Philadelphia.  In  1762  Baron 
Steigel  formed  a  partnership  with  Charles  and  Alex- 
ander Stedman,  of  Philadelphia,  and  about  the  same 
time  Manheim  was  founded.  The  success  of  Eliza- 
beth Furnace  was  phenomenal.  The  glass  works 
he  erected  in  1765 ;  and  the  building  is  said  to  have 
been  so  large  that  a  four  horse  team  could  easily 
turn  around  in  it.  S])ecimens  of  the  stoves  and  also 
of  glassware  made  by  Steigel's  workmen  are  still  in 

In  August,  1769,  the  Stedmans  sold  their  interest 
to  Isaac  Cox  and  he  in  turn  sold  to  Baron  Steigel, 
who  thus  became  the  sole  proprietor.  About  1770 
Baron  Steigel  and  his  family  removed  from  Eliza- 
beth Furnace,  and  took  up  their  residence  in  Man- 
heim. In  1769  he  built  a  tower  near  Schaefferstown 
in  Lebanon  county,  which  spot  to-day  is  called 
"Tower  Hill."  He  lived  extravagantly  and  made  a 
great  display  of  wealth  not  warranted  by  his  income. 
A  number  of  people  preyed  upon  his  generosity,  and 
these  causes  finally  landed  him  in  a  debtor's  cell.  In 
December,  1774,  he  was  liberated  from  prison,  penni- 
less. Some  of  those  who  had  been  his  workmen, 
employed  him  to  teach  their  children.  In  1783  he 
died  and  was  buried  at  "Charming  Forge,"  presum- 
ably in  the  neighborhood  of  where  Brickerville  now 

REV.  JOHN  M.  WOLGEMUTH,  a  minister  of 
the  Brethren  in  Christ  Church  in  West  Donegal 
township,  was  born  in  Mt.  Joy  township,  Aug.  31, 
1828,  and  is  a  son  of  Christ  and  Anna  (Metzler) 
AVolgemuth,  born  in  Mt.  Joy  and  in  Rapho  town- 
ships, respectively.  Both  are  long  since  dead.  The 
father  who  was  a  farmer,  lived  retired  the  last  thirty 
years  of  his  life  In  his  active  days  he  was  a  man  of 
considerable  importance  locally,  and  served  as  super- 
visor for  some  years.  He  died  in  March,  1887,  at 
the  age  of  eighty-nine  years ;  and  his  widow  in  Nov. 
1894,  at  the  age  of  ninety  years.  Both  were  mem- 
bers of  the  Brethren  in  Christ  Church,  and  were 
buried  in  the   cemeterv   connected  with   the   Cross 

Roads  Church  in  East  Donegal  township.  To  them 
were  born  the  following  children:  Elizabeth,  who 
is  the  widow  of  John  Hoffman,  and  has  her  home  in 
Elizabethtown ;  Jane,  who  is  the  widow  of  Henry 
Nissley,  and  has  her  home  in  Manheim ;  Rev.  John 
M.,  the  venerated  minister;  Christian,  who  died 
young ;  David,  a  retired  farmer  in  Mt.  Joy  township ; 
Abraham,  who  died  at  the  age  of  eighteen  years; 
and  Anna,  who  died  young. 

The  paternal  grandparents  of  Rev.  John  M.  Wol- 
gemuth  were  Christian  and  Jane  (Eshleman)  Wol- 
gemuth,  residents  of  Mt.  Joy  township,  who  came 
from  Switzerland  in  their  early  days. 

John  M.  Wolgemuth,  whose  name  introduces 
this  article,  remained  with  his  parents,  helping  them 
in  the  care  of  the  family  homestead,  until  he  reached 
the  age  of  twenty-one  years.  Then  he  rented  his  fa- 
ther's farm  for  two  years,  and  a  second  farm  for  five 
j'ears,  then  purchasing  the  farm  on  which  he  is  now 
living.  In  1878  he  gave  up  active  farming,  putting 
the  place  into  the  care  of  his  son,  Eli.  In  1871  he 
was  ordained  a  minister  of  the  Brethren  in  Christ, 
and  has  made  an  excellent  record  as  a  clergyman  of 
that  faith.  When  a  young  man  he  served  a  number 
of  years  on  the  election  board,  and  has  been  one  of 
the  leading  men  of  his  day. 

Rev.  John  M.  Wolgemuth  and  Elizabeth  Hern- 
ley  were  married  in  West  Donegal  township  Nov.  9, 
1848,  and  they  had  one  child,  Elizabeth,  who  died  in 
1888;  she  was  the  wife  of  Jacob  B.  Nissley,  now  a 
farmer  in  Cumberland  county,  and  left  four  children. 
In  185 1  Mr.  Wolgemuth  married  for  his  second  wife, 
Hettie  Hernley,  a  sister  of  his  first  wife,  and  to  them 
came  three  children:  Susan  married  Martin  Wol- 
gemuth, now  a  retired  farmer  at  Rheems,  Pa.,  and 
has  a  family  of  five  children.  Eli  H.  is  a  farmer  of 
West  Donegal  township,  whose  sketch  appears  on 
another  page.  Anna  married  Reuben  Nissley,  a 
farmer  of  Rapho  township,  and  has  four  children. 
Mrs.  Flettie  Wolgemuth  was  born  in  Lancaster 
county  in  1824,  and  is  a  daughter  of  John  and  Susan 
(Keenzy)  Hernley,  both  natives  of  Lancaster  county. 

JOHN  A.  CHARLES  (deceased)  was  for  many 
years  one  of  the  leading  and  representative  business 
men  of  Lancaster,  whose  career  as  a  merchant  was 
a  most  successful  one,  while  his  reputation  as  a  citi- 
zen was  above  reproach.  The  birth  of  John  A. 
Charles  took  place  Sept.  3,  1827,  in  Strasburg,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  and  his  death  occurred  in  his  home 
in  Lancaster,  March  24,  1902 ;  he  was  interred  in 
Woodward  Hill  cemetery.  His  parents  were  An- 
drew and  Margaret  Charles,  natives  of  Lancaster 
county,  the  former  of  whom  was. engaged  in  the  fur- 
niture and  undertaking  business,  in  Strasburg,  where 
he  was  a  prominent  citizen  and  one  of  the  burgesses 
for  a  number  of  years.  When  sixteen  years  old,  John 
A.  Charles  left  home  to  accept  a  clerical  position  in 
a  general  store  owned  by  a  Mr.  Carson,  going  from 
there  into  the  dry-goods  business  under  a  Mr.  David 
Bair,  a  prominent  merchant,  where  he  thoroughly 



learned  all  its  details  and  in  1861  felt  competent  to 
embark  m  the  business  for  himself,  becoming  a  part- 
ner with  Mr.  Bair.  In  1876  he  sold  his  interest  and 
became  a  member  of  the  old  established  firm  of 
Marks  &  Roth,,  the  firm  name  then  becoming  Marks, 
Roth  &  Charles,  At  the  death  of  Mr.  Marks,  Mr. 
Charles  bought  his  interest  and  the  business  was  con- 
ducted successfully  until  his  retirement  from  activity 
in  1898.  His  whole  business  career  was  marked  with 
•evidences  of  esteem  from  the  public,  his  personal  in- 
tegrity and  honest  methods  contributing  to  this  end. 
Mr.  Charles  was  one  of  the  founders  of  Grace  Luth- 
eran Church  in  this  city,  was  a  member  of  the  church 
council  from  the  beginning,  and  also  served  as  trus- 
tee and  elder.  For  twenty  years  he  was  treasurer  of 
the  charity  fund  and  was  generous  in  his  private 
benefactions.  Both  church  and  community  were  bet- 
ter because  of  his  life.  His  political  identification 
was  with  the  Republican  party,  although  he  was 
never  an  aspirant  for  political  honors,  preferring  to 
give  his  time  and  labor  to  the  advancement  of  his 
business  and  the  furthering  of  the  good  work  of  his 

The  marriage  of  Mr.  Charles  took  place  on  Jan. 
5,  1865,  in  Leacock  township,  Lancaster  county,  to 
Miss  Annie  L.  Bard,  who  was  born  in  the  old  family 
homestead  in  Leacock  township,  a  granddaughter 
of  John  and  Catherine  Bard,  of  Lancaster  county, 
and  the  only  child  of  Daniel  and  Anna  (Johns)  Bard. 
The  former  was  born  on  the  same  farm  in  Leacock 
township,  was  prominent  in  his  neighborhood  and 
served  many  years  as  a  school  director.  His  death 
took  place  July  i,'  1882,  at  the  age  of  sixty-seven 
years.  The  mother  of  Mrs.  Charles  was  born  in  Earl 
township,  and  after  her  husband's  death,  resided  with 
her  daughter  until  she  too  passed  away,  Dec.  19, 
1893,  at  the  age  of  seventy  years.  The  parents  lie 
buried  in  the  Lutheran  Church  cemetery,  at  Mechan- 
icsburg,  of  which  church  the  grandfather  was  one  of 
the  founders,  and  of  which  the  family  have  been 
members  for  three  generations.  Three  children  have 
been  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles,  namely :  Daniel 
B.,  who  is  married  and  is  engaged  in  the  lumber  busi- 
ness in  Michigan ;  John  A.,  Jr.,  who  died  unmarried 
March  i,  1898 ;  and  Anna  Bard,  who  resides  at  home. 

JOHN  D.-  BRUBAKER  comes  of  a  long  line  of 
clerical  ancestors,  his  great-grandfather,^  grandfather 
and  father  having  been  ministers  and  bishops  in  the 
Mennonite  Church.  His  father,  Jacob  K.  Brubaker, 
was  born  in  Lancaster  county  in  18 14  and  was  a 
farmer  in  early  life.  After  his  marriage  he  removed 
to  Dauphin  county,  where  he  owned  and  cultivated 
a  farm  until  1850.  He  then  returned  to  Lancaster 
county  and  settled  upon  a  farm  in  Manor  township 
which  he  had  purchased  the  previous  year.  It  was 
situated  between  three  and  four  miles  vvest  of  the 
city  of  Lancaster  and  contained  eighty-eight  acres. 
Ori  this  he  made  many  valuable  improvements,  and 
in  1853  he  added  to  his  holdings  by  buying  an  ad- 
joining farm  which  contained  104  acres.    He  contin- 

ued to  reside  upon  this  property  until  his  death,  which 
occurred  in  1879,  but  in  1858,  placing  his  farm  under 
the  management  of  his  son,  John  D.  he  abandoned 
farm  work  to  devote  the  remainder  of  his  life  to  the 
service  of  the  church  which  he  loved  so  well,  and  of 
which  he  was  so  conspicuous  an  ornament.  In  that 
year  he  was  ordained  to  the  Mennonite  ministry,  and 
a  few  years  before  his  death  was  made  a  bishop.  He 
preached  in  the  churches  of  Millersville  and  Rohers- 
town  with  great  force  and  acceptability.  '  He  was  a 
man  of  kindly  disposition  and  loving  heart,  gifted 
with  a  bright  clear  mind,  and  his  wise  counsel  was 
constantly  sought  by-  all  whose  privilege  it  was  to 
know  him.  His  widow,  whose  maiden  name  was 
Katherine  Denlinger,  yet  survives  him,  at  the  age  of 
four  score  years.  They  were  the  parents  of  three 
children,  of  whom  John  D.  was  the  eldest.  The  others 
were  Fannie,  who  married  David  Charles,  of  Hemp- 
field,  and  Jacob,  who  died  in  childhood. 

John  D.  Brubaker  was  born  in  Swatara  town- 
ship, Dauphin  county,  on  Feb.  8,  1837.  In  1858  as 
has  been  said,  he  assumed  the  management  of  the 
paternal  acres  and  even  as  a  young  man  of  twenty- 
one  years  he  displayed  that  admirable  judgment  and 
tireless  industry  which  have  insured  his  success  in 
life.  For  forty  years  he  was  one  of  Lancaster  coun- 
ty's most  successful  farmers — active,  industrious, 
wide-awake  and  progressive,  always  keeping  abreast 
of  the  front  rank  in  the  march  of  advancement.  From 
year  to  year  he  added  to  the  estate  which  he  inherited 
from  his  father,  although  much  of  his  real  property 
he  has  divided  among  his  sons,  giving  to  each  a  small 
farm.  In  1898,  having  accumulated  a  handsome 
competence,  and  having  passed  the  sixtieth  milestone 
on  life's  highway,  he  determined  to  retire,  to  enjoy 
the  ease  which  he  had  richly  earned.  His  present 
home  is  situated  three  miles  west  of  the  city  of  Lan- 
caster, and  is  one  of  the  most  attractive  and  pleasant 
in  the  township,  it  being  Mr.  Brubaker's  chief  care 
to  beautify  it  more  and  more  from  year  to  year. 

On  March  16,  1858,  he  was  married  to  Maria,  a 
daughter  of  Isaac  and  Mary  (Shirk)  Landis,  who 
was  born  in  Manheim,  May  8,  1839.  Their  children 
are  five  in  number.  Levi  L.,  the  eldest,  was  born 
Nov.  14,  1859.  He  married  Anna  Newcomer,  and  is 
a  farmer  of  Pequea  township.  Isaac  L.  was  born 
March  14,  1862,  is  a  Hempfield  farmer  and  the  hus- 
band of  Susan  Gambier.  Mary  was  born  Dec.  4, 
1863,  and  lives  at  home,  unmarried.  Jacob  L.  is  a 
Manor  township  farmer.  He  was  born  April  6, 
1870,  and  married  Susan  Charles.  John  L.  was  born 
July  13,  1873.  He,  too,  has  followed  farming  as  a 
vocation,  and  married  Ida  Brubaker. 

John  D.  Brubaker  united  with  the  Mennon- 
ite Church  in  1862  and  since  that  time  has  been  one 
of  the  most  active  members  and  liberal  supporters. 

CASPER  SHAFFNER,  a  son  of  John  Casper 
Shafifner,  was  born  in  February,  1737,  in  Lancaster, 
and  died  in  1826.  He  was  a  member  of  the  "Com- 
mittees of  Correspondance"  and  of  "Inspection  and 



Observation,"  of  Lancaster  county,  during  the  Revo- 
lutionary war  period.  He  also  served  as  a  lieutenant 
in  the  Revolutionary  service.  He  had  one  son, 
Casper,  vi^ho  married  a  daughter  of  Charles  Hall, 
of  Lancaster,  a  noted  silversmith  of  the  early  part 
of  the  last  century. 

WINTERS.  For  three-quarters  of  a  century 
the  name  Winters  in  the  eastern  part  of  Lancaster 
county  has  been  associated  with  success  and  popu- 
larity in  the  practice  of  medicine.  Dr.  Isaac  Winters, 
grandfather  of  John  L.;  began  practice  in  1820,  and 
the  family  has  never  lacked  a  worthy  representa- 
tive in  the  profession  from  that  time.  They  come  of 
English  stock,  the  first  of  the  name  in  America  emi- 
grating from  England  prior  to  the  Revolution,  in 
which  struggle  he  served  as  a  soldier  under  Wash- 
ington. He  died  at  his  home,  near  Lebanan,  Pa., 
within  a  month  after  returning  from  the  war,  leav- 
ing a  wife  and  son,  John.  This  John  Winters  was 
born  Nov.  21,  1776.  After  reaching  manhood  he 
settled  in  Lancaster  county,  rriaking  his  home  in  the 
village  of  New  Holland,  where  for  many  years  he 
was  engaged  as  a  blacksmith.  On  Jan.  16,  1796,  he 
married  Catharine  Diefenderffer,  who  died  July 
12,  1843,  and  his  death  occuri-ed  July  13,  1859.  They 
had  seven  children:  John,  Isaac,  Maria,  Ludwig, 
Levi,  Margaretha  and  Cyrus. 

Isaac  Winters,  son  of  John,  was  born  in  New 
Holland,  July  13,  1800.  His  youthful  educational 
advantages  were  limited  to  the  facilities  of  the  dis- 
trict school  in  the  home  neighborhood,  and  even 
those  he  was  not  permitted  to  enjoy  to  the  full,  for 
he  was  one  of  a  large  family,  and  as  the  father's 
means  were  not  abundant  the  sons  were  expected  to 
become  self-supporting  at  an  early  age.  But  the 
hard  work,  to  which  he  had  become  accustomed  from 
childhood,  did  not  warp  his  inclination  toward  a 
higher  calling,  and  by  the  time  he  was  fifteen  he 
had  decided  upon  adopting  the  medical  profession. 
For  one  year  thereafter  he  worked  as  a  clerk  in 
Lebanon,  and  the  next  four  years  he  devoted  to 
preparation  for  his  life  work,  first  studying  under 
Dr.  John  Leaman,  of  New  Holland,  and  later  at 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  from  which  he  was 
graduated  in  1820.  Dr.  Winters  located  for  prac- 
tice in  the  village  of  Hinkletown,  which  was  the 
scene  of  his  active  professional  life  of  fifty-three 
years,  for  he  continued  his  labors  almost  to  the  day 
of  his  death,  July  27,  1873.  The  success  which 
attended  his  later  life  was  in  sharp  constrast  to  his 
early  struggles,  and  was  solely  the  result  of  his 
own  efforts.  But  in  overcoming  the  numerous 
obstacles  in  his  path  he  showed  that  the  lessons  of 
self-reliance  and  perseverance  taught  by  the  hard- 
ships of  his  youth  were  not  wasted — perhaps  in  after 
years  they  enhanced  the  prosperity  which  fell  to  his 
lot.  So  poor  was  he'  at  the  beginning  of  his  profes- 
sional career  that  he  had  to  borrow  the  money  to 
buy  a  horse  (indispensable  in  a  country  practice) 
and  a  new  suit  of  clothes,  and  when  the  horse  was 

stolen,  before  the  end  of  the  week,  the  young  doctor 
had  considerable  trouble  borrowing  a  hundred  dol- 
lars to  replace  him.  He  found  a  friend  in  Henry 
Roland,  who  let  him  have  the  money  without  se- 
curity, and  it  was  repaid  in  a  year.  Before  the  ex- 
piration of  that  time  he  had  so  won  the  confidence  of 
his  patrons  that  he  was  well  advanced  on  the  road 
to  success,  and  his  future  was  assured.  Time  justi- 
fied the  good  opinion  formed  of  him  at  the  outset 
of  his  professional  life,  and  he  was .  regarded-  as  an 
immensely  useful  and  valued  member  of  the  com- 
munity to  the  end  of  'his  days.  The  tributes  of 
affection  and  esteem  paid  him  at  the  time  of  his  de- 
cease were  many  and  laudatory,  and  he  is  still  held 
in  loving  memory  by  many  of  the  old  residents  of 
his  section.  His  standing  among  his  brother  prac- 
titioners was  of  the  highest,  and  in  diagnosis  es- 
pecially he  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  skillful 
physicians  of  his  time. 

The  Doctor's  practice,  though  large,-  did  not  en- 
gage all  his  attention,  for  he  was  a  man  of  many 
interests,  and  won  his  honored  position  among  his 
fellowmen  by  efficient  service  in  other  fields  as  well. 
The  affairs  of  the  day  possessed  deep  attractions 
for  him,  and  he  kept  himself  well  informed  upon  all 
subjects  concerning  current  history.  As  a  stanch 
Democrat  the  progress  of  political  events  also  came 
under  his  consideration.  He  twice  accepted  nom- 
ination for  representative  to  Congress,  simply  to 
demonstrate  his  loyalty  to  the  party,  as  defeat  in 
each  case  was  a  foregone  conclusion.  He  was  a  man 
of  fine  presence,  and  in  the  days  of  militia  training 
held  a  commission  as  a  brigadier  general.  As  a 
swordsman  he  was  reputed  to  have  few  equals  in 
the  State.  Dr.  Winters's  personality  attracted' many 
to  him,  and  his  high  character  more  than  sustained 
the  favorable  impression  made  on  first  acquaintance. 
Dr.  Winters  married  Elizabeth  Nagle,  whose 
father,  Richard  Nagle,  a  resident  of  Lancaster 
county,  was  born  in  Ireland  Feb.  23,  1765.  Six 
children  were  born  to  this  union :  John  Leaman, 
now  deceased,  who  was  a  practicing  physician  at 
Hinkletown  for  some  years ;  Richard  N.,  who  re- 
sides at  his  father's  old  home  at  Hinkletown ;  Isaac 
D.,  who  is  mentioned  below ;  Mary  C,  Mrs.  Isaac 
S.  Long,  of  New  York  ;  George  W. ;  and  Barton  N., 
of  Ephrata,  this  cotmty. 

Isaac  D.  Winters,  M.  D.,  was  born  Nov.  23, 
1828,  in  Hinkletown,  and  after  receiving  his  funda- 
mental education  in  the  public  schools  commenced 
preparation  for  the  medical  profession  under  the 
able  tuition  of  his  father.  He  graduated  from 
Jefferson  Medical  College,  and  soon  after  located  at 
Goodville,  where  he  continued  in  practice  throughout 
his  entire  active  life.  The  mantle  of  professional 
success  fell  on  his  shoulders,  and  he  occupied  a  high 
position  in  the  profession.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Lancaster  County  Medical  Society,  of  which  he 
served  as  vice-president  in  1849-50.  Like  his  father. 
Dr.  \^'inters  was  a  broad  man,  and  became  prosper- 
ous in  lines  outside  of  his  profession.     He  was  a 



stockholder  and  director  in  the  New  Holland  Na- 
tional Bank,  of  which  institution  he  was  one  of  the 
organizers,  and  he  also  assisted  in  organizing  the 
Earl  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  and  was  one 
of  its  directors.  He  owned  two  farms,  comprising 
220  acres. 

On  Jan.  lo,  1854,  Dr.  Winters  married  Susan 
Martm,  who  was  born  in  Goodville  in  1833,  daugh- 
ter of  John  and  Ehzabeth  (Bowman)  Martin.  They 
had  two  sons,  Barton  M.  and  John  Leaman,  both 
of  whom  adopted  their  father's  calling,  and  are 
located  at  Goodville.  They  are  mentioned  below. 
Dr.  Isaac  D.  Winters  passed  away  Nov.  7,  1889.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Center  Lutheran  Church,  and 
no  man  in  the  community  enjoyed  more  fully  the 
unfeigned  respect  of  his  fellow  men  in  every  walk  of 

Barto^t  M.  W1NTER.S,  M.  D.,  of  Goodville,  was 
born  on  the  old  homestead  in  that  place  Dec.  11, 
1854,  and  acquired  his  preparatory  education  in  the 
public  schools,  and  at  the  Millersville  State  Normal. 
He  took  up  the  study  of  medicine  with  his  father  and 
Dr.  Keeler,  at  Goodville,  entered  Jefferson  Medical 
College,  and  graduated  with  the  class  of  1877,  since 
which  time  he  has  been  located  in  practice  at  Good- 
ville. He  was  associated  with  his  father  until  the 
latter's  retirement,  in  1880,  when  he  succeeded  to  his 
father's  partnership  v/ith  Dr.  Keeler.  The  relations 
continued  until  Dr.  Keeler's  death,  in  1896,  since 
which  time  he  and  his  brother  John  L.  have  been  as- 
sociated as  general  practitioners.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  such  time  as  he  finds  necessary  to  devote  to 
his  duties  as  director  of  the  New  Holland  National 
Bank  and  the  Earl  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company, 
Dr.  Winters  gives  his  attention  to  the  demands  of  his 
professional  work,  which,  indeed,  is  so  extensive 
as  to  leave  him  little  time  for  other  matters.  If 
heredity  counts  for  anything,  the  position  to  which 
he  and  his  brother  have  attained  is  not  to  be  won- 
dered at.  But  their  training  for  this  useful  calling 
was  carefully  and  thoroughly  conducted,  and  they 
have  given  evidence  of  their  ability  to  sustain  the 
reputation  of  the  family  for  eminence  in  this,  es- 
pecial field. 

On  Jan.  29,  1882,  Dr.  Winters  married  Salinda 
Sensinig,  who  was  born  in  Goodville,  daughter  of 
Christian  and  Catherine  Sensinig.  They  have  one 
child.  Sue  L.  Mrs.  Winters  is  a  member  of  the 
Lutheran  Church.  The  Doctor  is  a  stanch  Demo- 
crat politically. 

John  L.  Winters,  M.  D.,  was  born  at  Goodville 
Dec.  29,  1868,  and  in  his  boyhood  attended  the  local 
public  schools.  Later  he  studied  at  the  Millersville 
State  Normal  School,  and  he  commenced  reading 
medicine  with  his  brother,  Barton  M.  In  1888  he 
entered  Tefiferson  Medical  College,  from  which  he 
was  graduated  April  2,  1890,  preparing  for  general 
practice.  After  graduation  he  located  at  Goodville, 
where  he  has  since  been  engaged  in  practice,  and 
by  his  dihgence  and  merit  has  established  a  fine 
practice.     He  is  a  thorough  student,  and  keeps  in 

touch  with  the  advanced  ideas  of  his  profession,  es- 
pecially in  surgery,  in  which  particular  Hne  he  bids 
fair  to  become  a  master.  His  office  is  equipped  with 
a  complete  assortment  of  surgical  instruments  and 
appliances.  He  is  particularly  successful  as  an  oper- 
ator in  gynecological  cases.  Dr.  Winters  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Lancaster  County  Medical  Society. 

On  July  2,  1900,  Dr.  Winters  married  Miss 
Mary  Yoder,  daughter  of  L.  B.  and  Josephine  (John- 
ston) Yoder,  of  Churchtown,  this  county. 

JACOB  BETZ  (deceased).  One  of  the  most 
prominent  business  men  and  citizens  of  Lancaster, 
was  Jacob  Betz,  whose  death  occurred  in  this  city, 
at  the  old  water  works.  May  14,  1900,  and  who  is 
buried  in  Woodward  Hill  cemetery.  The  birth  of 
Mr.  Betz  occurred  Dec.  4,  1822,  in  Rheinbaiern, 
Germany,  and  he  was  the  son  of  Jacob  and  Mag- 
delina  (Huhn)  Betz,  natives  of  Dresden,  Germany. 
The  father  died  in  his  native  land;  but  the  mother 
came  to  America  in  the  neighborhood  of  1846. 

In  1842,  Mr.  Betz  emigrated  to  America,  and 
until  his  death  resided  in  the  vicinity  of  the  city  of 
Lancaster,  first  settling  in  Manheim  township,  but 
later  removing  to  Lancaster,  where  he  became  very 
prominent  in  business  circles.  In  his  early  life 
he  engaged  in  farming,  but  soon  became  interested 
in  quarrying  stone  and  sand,  and  by  his  industry, 
thrift  and  keen  business  sense,  built  up  an  excellent 
trade.  During  his  business  career,  he  operated  sand 
and  stone  quarries  on  Rockland  street,  near  Ann, 
in  Lancaster  township,  not  far  from  his  residence, 
and  one  in  East  Lampeter  township.  For  years,  he 
supplied  the  car  shops  at  Altoona  with  all  the  sand 
used,  and  furnished  stone  to  the  Peacock  furnace  for 
many  years.  In  addition  to  quarrying  the  stone, 
Mr.  Betz  also  took  contracts  for  hauling  same,  and 
in  every  respect  gave  such  entire  satisfaction  that 
his  reputation  for  fair  dealing  was  firmly  estab- 
lished. In  1870,  Mr.  Betz  retired  from  active  busi- 
ness life  in  favor  of  his  son,  Jacob.  In  addition  to 
his  quarries,  Mr.  Betz  was  a  large  land  owner  and 
at  the  time  of  his  demise  was  the  owner  of  thirty 
new  houses  and  a  large  tract  of  unimproved  land 
in  the  Seventh  ward;  three  tracts  of  unimproved 
land  in  East  Lampeter  township ;  a  farm  in  Man- 
heim township,  as  well  as  large  amounts  invested 
in  bonds,  stocks  and  mortgages.  After  his  retire- 
ment, Mr.  Betz  devoted  the  greater  portion  of  his 
attention  toward  the  buying  of  property,  improving 
it  and  then  disposing  of  it  at  considerable  profit. 
During  a  long  and  useful  life,  Mr.  Betz  was  a  con- 
sistent member  of  Zion's  Lutheran  Church,  in 
whose  good  work  he  took  an  active  part.  While  a 
Democrat  in  politics,  and  supporting  the  candidates 
of  that  party  in  both  local  and  national  affairs,  Mr. 
Betz  was  not  an  office  seeker,  and  refused  to  accept 
nomination,  his  interests  being  centered  in  his  busi- 
ness and  home. 

On  April  19,  1851,  Mr.  Betz  was  married  to 
Catherine  Miesel,  in  Lancaster,  and  the  following 



family  were  born  to  this  union :  Peter,  who  died  at 
the  age  of  three  years ;  Mary,  who  died  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  months ;  Jacob,  a  farmer  and  quarryman  of 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  who  married  Elmira  Drown;  Cath- 
erine, married  to  Charles  Riedel,  of  Lancaster,  Pa. ; 
Charlotte,  deceased,  wife  of  Charles  Reidel,  of  Lan- 
caster; Elizabeth,  married  to  Mark  Keeport,  a  jew- 
eler of  Reading,  Pa.  Mrs.  Betz  was  born  at  Gelt- 
heim,  Germany,  Aug.  9,  1825,  daughter  of  Nicholas 
and  IBarbara  (Mieselin)  Miesel,  of  Germany.  Nich- 
olas Miesel  was  a  farmer  in  his  native  land,  where 
he  died,  in  1830,  at  the  age  of  thirty  years,  while 
his  wife  died  in  1835,  at  the  age  of  thirty-two. 
Two  children  were  born  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Miesel: 
Christina,  who  died  at  the  age  of  thirty-five  years, 
married  Fred.  Nies,  and  he  died  in  New  Jersey; 
Catherine  came  to  America  in  1847,  settled  in  Lan- 
caster, Pa.,  making  the  trip  one  year  after  her  sister, 
and  taking  forty-five  days  in  the  journey.  Mrs. 
Betz  is  very  well  preserved  and  intelligent,  and  is 
surrounded  by  her  children's  love  and  devotion, 
after  her  life  of  hard  work.  She  is  highly  respected 
throughout  the  community,  and  numbers  many 
friends  among  her  acquaintances. 

Philip  Betz,  proprietor  of  the  sand  quarry  of 
Lancaster,  was  born  in  Rheinpfalz,  Germany,  Feb.  4, 
1834,  a  son  of  Jacob  and  Magdelina  (Huhn)  Betz,  of 
the  same  locality.  The  father  of  Philip  remained  in 
Germany  all  his  life,  being  a  farmer,  after  having 
served  in  the  German  army,  and  dying  in  1844, 
aged  seventy-five  years.  The  mother  with  three 
children,  came  to  America  in  1846,  settling  in  Lan- 
caster county,  two  of  her  sons  having  made  the 
journey  a  few  years  before.  After  settling  down 
with  her  children,  the  good  woman  kept  house  for 
them,  and  the  sturdy  boys  worked  among  the  farm- 
ers, and  took  care  of  their  mother  until  her  death 
in  1861,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five  years.  The  chil- 
dren belonging  to  this  family  were :  Conrad,  who 
died  in  Lancaster  county ;  Jacob,  deceased ;  Eliza- 
beth, of  Lancaster,  widow  of  Frank  Kline;  Philip; 
Mary,  of  Lancaster  county,  widow  of  Henry  Fogle. 

J.  M.  W.  GEIST  was  born  in  Bart  township, 
Lancaster  county,  Dec.  14,  1824,  and  inherited  the 
marked  characteristics  and  strong  intellectuality  of 
his  German  and  Scotch-Irish  ancestors.  In  his  early 
youth  the  country  subscription  schools  were  his  only 
means  of  obtaining  an  education.  Inspired  by  am- 
bition, and  carried  forward  by  his  energy,  he  was  a 
diHgent  student,  and  early  displayed  a  receptive 
mind.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  began  to  teach  school 
in  the  very  room  where  he  had  been  a  student,  and 
followed  that  occupation  successfully  for  several 
years.  In  the  meantime  he  was  induced  to  take  up 
the  study  of  medicine,  although  his  inclinations  were 
in  the  direction  of  the  printer's  art.  For  three  years 
teaching  school  and  the  study  of  medicine  occupied 
his  attention.  Then  he  went  to  Philadelphia  to  at- 
tend medical  lectures,  but  in  the  end,  not  finding  the 
work  congenial,  he  abandoned  it,  and  drifted  into  a 

printing  oflice  to  pursue  the  vocation  of  his  early 
preference.  His  leisure  hours  meanwhile  had  been 
spent  in  contributing  articles  in  both  prose  and  verse 
to  the  newspaper  press.  This  developed  a  natural 
love  for  literary  composition,  and,  following  the 
natural  bent  of  his  mind,  he  soon  drifted  into  jour- 

Mr.  Geist  began  his  professional  career  in  July, 
1844,  as  the  editor  and  publisher  of  the  Reformer, 
a  temperance  journal  published  first  in  Lancaster 
and  afterward  in  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  as  the  American 
Reformer  and  State  Temperance  Organ.  He  also 
edited  the  Yeoman,  an  independent  Democratic 
campaign  paper  published  in  the  latter  city,  and  in 
1847,  he  was  at  work  on  the  Pennsylvanian,  in  Phila- 
delphia, as  assistant  news  editor.  His  next  change 
was  to  a  literary  journal,  Lippard's  Quaker  City,  of 
which  he  was  assistant  editor.  At  the  same  time  he 
was  doing  duty  on  the  Evening  Argus,  both  papers 
being  controlled  by  the  same  ownership.  The  sus- 
pension of  these  brought  him  to  the  Sunday  Globe, 
on  which  paper  he  succeeded  the  late  Dr.  Thomas 
Dunn  English  as  editor.  Under  his  vigorous  con- 
trol the  Globe  was  instrumental  in  driving  the  no- 
torious impostor  and  swindler,  Roback,  from  the 
city,  its  circulation  running  up  from  1,000  to  20,000. 
Later  Mr.  Geist  became  editor  and  one  of  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  Sunday  Mercury,  but  not  being  able 
to  reconcile  Sunday  newspaper  publishing  with  his 
obligations  as  a  churchman  he  sought  a  more  con- 
genial ocupation.  In  his  earlier  days  he  had  been  a 
frequent  contributor  to  the  Saturday  Evening  Ex- 
press, of  Lancaster,  and  upon  the  invitation  of  the 
proprietor  he  disposed  of  his  interest  in  the  Mer- 
CALvy,  and  removed  to  Lancaster  to  take  charge  of 
the  editorial  columns  of  that  journal.  There  his 
successful  and  influential  career  has  been  carried 
forward.  His  removal  took  place  in  1852,  and  in 
1856  he  purchased  a  half  interest  in  the  paper  and 
began  the  issue  of  a  daily  edition.  The  Express 
quickly  became  the  most  influential  paper  in  the 
great  county  of  Lancaster,  and  Mr.  Geist's  reputa- 
tion as  a  writer  of  vigorous  idiomatic  English 
rapidly   extended  throughout   Pennsylvania. 

Mr.  Geist,  while  a  Whig  in  politics,  had  not 
been  active  in  political  affairs  up  to  this  time.  But 
events  were  now  transpiring  which  turned  his  jour- 
nalistic -career  in  that  direction  and  served  to  make 
him  a  power  in  the  party  with  which  he  united  his 
fortunes.  The  Whig  party  was  no  more.  Where 
should  its  members  go  ?  Mr.  Buchanan's  candidacy 
became  an  issue.  Although  a  resident  of  Lancas- 
ter, few  Whigs,  save  intimate  personal  friends,  sup- 
ported him.  The  repeal  of  the  Missouri  Compro- 
mise and  "Free  Kansas"  became  issues.  Thaddeus 
Stevens  lived  in  Lancaster,  and  his  well  known  anti- 
slavery  views  had  permeated  the  public  conscience. 
Who  should  oppose  Mr.  Buchanan  ?  John  McLean 
was  spoken  of,  and  he  was  the  choice  of  Mr.  Stev- 
ens. Public  sentiment  seemed  to  incline  toward  a 
new  man  as  well  as  new  principles.      Mr.  Geist,  in 

i^  ar «      ;    *^  > » 



a  series  of  powerful  editorials,  demanded  a  new  or- 
der of  things.  But  his  constituency  was  overcon- 
servative,  and  for  a  time  unwilling  to  break  away 
from  their  political  traditions.  He  urged  promi- 
nent Whigs  to  issue  a  call  for  a  county  convention. 
The  party  had  split  into  two  factions,  the  "Woolly 
heads,"  under  the  leadership  of  Thaddeus  Stevens, 
and  the  "Silver  Greys"  led  by  Edw.  C.  Darling- 
ton, editor  of  the  Examiner.  Each  mistrusted 
the  other,  and  as  a  consequence  neither  was  ready 
to  take  the  initiative.  Thrown  back  upon  himself, 
Mr.  Geist  cut  the  Gordian  knot  by  drawing  up  the 
following  call,  which  appeared  at  the  head  of  his 
editorial  column  for  the  first  time  on  May  17,  1856 : 

The  citizens  of  Lancaster  county,  without  regard  to  past 
differences  or  divisions,  who  are  opposed  to  the  repeal  of  the 
Missouri  Compromise;  to  the  policy  of  the  present  National 
admininstration;  to  the  extension  of  slavery  in  the  territories, 
and  to  the  subjugation  of  the  freemen  of  Kansas  by  the  in- 
vasion of  armed  mobs  from  Missouri,  encouraged  in  their 
lawless  acts  by  the  connivance  of  the  Federal  authorities;  who 
are  in  favor  of  the  admission  of  Kansas  as  a  free  State,  and  of 
restoring  the  action  of  the  Federal  Government  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  Washington  and  Jefferson,  are  hereby  requested  to 
meet  in  Fulton  Hall,  in  the  city  of  Lancaster,  on  Saturday, 
May  31,  1856,  at  10  o'clock  a.  m.,  to  appoint  three  delegates  to 
represent  this  Congressional  District  in  the  National  conven- 
tion, which  will  assemble  in  Philadelphia  on  the  17th  of  June 
next,  for  the  purpose  of  recommending  candidates  to  be  sup- 
ported for  the  offices  of  President  and  Vice  President  of  the 
United  States.  Many  Citizens. 

l~he  "Many  Citizens"  was  a  fiction,  the  entire 
program  having  been  engineered  by  Mr.  Geist,  with 
two  intimate  friends,  comparatively  unknown  in 
politics.  In  accordance  with  that  call  the  county 
meeting  was  held  on  the  day  named,  and  the  old 
political  leaders  were  surprised  at  the  large  attend- 
ance. Benjamin  Herr,  Esq.,  a  prominent  member 
of  the  Bar,  was  president,  and  Ellwood  Griest  and 
Dr.  George  Markley  were  secretaries.  A  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  name  delegates  to  the  Na- 
tional convention,  and  the  men  were  appointed. 
Thaddeus  Stevens,  who  concluded  at  a  late  hour  to 
participate  in  the  proceedings,  was  ene  of  those  sent 
to  the  National  convention,  and  Mr.  Geist  one  of  the 
delegation  sent  to  the  State  convention.  Strong 
resolutions  breathing  the  spirit  of  the  call  were 
passed  and,  on  motion  of  Mr.  Stevens,  a  committee 
was  appointed  to  confer  with  committees  of  other 
parties  who  were  opposed  to  the  extension  of 
slaverv,  with  a  view  to  "forming  a  Union  American 
Republican  Partv."  Thus  was  the  Republican  party 
in  Lancaster  county  born  and  christened,  and  such 
was  the  part  Mr.  Geist  more  at  the  accouchement.  A 
few  weeks  later  the  Lancaster  City  Fremont  Club 
was  organized,  with  A.  S.  Henderson  as  president, 
and  F.  R.  Diffenderffer  as  secretary,  and  the  new 
party  was  ready  for  business.  From  that  time  the 
stirring  editorials  of  Mr.  Geist  were  a  powertul 
factor  in  laying  deep  and  strong  the  foundations  of 
the  party— foundations  that  are  to-day  as  strong  in 
the  affections  of  the  people  of  the  county  as  when 
they  first  shouted  for  "'Fremont  and  Freedom. 

When  the  Civil  war  at  last  came  along  and  burst 
in  fury  avtv  the  country  no  pen  was  more  busy  in 
upholding  the  cause  of  the  Nation  than  Mr.  Geist's. 
It  was  an  inspiration  as  well  as  a  clarion  note,  and 
every  movement  maintaining  the  Nation's  sover- 
eignty and  for  the  relief  of  the  sick  and  the  wounded 
had  his  most  earnest  support.  He  never  wavered 
and  he  never  doubted,  and  the  fervent  spirit  of  pa- 
triotism that  marked  all  his  utterances,  as  they  are 
recorded  in  his  editorial  columns,  was  far  reaching 
in  its  effect  throughout  the  State. 

In  1876  the  Express  was  merged  into  the  Ex- 
aminer, and  Mr.  Geist  became  the  editor  of  the  con- 
solidated journal.  A  difference  between  himself 
and  the  publisher  in  regard  to  the  policy  of  the  paper 
caused  him  to  retire  in  a  few  months,  and  in  con- 
junction with  ex-State  Senator  John  B.  Warfel  he 
started  The  New  Era,  which  almost  at  a  bound 
sprang  to  the  front  rank  in  the  journalism  of  the 
State,  where  it  stands  to-day.  Its  success  was  as 
decided  as  it  was  immediate,  and  outside  of  the  big 
journals  of  the  metropolis  there  is  no  newspaper  in 
PennsA'Ivania  that  has  a  more  devoted  clientage  or 
wields  a  stronger  influence  within  its  territory. 

Mr.  Geist  has  persistently  refused  to  accept  or  be 
a  candidate  for  public  office,  holding  that  any  sal- 
aried political  position  must  detract  from  an  editor's 
freedom  and  independence.  He  was  twice  offered 
the  best  local  federal  positions  by  members  of  Con- 
gress who  were  grateful  for  services  his  journal  had 
rendered  them,  and  once  a  lucrative  position  in  the 
custom  house  at  Philadelphia  by  a  senator,  on  partly 
personal  and  partly  political  grounds.  The  only 
public  position  he  ever  held  was  that  of  a  Harrison 
elector,  in  1892.  He  was  active  in  the  re-organiza- 
tion of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  and 
Vi^as  chairman  of  the  committee  which  selected  and 
installed  the  library  of  that  institution,  and  chair- 
man of  the  committee  which  organized  the  series  of 
excursions  by  which  the  money  was  raised  to  pur- 
chase the  books.  He  has  been  chairman  of  the  local 
board  of  visitors  of  the  State  Board  of  Charities  for 
several  years,  and  author  of  a  report  urging  certain 
reforms  in  prison  administration,  notably  divorcing 
it  from  partisan  politics,  which  was  highly  com- 
mended by  the  State  Board.  Flis  sincerity  is  per- 
haps one  of  his  most  striking  characteristics.  Mill- 
ions would  not  tempt  him  to  advocate  a  cause  that 
he  did  not  believe  to  be  moral  or  deserving. 

Mr.  Geist  is  prominent  as  a  churchman.  He  was 
intimately  associated  with  the  late  Bishop  Samuel 
Bowman  in  the  founding  of  St.  John's  Free  Church, 
Lancaster,  the  pioneer  free  church  in  that  diocese, 
and  has  been  a  member  and  secretary  of  the  vestry 
for  forty-six  years,  and  warden  for  the  past  twenty- 
one  3'ears.  In  1873  he  wrote  and  published,  for  the 
use  of  the  congregation,  a  history  of  the  parish,  and 
has  just  completed  (1902)  a  revised  and  enlarged 
edition,  handsomely  illustrated  with  portraits  of  the 
ministers  who  have  officiated  at  St.  John's  and  views 
of  the  church  edifice,  which  is  regarded  as  the  hand- 



somest  and  most  complete  Parish  History  that  has 
been  produced. 

Mr.  Geist  was  married  in  1850  to  Miss  Elizabeth 
M.  Markley,  daughter  of  the  late  Dr.  George 
Markley.  She  died  in  1892.  They  had  eight  chil- 
dren, four  of  whom,  three  sons  and  one  daughter, 
died  young.  Four  daughters  survive:  Mrs.  John 
M.  Newbold  and  Mrs.  Samuel  S.  Martin,  of  Lan- 
caster; Mrs.  Dr.  J.  Paul  Lukens,  of  Wilmington, 
Del. ;  and  Miss  Emma,  at  home. —  [F.  R.  D. 

of  the  Central  National  Bank  of  Columbia,  is,  as 
the  position  he  occupies  would  naturally  indicate, 
one  of  the  foremost  citizens  of  that  thriving  town. 
His  active  participation  in  the  financial  history  of 
Columbia  began  late  in  life,  and  supplements  an 
honorable  and  successful  career- as  mechanic,  soldier 
and  business  man. 

The  paternal  ancestry  of  Mr.  Musser  is  of  Swiss 
extraction.  Peter  Musser,  the  great-grandfather, 
was  of  Swiss  parentage,  and  was  an  early  resident 
of  Lancaster  county.  He  married  a  Miss  Dietz, 
and  they  had  five  children :  John,  Christian,  Henry, 
Peter  and  Annie.  Of  these,  Peter  was  born  in 
Lancaster  county,  Nov.  29,  1776.  He  married  Eliza- 
beth Rohrer,  of  Lancaster  county,  born  Aug.  14, 
1788.  She  died  Oct.  8,  1822,  in  her  thirty-fifth 
year,  while  her  husband  lived  to  the  age  of  seventy- 
one,  passing  away  July  2,  1848.  Their  children 
were :    Henry  R.,  Mary,  Annie,  Joseph  and  Betsey, 

Henry  R.  Musser  was  born  in  West  Hempfield 
township  June  18,  1808.  In  early  life  he  adopted 
the  vocation  of  a  cattle  dealer  and  butcher,  which 
he  pursued  at  Lancaster,  Marietta  and  Columbia. 
In  1846  he  removed  to  Fairfield,  Ohio,  where  he 
continued  his  business  successfully  until  death, 
June  I,  1873,  in  his  sixty-third  year.  He  became 
a  prominent  business  man  of  Fairfield,  and  wasi 
there  actively  interested  in  the  public  schools.  He 
was  married  three  times.  By  his  first  wife.  Miss 
Shirk,  he  had  one  child,  Henry  S.,  now  of  Fair- 
field, Ohio.  By  his  second  wife,  Annie,  daughter 
of  John  and  Barbara  Mouk,  there  were  six  chil- 
dren, namely:  Elias  H.,  a  tailor  of  Rochester, 
Ind. ;  Thomas  Jefferson,  who  died  in  Fairfield, 
Ohio;  Benjamin  Franklin,  proprietor  of  a  meal; 
market  in  Darke  county,  Ohio;  Andrew  Jackson, 
whose  sketch  appears  herewith ;  Barbara  Ann,  who 
married  John  Horn,  a  farmer  of  West  Hempfield 
township ;  and  Isabella,  who  died  in  infancy.  The 
third  wife  of  Henry  R.  Musser  was  Fanny  Bucher, 
and  the  children  by  that  union  were :  Joseph,  de- 
ceased ;  Emanuel,  a  butcher  of  Dayton,  Ohio ;  Eliza- 
beth ;  Isabella ;  David,  a  plasterer ;  and  George,  a 
traveling  salesman,  all  residents  of  Ohio. 

Andrew  Jackson  Musser  was  born  at  Marietta, 
Lancaster  county,  March  2,  1841.  Bereft  of  a 
mother's  care  by  death,  his  home  from  his  fourth 
year  was  his  maternal  grandfather,  John  Mouk,  in 
West  Hempfield.     At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  re- 

moved to  Columbia  and  there  began  a  three  years' 
apprenticeship  to  the  cabinet  maker's  trade.  This 
completed,  he  followed  the  trade  for  a  few  months, 
but  soon  after,  under  the  call  to  arms  by  President 
Lincoln,  he  enlisted  Aug.  9,  1862,  for  nine  months, 
at  Columbia,  in  Co.  K,  i3Sth  P.  V.  I.,  serving  the 
full  term,  and  experiencing  active  service,  partici- 
pating in  the  battles  of  Fredericksburg  and  Chan- 
cellorsville,  but  escaping  without  injury.  Return- 
ing to  his  old  home  when  mustered  out,  Mr.  Musser 
resumed  work  at  his  trade,  which  he  continued  dili- 
gently until  1871.  In  that  year  he  purchased  an  old 
and  well  established  cabinet  making  and  under- 
taking business  at  Columbia.  This  was  continued 
most  successfully  for  more  than  a  score  of  years. 
In  1892  Mr.  Musser  retired  from  business.  Two 
years  later  he  was  elected  a  director  of  the  Central 
National  Bank  of  Columbia,  and  early  in  1899  he 
was  elected  president  of  the  bank  to  fill  an  tmex- 
pired  term  of  several  months,  and  he  was  re-elected 
July  26,  1899. 

Mr.  Musser  married  at  Columbia,  in  September, 
1861,  Cassandra  E.,  daughter  of  John  and  Mary 
Shenberger,  farmers  of  York  county,  Pa.  The 
family  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Musser  consists  of  two  chil- 
dren :  John  S.  and  Franklin  B.  John  S.  is  a  farmer 
and  upholsterer  of  Greenville  county,  Va. ;  he  mar- 
ried Gertrude  Kerr  and  has  three  children.  Frank- 
lin B.  acquired  telegraphy  in  his  youth  and  is  now 
superintendent  of  the  electric  railway  system  of 
Harrisburg,  Pa. ;  he  married  Miss  Sue  R.  Nowlen. 

For  six  years  Andrew  J.  Musser  served  the 
borough  of  Columbia  as  a  councilman.  He  is 
prominent  in  fraternal  circles  as  a  member  of  Co- 
lumbia Lodge,  No.  286,  F.  &  A.  M. ;  and  of  Sus- 
quehanna Lodge,  No.  80,  I.  O.  O.  F.  Of  the  latter 
he  is  past  master,  having  filled  all  the  chairs,  and 
also  having  been  representative  to  the  grand  lodge 
of  Pennsylvania.  Among  other  fraternal  institu- 
tions he  is  a  member  of  the  Artisans  Order  of 
Mutual  Protection  of  Columbia,  and  in  business  re- 
lations he  is  a  director  and  president  of  the  Colum- 
bia Building  &  Loan  Association.  In  business  Mr. 
Musser  is  progressive,  and  his  keen  judgment  is  a 
most  valuable  guide.  Public-spirited  and  popular, 
he  essentially  fills  a  commanding  place  in  the  com- 
mercial and  financial  affairs  of  his  native  county. 

JOSEPH  SIMON  was  one  of  the  most  promi- 
nent and  richest  Indian  traders  in  the  province.  He 
came  to  Lancaster  about  1740,  and  at  once  em- 
barked in  the  trading  business.  He  established  a 
store  at  East'  King  street  and  Centre  Square,  and 
made  frequent  trips  through  Ohio  and  Illinois.  He 
was  one  of  twenty-two  Indian  traders  who  were 
attacked  by  Indians  at  Bloody  Run  in  1763.  On 
that  occasion  goods  to  the  value  of  £82,000  currency 
were  stolen.  Simion  was  one  of  the  heaviest  losers. 
He  owned  many  thousands  of  acres  of  land  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  Pennsylvania,  and  during  the  Revo- 
lutionary war  furnished  powder,  shot  and  guns  for 



the  use  of  the  miUtia.  He  had  the  following  chil- 
dren :  Rachel,  married  to  Solomon  Etting,  moved 
to  Philadelphia;  Leah,  married  to  Levi  Philips; 
Miriam,  married  to  Simon  Gratz,  moved  to  Phila- 
delphia ;  Belah,  married  to  Solomon  Cohen ;  Shinah, 
married  to  M.  Scuyler;  Susanne,  married  to  Levy- 
Levy;  Hester;  Moses;  and  Myer.  Joseph  Simon 
died  Jan.  24,  1804.  His  wife  died  in  1790.  They 
are  interred  in  the  Hebrew  cemetery  in  Manheim 
township,  north  of  Lancaster. 

One  of  the  children  of  Joseph  Simon,  Miriam, 
married  Simon  Gratz,  and  for  some  years  resided 
on  the  corner  of  Duke  and  East  King,  where  Farm- 
ers' Bank  is  located.  Rebecca  Gratz,  their  daugh- 
ter, was  born  in  that  house,  and  the  family  subse- 
quently moving  to  Philadelphia,  she  was  raised 
there.  She  was  a  favorite  beauty  of  that  city,  and 
Washington  Irving  was  her  warmest  friend,  and 
it  was  he  who  talked  Sir  Walter  Scott  into  the  idea 
of  making  her  his  heroine  in  "Ivanhoe."  Rebecca 
is  buried  in  Philadelphia,  but  her  parents  are  buried 
in  the  Hebrew  cemetery  north  of  Lancaster  men- 
tioned above. 

GEORGE  NAUMAN  (Deceased)..  Among  the 
leading  lights  of  the  legal  profession  in  Lancaster, 
Pa.,  for  over  thirty  years,  and  a  man  who  was  re- 
peatedly chosen  to  conduct  cases  and  represent  the 
interests  of  vast  corporations,  was  George  Nauman, 
who  passed  away  after  a  short  illness,  at  his  resi- 
dence on  East  King  street,  Feb.  14,  1899. 

George  Nauman  was  born  Feb.  5,  1841,  at  Hel- 
ton, Maine,  son  of  George  and  Mary  (Dummett) 
Nauman,  natives  of  Lancaster  and  England,  re- 
spectively. Col.  Nauman,  the  father,  was  a  dis- 
tinguished officer  in  the  United  States  army,  was 
born  Oct.  7,  1802,  and  entered  at  the  Military 
Academy  as  a  cadet.  In  1821,  he  was  made  acting 
assistant  professor  in  French  in  that  institution,  and 
three  years  later  was  graduated,  the  same  year  re- 
ceiving his  appointment  as  second  lieutenant  of  the 
First  Regiment  of  Artillery.  During  the  summer 
of  1829,  he  acted  as  assistant  instructor  of  French 
at  West  Point,  and  in  May,  1832,  received  the  rank 
of  first  lieutenant.  During  the  Florida  War,  he 
served  continuously,  from  1836  to  1838,  being  in 
the  battle  of  Wahoo  Swamp,  and  was  made  captain 
in  the  spring  of  1837.  During  the  Mexican  War  he 
was  brevetted  Major  for  gallant  service  at  the  bat- 
tles of  Contreras  and  Churubusco,  and  he  was 
wounded  at  the  battle  of  Chapultepec,  but  continued 
on  duty  and  commanded  the  First  Regiment  of 
Artillery,  and  was  prize  commissioner  at  Vera  Cruz, 
at  the  close  of  the  war.  From  May,  1854,  to  Jan-, 
uary,  1861,  he  was  stationed  at  various  points  on 
the  Pacific  coast.  On  July  23,  1861,  he  was  pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel  of  the  First  Artillery,  and 
was  at  Newport  News  in  Mairch,  1862,  during  the 
famous  engagement  between  the  "Merrimac"  and 
"Monitor."  In  1863  he  was  stationed  in  Boston  Har- 
bor and  engaged  in  placing  that  port  in  proper  state 

for  defense.  On  Aug.  i,  1863,  he  was  promoted 
colonel  of  the  Fifth  Artillery,  but  unfortunately  died 
ten  days  later,  his  health  having  been  seriously  im- 
paired by  the  hardships  to  which  he  had  been  sub- 
jected. For  forty  years,  he  served  his  country 
faithfully  as  an  officer,  was  stationed  in  every,  sec- 
tion of  the  Union,  and  in  every  position  acquitted 
himself  with  honor  and  distinction.  At  the  time 
of  the  outbreak  of  the  Rebellion,  he  was  residing 
with  his  family  in  Florida,  and  although  offered 
high  rank  under  the  Confederate  government,  was 
true  to  the  flag  under  which  he  had  fought  so  long. 

Col.-  Nauman  was  married  to  Mary  Dummett, 
in  St.  Augustine,  Fla.,  she  being  a  daughter  of 
Thomas  Dummett,  a  native  of  England,  who  be- 
came a  sugar  planter  on  the  Isle  of  Barbadoes,  until 
the  abolition  of  slavery  there,  when  he  removed  to 
Connecticut.  When  the  United  States  acquired 
Florida,  he  was  one  of  the  first  to  introduce  sugar 
planting  in  the  new  territory.  Mrs.  Nauman  died 
in  1861,  leaving  six  children,  three  of  whom  still 

George  Nauman  remained  with  his  father  until 
1853,  at  the  different  military  posts  at  which  he 
was  stationed,  but  at  that  time  went  with  his  mother 
and  other  members  of  the  family  to  St.  Augustine, 
Fla.,  Col.  Nauman  going  to  California.  In  1859, 
he  was  graduated  from  St.  James  College  at  Hag- 
erstown,  Md.,  with  degree  of  B.  A.,  after  which  he 
read  law  for  a  year  in  the  State  of  Florida,  his  mind 
thus  early  showing  its  natural  bent.  In  the  fall 
of  i860,  he  became  a  student  in  the  Law  Department 
of  the  University  of  Virginia,  and  in  June,  1861, 
located  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  continuing  his  legal  stud- 
ies, and  being  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1862.  Imme- 
diately after  this,  he  entered  upon  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  and  met  with  marked  success 
during  his  entire  legal  career,  numbering  among 
his  clients  the  most  prominent  men  and  corporations 
of  Lancaster  and  surrounding  country.  For  three 
years  he  served  as  city  solicitor,  and  frequently  rep- 
resented the  Pennsylvania  Railway  Co. ;  was  counsel 
for  the  Lancaster  Street  Railroad  Co.,  and  all  of  the 
three  oil  lines  in  the  county. 

Mr.  Nauman  was  one  of  the  leading  Democrats 
of  the  county,  and  was  frequently  called  upon  to 
represent  his  party  in  various  offices,  and  he  served 
many  times  as  chairman  of  the  State  Democratic 
Central  Committee.  At  one  time  he  was  chosen  as 
candidate  from  his  district  for  Congress,  but  the 
party  being  in  the  minority,  he  was  not  elected. 
In  1888,  upon  the  retirement  of  Justice  Gordon, 
Mr.  Nauman  was  offered  the  nomination,  but  de-^ 
clined  the  honor,  and  the  Hon.  James  B.  McCollum 
was  placed  upon  the  ticket.  In  1896,  when  the  gold 
question  played  so  important  a  part  in  party  issues, 
Mr.  Nauman  was  very  pronounced  in  his  views 
upon  the  question,  and  held  to  the  gold  standard 

Mr.  Nauman's  strength  as  a  lawyer  lay  in  his 
keen,  analytical  reasoning;  his  thorough  knowledge 



of  the  statutes  and  his  clear,  forcible  manner  of 
presenting  his  case  to  the  jury,  rather  than  in  lofty 
flights  of  oratory,  although  as  an  orator  he  possessed 
no  mean  gifts.  A  close  student,  both  of  books  and 
human  nature,  Mr.  Nauman's  mind  was  well  filled 
with  useful  facts,  and  he  was  justly  recognized  as 
one  of  the  best  informed  men  in  Lancaster.  He  was 
also  an  accomplished  linguist,  speaking  several  lan- 
guage's fluently,  and  was  a  cultured,  refined  scholar, 
and  a  man  who  commanded  deepest  respect  every- 
where from  all  classes. 

In  Lancaster,  in  1867,  Mr.  Nauman  was  married 
to  Miss  Elizabeth  Henderson,  and  nine  children 
were  born  to  this  happy  union,  two  of  whom  are 
deceased  \  George  is  a  member  of  the  Civil  Engineer 
Corps  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  and  is  a  grad- 
uate of  Lehigh  University;  Alfred  is  a  hardware 
merchant  of  Lancaster ;  John  is  a  graduate  of  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College,  read  law  with  his  father, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  Lancaster  Bar,  now  -being, 
his  father's  successor  in  his  large  practice,  with 
offices  at  his  father's  former  location,  on  North  Duke 
street  (he  is  single  and  resides  with  his  mother). 
The  other  children  are:  Frank,  Elizabeth,  Spencer 
and  Harriet. 

The  father  of  Mrs.  Nauman  was  Amos  S.  Hen- 
derson, who  at  one  time,  was  one  of  the  leading 
bankers  of  Lancaster,  and  a  man  very  prominent  in 
financial  and  commercial  circles,  and  one  who  en- 
joyed universal  respect.  The  religious  connections 
of  Mrs.  Nauman  and  her  family  are  with  St.  James' 
Episcopal  Church,  in  which  they  are  active  workers, 
and  of  which  Mr.  Nauman  was  also  a  member. 

MAJOR  ELLWOOD  GRIEST,  ex-postmaster 
of  Lancaster,  and  father  of  Hon.  W.  W.  Griest,  sec- 
retary of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  was 
a  man  of  far  more  than  ordinary  attainments,  and 
was  a  worthy  descendant  of  the  sturdy  stock  from 
which  he  sprung. 

Major  Griest  was  born  in  Chester  county,  at 
Griest's  fording,  on  the  Octoraro,  June  17,  1824,  a 
son  of  William  and  Margaret  Griest,  who  belonged 
to  the  Society  of  Friends.  After  receiving  an  or- 
dinary English  education  he  was  apprenticed  to 
learn  the  blacksmith's  trade,  after  which  he  worked 
as  a  journevman  in  Lancaster,  Chester  and  Delaware 
counties.  He  first  engaged  in  business  on  his  own 
account  in  Bart  township,  Lancaster  county,  and 
afterward  in  Christiana,  and  was  in  business  in  the 
latter  place  when  he  entered  the  service  of  the  United 
States,  in  December,  1862,  as  a  clerk  in  the  subsist- 
ence department,  3d  Division,  6th  Army  Corps, 
Army  of  the  He  was  captured  by  Mosby's 
guerrillas  Oct.  it,  1863,  and  confined  in  Libby  prison 
until  Jan.  30,  1864,  when  he  was  paroled  and  ex- 
changed. He  was  next  assigned  to  duty  on  John- 
son's Island,  Lake  Erie.  In  August,  1864,  he  was 
commissioned  commissar)'  of  subsistence  with  the 
rank  of  captain.  He  was  ordered  to  Gen.  Sheridan's 
army  and  placed  on  his  staff  as  issuing  commissary 

at  headquarters,  remaining  with  Sheridan  until  Feb- 
ruary, 1865,  when  the  latter  went  on  his  raid  through 
the  Shenandoah  Valley.  Capt.  Griest  was  left  as 
post  commissary  at  Winchester.  Later  he  was  de- 
tailed with  .Sheridan  at  New  Orleans,  and  afterward 
at  Jacksonville,  Fla.  He  was  mustered  out  of  ser- 
A'ice  in  April,  1866,  with  the  brevet  rank  of  major. 
Before  returning  home  a  lieutenant's  commission  in 
the  United  States  Infantry  was  tendered  to  him, 
which  he  declined. 

In  September,  1866,  the  county  commissioners 
appointed  Major  Griest  county  treasurer,  to  fill  the 
vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Samuel  Ensinger. 
While  treasurer  he  was  employed  by  Stuart  A.  Wy- 
lie  to  edit  the  Lancaster  Inquirer.  In  1868  he  en- 
tered into  partnership  with  Mr.  Wylie,  and  the  firm 
continued  until  the  death  of  the  latter,  in  1872.  Mr. 
Griest  then  became  the  editor  and  proprietor  of  the 
Inquirer,  and  so  continued  until  his  death. 

Mr.  Griest  was,  as  a  young  man,  a  radical  Aboli- 
tionist. He  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Repub- 
lican party,  took  an  active  interest  in  politics,  and 
frequently  presided  at  county  conventions.  He  was 
a  delegate  to  the  State  Convention  in  1856.  In  1866 
he  became  a  can;lidate  for  Congress  to  succeed  Thad- 
deus  Stevens,  but  withdrew  in  favor  of  O.  J.  Dickey. 
After  Mr.  Dickey  died  he  again  became  a  candidate 
for  Congress,  but  was  defeated  by  A.  Herr  Smith  by 
sixty-two  votes,  after  an  exciting  contest.  The  can- 
didates were  A.  Herr  Smith,  who  received  3,763 
votes;  Ellwood  Griest,  3,701;  Jesse  Kennedy  (Mt. 
Joy),  1,015;  S.  C.  Kauffman  (Columbia),  1,956; 
David  Evans  (city),  162.  Two  years  later  Mr. 
Griest  was  again  an  unsuccessful  candidate.  In 
1888  he  was  a  Presidential  elector  on  the  Republican 
ticket.  President  Harrison  appointed  him  post- 
master Dec.  Ti,  1890;  and  on  Feb.  16,  1898,  he  was 
appointed  postmaster  for  a  second  time  by  President 
McKinley,  and  held  that  office  at  the  time  of  his 

In  his  religious  views  Major  Griest  was  a 
Quaker,  and  belonged  to  the  Eastland  Meeting,  in 
Little  Britain  township.  Fraternally  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  George  H.  Thomas  Post,  No.  84,  G.  A.  R., 
and  of  Lodge  No.  43,  of  the  Masonic  fraternity. 

Major  Griest  died,  after  a  lingering  illness,  at 
the  old  family  home.  No.  429  South  Prince  street, 
in  February,  1900.  His  wife,  who  had  also  long 
been  an  invalid,  soon  followed  her  devoted  husband, 
and  entered  into  rest  in  August,  1900.  Frank,  the 
eldest  son,  who  was  assistant  editor  of  the  Inquirer, 
passed  away  in  March,  1900,  and  Hon.  W.  W. 
Griest  is  the  sole  survivor  of  the  family. 

HANS  TSCHANTZ  was  one  of  the  first  Men- 
nonite  ministers  to  locate  in  Lancaster  county,  hav- 
ing come  to  this  country  with  Hans  Herr,  Ulrich 
Brackbill,  Christian  Herr,  Martin  Mylin  and  others 
about  1709.  He  was  connected  with  the  Strasburg 
district  of  the  Mennonite  Church  in  Lancaster 
county.     He  became  a  Bishop  in  that  church  and 

CM^t^rO  ^yi^-^J^^^si^ 



in  1742,  when  Martin  Meylin  (Mylin)  built  a  fine 
and  commodious  house  for  himself,  he  was  mildly 
reprimanded  by  Bishop  Tschantz  and  asked  to  de- 
clare openly  what  his  intentions  were  in  erecting 
such  a  handsome  affair.  He  stated  that  he  had  only 
done  so  for  his  comfort,  and  after  some  discussion 
the  Bishop  reprimanded  him  and  the  matter  ended 

EDWARD  SHIPPEN,  one  of  the  leading  men 
of  Lancaster  in  Revolutionary  times,  was  a  grand- 
son of  Edward  Shippen,  of  Philadelphia,  who  had 
come  from  Yorkshire,  England,  to  Boston  and 
finally  settled  in  Philadelphia  in  1693.  Edward 
Shippen,  the  subject  of  our  sketch,  was  born  in 
Philadelphia  in  1703,  and  came  to  Lancaster  in 
1752,  when  he  was  appointed  prothonotary  of  the 
county.  He  was  paymaster  for  the  supplies  fur- 
nished to  the  Provincial  soldiers  during  the  French 
and  Indian  War,  and  was  also  a  county  judge  of 
Lancaster  county.  He  died  at  an  advanced  age, 
and  is  buried  in  the  graveyard  of  St.  James'  Episco- 
pal church.  His  son,  Edward,  became  Chief  Jus- 
tice of  the  Supreme  court  of  Pennsylvania  in  1790. 
One  of  his  daughters  married  Benedict  Arnold 
in  1778. 

master  of  Lancaster,  well  known  in  his  community 
on  account  of  his  connection  with  Reigarts  Old 
Wine  Store,  a  leading  business  house,  comes  from 
prominent  Pennsylvania  families.  His  marriage  to 
Miss  Steele,  daughter  of  late  Capt;  John  Steele, 
adds  considerable  to  Mr.  Slaymaker's  social 

The  first  of  the  family  to  emigrate  to  this  coun- 
try was  Mathias  Slaymaker  (in  German  Schleier- 
macher),  a  native  of  Hessen-Cassel,  who  arrived 
from  Strasburg,  Germany,  in  the  year  1710.  He 
settled  on  a  thousand-acre  tract  known  as  the  "Lon- 
don Lands,"  located  near  the  residence  of  Peter  J, 
Eckert  in  Strasburg  township.  Mathias  had  two 
brothers,  one  a  clergyman  and  settled  in  the  Em- 
peror's dominion  high  up  in  Germany,  and  for 
some  time  secretary  of  the  German  Legation  to  the 
Court  of  St.  James,  afterward  holding  the  position 
of  Charge  d'  Affairs  to  the  same  government;  his 
eldest  son  was  governor  of  a  German  Island.  Presi- 
dent John  Adams,  while  minister  to  England,  re- 
sided with  a  descendant  of  this  brother.  Another 
descendant  of  this  branch  was  governor  of  an  Island 
under  German  Dominion.  Mathias'  other  brother 
was  a  major  in  the  King  of  Prussia's  tall  regiment, 
and  it  is  supposed  that  a  son  of  this  brother  was  an 
officer  (major)  in  the  Hessian  troops  hired  by 
George  III  to  fight  his  rebellious  subjects  in  Amer- 
ica, as  a  captured  soldier  of  that  name  was  at  one 
time  confined  in  the  Lancaster  jail. 

Mathias  Slaymaker,  the  emigrant,  was  married 
in  Germanv.  He  had  five  sons :  Lawrence,  Mathias, 
John,  Henry  and  Daniel,  and  two  daughters,  Mar- 

garet and  Barbara  Eckman.  Of  these  Lawrence 
and  Margaret  were  born  before  the  emigration  to 
America.  Lawrence  married  a  sister  of  Jacob 
Pfautz,  and  had  one  child  who  married  a  member 
of  the  Lefever  family  and  later  moved  to  Cumber- 
land county.  Mathias  married  a  Miss  Smith  and 
had  two  sons,  John  and  William,  and  three  daugh- 
ters, Rachel,  Rebecca  and  Elizabeth.  John  mar- 
ried Elizabeth  White  and  had  Mathias,  John,  Wil- 
liam and  Alexander,  and  five  daughters,  Jane,  Eliza- 
beth, Mary,  Kitty  and  Ann.  Henry  married  Faith- 
ful Richardson,  three  sons  being  born  to  the  union, 
Amos,  Henry  and  Samuel,  and  six  daughters,  Mary, 
Hannah,  Faithful,  Lydia,  Sarah  and  Sophia.  Daniel 
married  Gilsey  Young,  and  had  Daniel,  William  and 
Mathias,  sons,  and  Elizabeth  and  Gilsey,  daugh- 
ters. Margaret  married  Michael  Fickel,  and  reared 
a  large  family.  Barbara  married  Hironimus 

Henry  Slaymaker,  father  of  Amos,  assisted  in 
clearing  a  portion  of  the  present  town  site  of  Lan- 
caster. The  London  Lands  were  left  to  John,  Henry, 
Mathias  and  Daniel,  and  a  portion  of  the  estate  is 
still  held  by  the  family. 

The  Slaymaker  family  resisted  all  the  efforts  of 
the  British  to  make  them  desert  the  Colonists  dur- 
ing Revolutionary  times,  and  every  member  re- 
mained faithful  to  the  Republic  during  its  struggle 
for  liberty.  Henry  was  a  magistrate  during  this 
time  and  was  active  in  behalf  of  freedom ;  he  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  Hubley  as  principal  justice,  presiding 
for  a  year.  Henry's  son  Amos  was  a  member  of 
Col.  James  Mercer's  military  company,  formed  by 
young  men  who  entered  into  articles  of  agreement 
to  suppress  all  those  called  Tories.  Its  movements 
were  attended  with  great  hazard,  and  it  was  con- 
stantly in  aid  of  the  new  Republic.  The  traditions 
of  the  family  are  replete  with  stories  of  this  period. 
One  in  particular  when  Magistrate  Henry  Slay- 
maker, hearing  of  a  gang  of  Tories  operating  in  the 
vicinity  ordered  out  the  company  in  pursuit  of  it. 
After  a  hard  march  through  a  stormy  night  it  was 
learned  that  the  Tories  had  been  apprised  of  their 
coming  and  had  made  their  escape.  Henry  Slay- 
maker was  a  delegate  to  the  convention  for  framing 
a  constitution  for  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  which 
met  at  Philadelphia,  July  15,  1776. 

Amos  Slaymaker  served  two  terms  in  the  Revo- 
lutionary war  as  an  Ensign  in  a  company  com- 
manded by  his  uncle,  John  S.,  who  was  also  en- 
gaged as  an  officer  in  Braddock's  war.  Amos  was 
magistrate  for  many  years,  a  member  of  Legisla- 
ture, of  the  Pennsylvania  Senate,  and  afterwards 
a  member  Of  Congress  from  his  district. 

The  John  Slaymaker  of  Revolutionary  fame 
was  a  sturdy  patriot  and  soldier.  In  Braddock's 
disastrous  campaign  against  the  French  he  was  en- 
gaged during  the  day  of  Braddock's  defeat.  He 
had  charge  of  a  cannon  and  in  getting  it  into  action 
had  eleven  horses  shot  while  hauling  it  into  position. 
In  1776  he  took  a  company  into  Bergen,  N.  J.,  and 



was  in  the  skirmish  under  Gen.  Bull,  at  Chestnut 
Hill,  where  the  General  was  taken  prisoner.  Upon 
John's  return  home  he  was  elected  county  com- 
missioner, and  after  filling  that  office  he  retired 
to  private  life,  dying  in  1798,  aged  sixty-five  years. 

Samuel  Slaymaker,  third  son  of  Henry  Slay- 
maker  and  Faithful  Richardson,  married  Ann  Coch- 
ran, daughter  of  Stephen  Cochran,  of  Cochranville, 
Chester  Co.,  and  they  had  offspring  as  follows  i 
Henry  Y.,  Stephen  C,  Samuel  R.,  James  A.  and 
Eliza.  Samuel  and  his  brother  Henry  were  pro- 
prietors of  the  great  stage  line  of  Reeside,  Slay- 
maker  &  Co.,  from  Philadelphia  to  the  West,  be- 
fore the  era  of  railroads.  The  firm  built  the  large 
stage  barn  on  the  corner  of  Duke  and  Chestnut 
streets,  with  the  three  one-story  brick  houses  still 
standing  on  the  north  side  of  Chestnut  street,  ex- 
tending from  the  Rote  Iron  Works  to  Cherry  street. 
The  barn  was  destroyed  by  fire  the  evening  of  Nov. 
I,  1832,  at  which  time  Samuel  R.  Slaymaker  &  Coj 
were  the  owners  of  the  stage  line.  Samuel  died 
April  3,  1830,  at  his  residence  in  East  Orange  St., 
now  the  property  of  Dr.  George  Rohrer.  Ann 
(Cochran)  Slaymaker  died  at  the  home  of  her  son 
Samuel  R.,  in  York. 

Henry  V.  Slaymaker,  of  Margaretta  Furnace, 
York  Co.,  married  Margaret  Reigart  and  the  fol^ 
lowing  children  were  born  to  this  union:  Mary 
R.,  Ann  C,  Henrietta  E.,  and  Adam  R.  Margaret 
died  at  Margaretta  Furnace.  Henry  Y.  died  at  his 
daughter  Henrietta  Ruthrauff's  in  Davenport,  Iowa, 

Samuel  R.  Slaymaker  married  Anna  Smith,  of 
Philadelphia,  and  had  the  following  children: 
Henry  Stephen,  Robert  S.,  Margaret  and  Jonathan 
S.  (who  was  captain  of  a  company  in  the  2nd  Iowa 
V.  I.,  and  was  killed  at  the  taking  of  Fort  Donelson 
during  the  late  Civil  war). 

James  A.  Slaymaker  died  at  Detroit,  Michigan. 

Stephen  C.  Slaymaker,  of  Margaretta  Furnace, 
York  Co.,  married  Susan,  youngest  daughter  of 
Adam  and  Mary  Reigart,  and  had  children  as  fol- 
lows :  Henry  Edwin,  Samuel  Howard,  Adam  Rei- 
gart and  Stephen  Cochran.  Stephen  C,  was  born 
in  Lancaster,  Jan.  17,  1802,  and  died  at  Margaretta 
Furnace  Jan.  i,  1835.  Susan  (Reigart)  Slaymaker, 
born  at  Lancaster  April  4,  1804,  died  at  the  home 
of  her  son;  Henry  E.,  May  7,  1886,  and  both  are 
buried  in  St.  James  Episcopal  Church  yard  in  Lan- 

Henry  Edwin  Slaymaker,  the  subject  of  the 
present  sketch,  was  born  at  Margaretta  Furnace, 
York  Co.,  Oct.  26,  1828.  At  the  age  of  twelve 
years  Mr.  Slaymaker  came  to  Lancaster  with  his 
mother  in  1841,  and  after  attending  the  Franklin 
Academy  and  High  school  for  some  time  entered 
the  late  Col.  Mayer's  hardware  store  on  North 
Queen  street,  remaining  there  three  years.  Then 
he  became  a  salesman  for  John  F.  Steinman'  &  Son, 
hardware  dealers.  After  two  years'  service  he 
formed  a  partnership  with  the  late  William  C.  Pink- 
erton  in  hardware  under  the  name  of  Pinkerton  & 

Slaymaker  with  store  on  North  Queen  street.  The 
business  was  closed  out  in  1857  and  Mr.  Slaymaker 
then  took  charge  of  Reigart's  Old  Wine  Store  on 
East  King  street,  established  by  Adam  Reigart,  our 
subject's  grandfather,  in  1785,  and  has  successfully 
conducted  the  business  for  the  estate  ever  since. 

Henry  E.  Slaymaker  married  Mary  Steele, 
youngest  daughter  of  Capt.  John  and  Jane  P.  Steele, 
of  Harmpny  Hall,  Leacock  township.  They  have 
had  three  daughters,  .Mary  Reigart,  who  married 
Edward  P.  Cowell,  employed  by  the  Lehigh  Valley 
R.  R.,  and  they  have  two  children,  Mary  Edna  and 
Henry  Slaymaker ;  Frances  Steele,  who  died  at  the 
age  of  seven  months;  and  Susan  R.,  at  home.  In 
politics  Mr.  Slaymaker  was  first  a  Whig,  but  in 
i860  he  became  a  Constitutional  States  Rights  Dem- 
ocrat, and  has  remained  with  that  party  since. 

Mr.  Slaymaker  was  a  member  of  St.  John's 
Episcopal  church  of  Lancaster,  having  helped  to 
organize  it  and  serving  as  one  of  the  first  set  of 
vestrymen.  He  is  now  a  member  of  St.  James 
church,  and  is  prominent  in  its  affairs.  He  was 
a  member  of  Lancaster  Fencibles,  the  crack  military 
company  of  the  time,  and  at  the  beginning  of  the 
war  he  helped  to  organize  the  Union  Guards,  which 
did  such  good  service  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 
While  preivented  from  going  to  the  war  when  the 
Rebels  invaded  Pennsylvania,  Mr.  Slaymaker  raised 
a  company  known  as  Co.  B,  loth  P.  V.  I.  After 
some  service  the  company  was  disbanded. 

Mr.  Slaymaker  held  the  office  of  auditor  of  Lan- 
caster until  its  abolishment.  From  the  age  of  eigh- 
teen years  he  was  a  member  of  the  Union  Volunteer 
Fire  Co.,  No.  i,  and  for  twenty-eight  years  was  its 
president.  After  the  establishment  of  a  paid  de- 
partment the  company  formed  the  Union  Fire  Co. 
Association.  Mr.  Slaymaker  was  elected  its  presi- 
dent, and  still  retains  that  position.  For  more  than 
twenty  years  he  was  chairman  of  the  Property  com- 
mittee of  the  school  directors  of  Lancaster,  and 
when  the  first  modern  school  building  was  erected 
in  the  town  he  superintended  its  construction,  giv- 
ing the  work  as  careful  consideration  as  he  would 
his  own  business.  President  Cleveland  appointed 
him  postmaster  during  his  first  term  and  it  was 
during  this  time  the  new  postoffice  on  North  Duke 
street  was  ordered  by  the  government.  At  the  end 
of  his  term  it  was  found  that  Mr.  Slaymaker  was 
the  government  creditor  to  the  amount  of  one  cent, 
a  draft  for  which  amount  was  sent  him  from  Wash- 
ington. Mr.  Slaymaker  retains  the  draft  as  a  curi- 
osity. For  three  years  he  was  jury  commissioner  of 
the  county. 

Mr.  Slaymaker  is  a  member  of  Lancaster  Lodge, 
No.  476,  F.  &  A.  M. ;  also  of  the  Chapter,  No.  43) 
and  the  Lodge  of  Perfection,  and  from  time  to  time 
has  held  the  lodges'  most  important  offices,  at  pres- 
ent being  treasurer  of  the  former,  and  trustee  of 
the  latter.  He  is  a  trustee  of  the  Witmer  Home, 
a  manager  of  the  Home  for  Friendless  Children 
since  its  establishment.    Hale  and  vigorous,  no  more 



familiar  figure  than  that  of  Mr.  Slaymaker  is  known 
to  Lancaster.  Clever  and  kind,  and  a  most  enter- 
taining companion,  it  is  small  wonder  that  the  gen- 
tleman has  long  been  regarded  as  one  of  Lancaster's 
foremost  men. 

Mrs.  Slaymaker  comes  of  a  family  whose  record 
is  indelibly  written  in  American  history.  General 
John  Steele,  her  grandfather,  was  born  in  Drumore 
township,  Lancaster  county,  in  1758,  a  son  of  Wil- 
liam Steele.  He  was  educated  in  the  school  at  Chest- 
nut Level,  kept  by  the  Rev.  James  Latta.  While 
still  in  school,  the  war  of  the  Revolution  was  begun, 
and  young  Steele  exchanged  the  school  room  for 
the  camp,  enlisting  the  same  day  as  did  his  three 
brothers,  Archibald,  William  and  James.  He  en- 
tered the  ranks  as  a  private,  but  before  he  was 
twenty-one  was  in  command  of  a  company,  being 
made  a  first  lieutenant  in  the  loth  Pennsylvania, 
Dec.  4,  1776;  Captain,  May  27,  1778;  transferred  to 
the  17th  Cavalry  in  1781 ;  retired  in  January,  1783; 
and  later  honored  with  the  rank  of  general.  He 
was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Brandywine,  but  re- 
covered and  returned  to  his  regiment,  following 
Washington  through  many  battles,  participating 
as  officer  of- the  day  in  the  memorable  success  en- 
acted at  the  surrender  of  Cornwallis  at  Yorktown, 
Oct.  19,  1781.  In  June,  1780,  while  a  member  of 
Gen.  Washington's  body  guard,  he  had  the  honor  of 
guarding  Mrs.  Washington,  in  the  absence  of  her 
husband,  at  Morristown,  N.  J.  After  the  war 
was  over.  Gen.  Steele  served  in  the  Pennsylvania 
Senate,  being  presiding  officer  in  1805  and  1808. 
In  the  latter  year  he  was  appointed  collector  of  the 
port  of  Philadelphia,  an  office  he  continued  to  hold 
until  1826.  He  was  a  man  of  undoubted  genius. 
For  a  time  he  engaged  in  the  publishing  business 
in  Philadelphia,  where  he  located  in  1784,  casting 
his  type  with  his  own  hands.  The  last  year  of  his 
life  was  spent  on  his  farm  at  Octoraro.  His  death 
occurred  Feb.  27,  1827,  and  he  was  buried  in  Old 
Pine  St.  Church  Yard,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Besides 
his  service  in  the  field,  this  sturdy  patriot  had  loaned 
money  to  the  Government,  and  he  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati.  In  1784 
he  wedded  Miss  Bailey,  who  had  waited  for  him 
during  seven  long  years  he  served  his  country.  She 
died  in  March,  1828.  In  politics  he  was  a  Jeflfer- 
sonian  Democrat. 

Capt.  John  Steele,  son  of  Gen.  John  Steele,  en- 
tered into  rest  Oct.  27,  1853.  During  the  war  of 
181 2,  he  commanded  a  company,  and  later  suc- 
ceeded to  the  position  held  by  his  father  as  collector 
of  the  Port  of  Philadelphia.  He  was  also  controller 
of  the  public  schools  of  that  city.  In  politics  he 
was  a  Jacksonian  Democrat.  Fraternally  he  was 
a  York  Rite  Mason,  belonging  to  Lodge  No.  51, 
of  Philadelphia,  in  which  he  was  past  master,  and 
in  which  for  thirty  years  he  had  held  official  posi- 
tion He  also  filled  the  chair  of  Right  Worshipful 
Grand  Master  in  the  Grand  Lodge.  Capt.  Steele  mar- 
ried Jane  Porter,  who  was  born  in  1791,  and  died  in 

1867.  Ten  children  blessed  this  union,  as  follows : 
William,  Sarah,  John,  Abiann,  James,  Robert,  Mar- 
garet, Jane  D.,  Mary  and  Marshall,  all  deceased, 
except  Mary,  who  is  Mrs.  Slaymaker. 

Mrs.  Slaymaker  and  her  two  daughters  are  act- 
ive members  of  the  Daughters  of  the  American 
Revolution,  belonging  to  Donegal  Chapter.  The 
youngest  daughter,  Susan  Reigart  Slaymaker,  is  at 
present  most  acceptably  serving  as  corresponding' 

JOSEPH  SHERER,  son  of  Samuel  Sherer,  was 
born  in  the  north  of  Ireland  in  173 1.  In  1734 
his  parents  located  in  Paxton  township,  then  in 
Lancaster  county,  now  in  Dauphin  county,  Pa.  He 
received  an  ordinary  education  and  began  life  as  a 
farmer.  During  the  French  and  Indian  war  he 
served  as  a  non-commissioned  officer,  doing  duty  on 
the  frontiers.  At  the  beginning  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary War  he  commanded  a  company  in  Colonel 
Burd's  Battalion  of  Associators.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Lancaster  county  committee  and  a  member 
of  the  Constitutional  convention  of  July  15,  1776. 
He  took  sick  while  attending  the  sessions  of  this  con- 
vention, and  died  on  December  2d  following.  He 
left  behind  him  a  wife  and  eight  children. 

JOHN  B.  GOOD,  for  twenty  years  a  member 
of  the  Bar  at  Lancaster,  was  born  June  18,  1823,  in 
Brecknock  township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  and  died 
in  Lancaster  Sept.  6,  1884,  in  his  sixty-second 
year.  He  was  a  son  of  Jacob  and  Elizabeth  (Bow- 
man) Good,  who  had  six  children,  of  whom  John  B. 
was  the  eldest.  Lydia,  the  eldest  daughter  and  sec- 
ond child,  married  Jacob  Hoover,  of  Berks  county. 
Pa.,  and  is  now  deceased;  Elizabeth  became  the 
wife  of  Mr.  Husser,  and  is  deceased;  Sarah,  the 
wife  of  Peter  Meisser,  died  in  Lancaster  county; 
Mary  died  unmarried,  in  Lancaster  county ;  and 
Nancy  also  died  in  this  county.  The  father  was  a 
cabinet  maker  by  trade. 

In  early  life  Mr.  Good  was  reared  to  farming, 
and  in  connection  therewith  managed  to  secure  an 
excellent  education.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  began 
to  teach  school,  and  was  thus  engaged  for  several 
years,  in  the  meantime  devoting  his  leisure  to  the 
reading  of  law.  He  was  admitted  to  the  Lancaster 
Bar  in  1864,  and  practiced  continuously  up  to  the 
time  of  his  death.  He  was  considered  a  practical 
and  conscientious  exponent  of  legal  science,  and 
had  a  large  and  appreciative  clientele.  For  many 
years  he  was  before  the  public  as  a  writer  for  vari- 
ous periodicals,  possessing  a  facile  pen  and  apt  de- 
scriptive powers.  As  a  Republican  he  took  con- 
siderable interest  in  local  political  undertakings,  and 
among  other  offices  maintained  with  credit  filled 
that  of  justice  of  the  peace,  from  1847  to  1858. 
In  February,  1865,  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  and  was  ever  after 
a  loyal  supporter  of  that  denomination.  At  the 
time  of  his  death  he  had  held  the  office  of  class- 



leader  since  1866,  and  of  exhorter  since  1867.  He 
was  president  of  the  first  lay  conference  held  in 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  March,  1872. 

In  Reading,  Pa.,  in  1847,  Mr.  Good  married 
Elizabeth  Bowman,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Eliza- 
beth (Good)  Bowman,  and  granddaughter  of  Christ 
and  Elizabeth  Bowman,  the  former  a  miller  of  Berks 
county,  Pa.  Mrs.  Good  was  born  in  Bowmansville, 
•  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  which  town  was  named  after  her 
father,  who  was  a  farmer  in  the  county,  and  who 
died  in  1871,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine  years.  The 
mother  was  a  native  of  Berks  county,  Pa.,  and  died 
in  1873,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine.  The  parents 
are  buried  in  Bowmansville  cemetery.  They  had 
the  foHowing  named  children,  of  whom  Mrs.  John 
B.  Good  was  the  last  survivor;  Isaac;  Moses; 
Elias ;  Lbvina,  wife  of  John  H.  Good,  of  Brecknock 
township ;  Nancy,  wife  of  Christ  Gehman ;  Eliza- 
beth, Mrs.  John  B.  Good;  and  Leah,  wife  of  Solo- 
mon Ott.  Mrs.  Good  lived  in  her  pleasant  home 
with  her  daughter,  Eleanor  M.,  her  other  daughter, 
Clara  L.,  being  the  wife  of  Leonard  Lewis,  a  ma- 
chinist of  Lancaster. 

D.,  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  of 
Pennsylvania  from  April  i,  1881,  to  the  time  of  his 
death,  Dec.  13,  1889,  was  born  at  St.  George,  near 
Burlington,  Vt.,  March  27,  1830.  He  was  the  young- 
est of  a  family  of  ten  children,  eight  sons  and  two 
daughters,  born  to  Lewis  Higbee  and  Sarah  Baker. 
His  mother  came  from  noble  stock,  and  was  a. 
woman  of  surpassing  loveliness  of  disposition  and 
force  of  character.  He  often  spoke  of  her  in  terms 
of  the  warmest  gratitude  and  the  tenderest  affection. 
It  was  in  deference  to  her  wishes  that  he  declined  a 
cadetship  at  West  Point  and  continued  his  course  at 
the  University  of  Vermont,  though  the  military 
academy,  held  out  for  him  high  promise,  and  would 
have  fallen  in  admirably  with  his  daring  and  ad- 
venturous spirit,  for  he  had  in  him,  in  large  meas- 
ure, that  of  which  the  ideal  soldier  is  made.  It  ^yas 
through  her  he  used  to  take  a  passing  pride  in  trac- 
ing his  relationship  with  Ethan  Allen,  the  hero  of 
Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point.  His  father,  at  one 
time  a  member  of  the  State  Legislature,  was  a  strong 
representative  of  the  sturdy  New  England  type  of 
manhood,  a  fearless  upholder  of  the  right,  of  which 
he  had  an  intuitive  sense,  with  a  rich  vein  of  humor 
that  was  ever  flashing  into  forms  of  quick-witted 

Just  wh-en  Dr.  Higbee's  formal  education  began 
is  not  known.  Nearly  all  we  know  definitely  is  that 
"when  a  little  urchin  he  knocked  at  the  old  Polebrook 
school-house  with  his  father's  stove-pipe  hat  on,  and 
claimed  admittance."  As  a  boy  he  was  full  of  en- 
ergy and  excelled  in  all  out-door  sports.  He  was 
"in  love  with  the  hills,  skillful  with  rod  and  line,  a 
fine  shot  and  a  natural-born  athlete."  Though  only 
sixteen  when  he  taught  his  first  school,  he  easily 
outstripped  the  most  active  and  stalwart  of  his  boys. 
"He  could  run  faster,  jump  higher,  .knock  a  ball  or 

kick  a  foot-ball  further  than  any  of  the  rest,"  says 
one  who  knew  him  well,  "and  as  a  skater  he  was 
as  fleet  as  the  wind,  and  as  alert,  nimble  and  agile  as 
seems  possible  to  any  master  of  the  art."  He  was, 
of  course,  a  hero  to  his  pupils  on  the  play-ground, 
while  in  the  school  room  his  brilliant  intellectual 
powers  and  his  tact  in  management  made  him  no 
less  an  object  of  admiration.  He  learned  to  skate 
as  perhaps  not  another  lad  in  ten  thousand  has  done. 
His  older  brother  tells  the  story  as  follows:  The 
little  fellow  had  buckled  on  his  skates  for  the  first 
time,  but  had  hardly  got  upon  the  ice  before  a  sud- 
den and  stunning  fall  put  an  end  to  his  anticipations 
of  sport.  He  promptly  took  them  off  and  could 
not  be  induced  to  put  them  on  again  that  winter.  Ice 
coming  again  the  next  winter,  he  went  out  with  the 
boys  as  before,  put  on  the  skates  a  second  time,  and 
glided  away  from  everybody — a  skillful  master  of 
the  art!  Between  his  fall  and  the  second  time  he 
buckled  on  skates,  he  had  become  a  skillful  skater 
— not  on,  but  off  the  ice !  The  boy  had  thought 
it  out.  Going  along  the  road  to  school  during  the 
sumnier — anywhere,  everywhere — without  a  word 
on  the  subject  to  anybody,  he  was  trying  the  slide, 
studying  it,  until  he  had  mastered  its  theory  and 
the  concept  was  clear.  Then  much  of  the  strength 
and  skill  acquired  in  other  directions  here  came  into 
play,  and  he  led  the  lively  company  many  a  merry 

His  preparatory  studies  must  have  been  prose- 
cuted with  vigor,  for  at  the  age  of  fifteen  we  find 
him  admitted  into  the  freshman  class  of  the  uni- 
versity.    Here  he  was  a  leader  among  his  fellows, 
conspicuous  no  less  for  the  brilliancy  of  his  intel- 
lectual achievements  than  for  his  marvelous  feats  of 
strength  and  agility  in  the  various  athletic  sports  of 
the  day.     He  became  known  as  the  champion  foot- 
ball player  of  New  England,  as  well  as  one  of  her 
champion  wrestlers,  having  in  his  college  days  en- 
countered but  one  man — a  Canadian  of  firm-set  limb 
and  mighty  strength  of  loins — whom  he  could  not 
put  down  and  keep  down  in  this  good-natured  test 
of  bodily  skill  and  strength  and  endurance.    He  was 
also  a  famous  cricketer,  until  a  finger  broken  by  the 
ball  compelled  him  to  forego  the  vigorous  game.    At 
one  of  the  corporation  dinners  at  Burlington,  Vt. — 
given  by  the  city  corporation  op  graduation  day  to 
the  university  and  its  alumni — to  the  right  and  left 
of  President  Buckham,  of  the  university,  sat  Dr. 
James  McCosh,  president  of  Princeton  College,  and 
Dr.  E.  E.  Higbee,  president  of  Mercersburg  Theo- 
logical Seminary.     After  Dr.  McCosh  had  been  in- 
troduced and  had  made  his  speech.  President  Buck- 
ham,  in  introducing  Dr.  Higbee,  remarked:     "The 
last  time  I  saw  him  was  many  years  ago,  on  the 
campus  behind  the  university.     It  was  on  the  day 
when  his  class  graduated.    He  had  the  foot-ball  in 
his   hand   as   he   shouted,   'Here  goes   for  the   last 
kick !'  The  records  of  the  university  show  that  the 
ball  went  over  the  cupola  of  the  four-story  building, 
higher  than  it  was  ever  kicked  before  or  since!" 
Thus  he  enriched  the  traditions  of  his  Alma  Mater 




In  the  name  and  by  authority  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennnsylvania  : 


Again  devolves  upon  the  Executive  the  sad  duty  of  announcing  to  the  people  of 
this  Commonwealth  the  death  of  an  eminent  citizen  and  faithful  official.  Dr.  E.  E. 
Higbee,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  died  this  morning  at  his  home  in  the  City 
of  Lancaster.  For  nearly  nine  years  and  by  the  appointment  of  three  successive  Gover- 
nors he  served  the  people  of  this  State  with  singular  fidelity,  and  purity,  and  singleness  of 
purpose,  as  the  honored  head  of  the  Educational  Department  of  the  State  Government. 

He  was  born  March  27,  1830,  and  graduated  from  the  University  of  Vermont  in 
1849.  He  received  his  professional  education  at  the  theological  seminary  at  Mercersburg, 
in  this  State,  and  entered  the  ministry  in  1854.  He  became  professor  of  languages  in 
Heidelberg  College,  Ohio,  in  1859  ;  but  three  years  later  removed  to  the  city  of  Pittsburg) 
and  resumed  his  labors  in  the  ministry.  Soon  after  he  returned,  as  one  of  its  professors, 
to  the  theological  seminary  from  which  he  graduated,  and  in  1867  was  elected  to  the 
presidency  of  Mercersburg  College,  which  position  he  filled  until  his  appointment  as 
Superintendent  of  Public  Intstruction  in  1881,  and  this  latter  office  he  held  by  re -appoint- 
ment in  1885  and  1889,  until  the  time  of  his  death. 

Dr.  Higbee  was  a  man  of  broad  culture,  a  polished  and  thoughtful  scholar,  familiar 
alike  with  the  treasures  of  ancient  and  modern  thought  and  literature.  As  an  instructor 
his  extraordinary  attainments  and  varied  resources  brought  to  him  abundant  success  in 
every  department  of  effort ;  and  as  an  educator,  in  its  broadest  and  best  sense,  he  had 
attained  a  rank  among  the  first  of  the  nation.  As  a  public  officer  he  was  painstaking  and 
conscientious  ;  as  a  man  he  was  pure,  simple-hearted  and  genial,  gentle  and  kind. 

The  teachers  of  the  State  and  his  associaties  in  the  great  work  of  education  loved  him 
with  a  filial  devotion,  and  the  Commonwealth  trusted  him  as  a  pure,  noble,  true,  and 
honest  man. 

The  funeral  services  will  be  held  at  the  First  Reformed  Church  in  Lancaster,  on 
Monday,  December  i6th,  at  half-past  11  o'clock  a.  m. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  the  Great  Seal  of  the  State,  at  the  City  of  Harrisburg,  this 
13th  day  of  December,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty- 
nine,  and  of  the  Commonwealth  the  one  hundred  and  fourteenth. 

By  the  Governor  :  JAMES    A.     BEAVER. 

Chas.  W.  Stone, 

Secretary  of  the  Co7nmoniii}^Q.lth, 



by  exploits  of  physical  skill  and  dexterity  in  such  a 
signal  way  as  to  associate  his  name  with  the  most 
attractive  reminiscences  of  college  days,  becoming 
recognized  by  general  consent  as  facile  princeps 
among  his  fellows. 

Supt.  E.  Mackey,  of  Trenton,  N.  N.,  in  a  rare 
tribute  to  Dr.  Higbee,  written  shortly  after  his  death, 
says :  "He  was  in  sympathy  with  his  students  in  all 
their  legitimate  pastimes  and  pursuits.  I  was  fond 
of  skating.  The  creek  was  a  mile  away.  I  was  never 
refused  permission  to  absent  myself  from  chapel 
exercises  and  study  hours  to  enjoy  an  evening's 
skating.  Dr.  Higbee  himself,  it  was  said,  was  the 
finest  skater  ever  seen  on  the  creek.  He  must  have 
been  a  most  accomplished  athlete.  Even  when  he 
was  nearly  fifty  years  old  I  have  seen  him  kick  a 
foot-ball  from  his  hands  straight  over  the  college 
cupola — a  feat  no  student  could  perform  during  my 
college  days.  The  college  building  was  four  stories 
high,  and  the  cupola  not  more  than  ten  feet  wide." 

Mr.  J.  T.  Motter  writes :  "My  earliest  acquaint- 
ance with  Dr.  Higbee  dates  back  to  1849,  when  I 
was  but  a  lad  of  eleven  years  and  he  a  youth  of  nine- 
teen. He  was  the  best  man^ — not  only  at  books  but 
also  at  every  kind  of  sport.  I  began  the  study  of 
Greek  and  Latin  under  him  at  this  time,  and  also  the 
pursuit  of  every  kind  of  outdoor  sport,  of  which  he 
was  very  fond.  He  was  as  fine  a  shot  as  I  ever 
knew,  and  he  disdained  to  shoot  at  any  game  in  re- 
pose, preferring,  as  he  said,  to  give  them  a  fair 
chance  for  life.  He  rarely  raised  the  gun  to  his 
shoulder  to  glance  along  the  barrel  in  shooting  part- 
ridges, pheasants  or  woodcock — and  he  rarely  failed 
to  bring  down  his  bird.  I  have  seen  him 'wing  the 
chimney  swallow  in  his  wayward  flight.  These 
feats  of  skill  in  marksmanship  were  common  when 
he  was  a  young  man,  but  as  he  grew  older  I  never 
knew  him  to  take  the  gun  into  his  hand.  His  beau- 
tiful hazel  eye  was  quick  as  the  lightning,  and  the 
most  expressive  feature  of  his  face.  It  seemed,  at 
times  of  great  earnestness,  to  pierce  through  men 
and  things,  until  the  very  core  of  the  matter  lay  bare 
before  him,  and  he  saw  everything  in  clearest  vision. 
His  power  of  ordinary  sight  was  also  remarkable. 
He  could  tell  from  a  long  distance  not  only  the  gen- 
era but  the  species  of  trees,  as  for  instance  the  differ- 
ent oaks,  maples,  etc.,  and  enjoyed  testing  his  eye- 
sight in  this  way;  he  could  count  the  strands  of  a 
rope  at  a  greater  distance  than  any  one  else  while  at 
Mercersburg ;  and  on  the  way  to  Europe  and  return 
his  eye  in  this  test  was  as  good  as  the  sailors',  and 
about  as  quick  and  sure  as  their  own  to  detect  and 
distinguish  objects  on  the  horizon." 

As  a  student  at  the  university  he  was  especially 
strong  in  the  departments  of  mathematics,  the  classi- 
cal languages  and  related  studies,  and  of  English 
literature.  He  was  an  omnivorous  reader,  with  an 
intuitive  power  of  discrimination  and  susceptibility 
for  the  true,  the  good  and  the  beautiful.  He  reveled 
in  the  delights  afforded  by  the  noble  collection  of 
books  stored  in  the  university  library,  whose  most 

unfrequented  nooks  he  diligently  explored,  mousing 
into  and  through  musty  "volumes  of  forgotten  lore," 
and  enriching  his  mind  with  the  treasures  of  poetic 
thought  and  chaste  expression  which  entered  so 
largely  and  so  naturally  into  the  splendid  mental  and 
spiritual  equipment  he  was  acquiring,  and  which 
proved  an  inexhaustible  source  of  perennial  fresh- 
ness and  ever-multiplying  power  in  his  subsequent 
career  as  a  thinker,  a  writer  and  a  speaker  of  extra- 
ordinary ability.  He  often  spoke  of  the  severe 
mathematical  training  he  there  received,  the  rigid 
discipline  of  his  Latin  and  Greek  sfudies  as  there 
enforced,  and  his  introduction  under  competent 
guidance  into  the  domain  of  speculative  thinking: 
and  philosophical  methods  of  investigation,  as  lead- 
ing factors  in  the  educational  advantages  he  en- 
joyed; but  he  never  ceased  to  "thank  his  stars"  for 
the  influences  that  worked  together  for  his  greatest 
intellectual  good,  in  sending  him  with  hurrying  feet 
to  the  library  as  the  storehouse  of  the  accumulated 
wisdom  of  the  ages.  Here  he  acquired  that  remark- 
able "habit,  of  swift  and  discriminating  reading,  until 
he  had  amongst  books,  as  Prof.  Winsor  expresses 
it,  'the  instinct  that  serves  the  Redman  when  he 
knows  the  north  by  the  thickness  of  the  moss  on  the 
tree-boles.'  " 

We  have  said  that  he  excelled  in  mathematics. 
In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  recall  the  fol- 
lowing incident :  When  he  first  began  the  study  of 
algebra  it  seems  that  he  was  unable  to  get  along  with 
the  nev/  work  to  his  satisfaction.  So  the  lad  applied 
to  his  father  for  permission  to  stop  the  study.  "What 
is  algebra?"  inquired  the  father.  Elnathan  told  him 
as  well  as  he  could,  whereupon  he  was  asked,.  "Can 
the  other  boys  get  it?"  "Yes,  they  seem  able  to  do 
it,  at  least  better  than  I  can."  "TheA,"  said  the 
father,  with  emphasis,  "You'll  keep  at  it,  and  get  it 
too."  And  he  did  get  it,  as  all  know  who  ever  wit- 
nessed the  facility,  the  lightning-like  rapidity  with 
which  he  employed  the  media  of  this  branch  of  analy- 
sis in  the  solution  of  the  most  intricate  problems.  He 
once  told  us  boys  in  class-room  of  how,  one  day  on 
the  playground,  the  meaning  and  use  of  algebra  came 
to  him  like  a  flash  of  light,  so  that  he  never  after  had 
trouble  with  it. 

In  college  we  find  him,  on  the  other  hand,  ap- 
proaching Prof.  Torrey  with  the  question  whether 
he, might  not  give  up  one  or  two  of  the  other 
branches,  for  which  he  had  no  liking,  in  order  to 
devote  himself  more  assiduously  to  the  study  of 
mathematics.  "The  fact  that  you  seem  to  have  no 
special  aptitude  for  the  branches  you  name,"  Prof. 
Torrey  advised,  "is  the  very  best  of  reasons  why  you 
should  apply  yourself  most  diligently  to  the  mastery 
of  the  truths  they  contain,  for  you  need  them  most ; 
the  mathematics,  for  which  you  have  special  talent, 
will  for  that  reason  require  no  special  effort  on  your 
part,  but  may  be  trusted  to  take  care  of  itself  in  the 
ordinary  course  of  your  studies."  The  wisdom  of 
this  counsel  was  not  lost  upon  the  young  inquirer  at 
the  time,  and  in  after  years  was  gratefully  acknowl- 



edged  as  fully  justified  by  his  own  more  mature  ex- 
perience. He  used  to  speak  of  this  as  "the  best 
advice"  he  had  received  while  a  student  at  college. 

His  collegiate  course  terminated  in  1849.  He 
was  one  of  the  honor  men  of  his  class.  His  connec- 
tion with  the  university  did  not  cease  with  his  gradu- 
ation, for  besides  maintaining  a  correspondence  with 
several  of  his  old  professors  upon  abstruse  questions, 
involving  learned  disputations,  he  was  invited,  "by 
a  unanimous  vote  of  the  faculty,"  in  the  language  of 
President  Smith,  to  deliver  a  Master's  Oration  at  the 
commencement -of  1852;  in  1857  he  responded  to  an 
invitation  of  the  Literary  Societies  "to  serve  as  poet 
for  their  annual  celebration ;"  and  at  another  time  he 
delivered  a  poem  upon  some  "high  festal"  occasion 
in  the  history  of  the  Owl  Society.  The  Master's 
Oration  was  entitled  "Thesis  Theologica — scripta 
dictu  in  U.  V.  M. — Relation  of  the  Church  to  the  In- 
carnation in  the  Creed" — a  very  scholarly  disquisi- 
tion, showing  already,  at  this  early  age,  the  wide 
range  of  his  acquaintance  with  the  ponderous  tomes 
of  patristic  literature,  the  records  of  the  old  church 
councils,  and  the  domain  of  more  recent  theological 

Dr.  Higbee's  first  employment,  after  graduating, 
was  as  assistant  teacher  in  an  academy  at  South 
Woodstock,  Vt.,  where  he  had  classes  in  the  higher 
mathematics,  the  ancient  classics  and  philosophy. 
At  the  termination  of  this  engagement  he  went  to 
Emmitsburg,  Md.,  at  the  request  of  his  sister,  to  take 
charge  of  the  mathematical  and  classical  depart- 
ments of  a  select  school  which  his  brother-in-law. 
Rev.  George  W.  Aughinbaugh,  had  organized  in 
that  place.  He  was  then  reading  law,  and  fully  de- 
termined, at  no  distant  day,  to  return  to  his  native 
State  and  qualify  himself  for  the  legal  profession. 
He  once  humorously  accounted  for  his  coming  to 
Emmitsburg  by  recalling  the  familiar  anecdote  re- 
lated of  John  C.  Calhoun  and  Daniel  Webster.  These 
statesmen  were  standing  in  front  of  the  Capitol  at 
Washington,  when  a  drove  of  mules  was  going  by. 
"Look,  Dan,"  said  Calhoun,  "there  goes  some  of 
your  constituents."  "Yes,"  Webster  replied,  "they 
are  going  south  to  teach  school."  Then  with  a  merry 
twinkle  in  his  eye  he  added,  "I've  come  South  to 
teach  school."  How  many  hundreds  of  pupils  and 
thousands  of  admiring  friends  have  lived  to  see  the 
day  when  they  devoutly  blessed  the  good  fortune 
that  permitted  them  to  share  in  the  benefits  of  his 
"coming  South !" 

In  1850  he  accepted  the  position  of  private  tutor 
in  the  family  of  Hon.  Joshua  Motter,  of  Emmits- 
burg, among  whose  daughters  he  found  his  wife,  the 
faithful,  life-long  partner  of  his  joys  and  sorrows. 
This  position  he  held  for  one  year.  The  serious 
earnestness  with  which  he  prosecuted  his  labors 
here,  as  teacher  of  a  small  band  of  pupils,  is  es- 
pecially evinced  by  his  lectures  on  the  Science  of 
Logic,  and  the  Fine  Arts,  which  were  prepared  with 
the  same  painstaking  care  that  characterized  his 
later  prepared  lectures  on  Church  History,  Ethics, 

and  ^Esthetics.  Here  too,  during  the  winter  of 
1S50-51,  he  was  brotight  so  nigh  unto  death  by  an 
attack  of  typhoid  fever,  of  a  most  malignant  type, 
that  the  physicians  could  no  longer  count  the  flurried 
pulse-beats,  gave  up  all  hope,  and  gravely  declared, 
"It  is  only  a  question  of  a  few  hours'  time  with  the 
poor  fellow."  On  the  contrary,  his  great  life  work 
was  just  begun.  When  he  rose  from  this  sick  bed, 
and  could  venture  out  of  the  house,  Dr.  Aughin- 
baugh tells  us  he  weighed  less  than  ninety  pounds. 
"The  battle  for  life,"  says  Dr.  Aughinbaugh,  "was 
terrible.  For  six  weeks  I  did  not  leave  his  room  for 
rest,  except  on  Saturday  night,  that  I  might  be  in 
better  condition  for  pulpit  duties  on  Sunday." 

In  the  latter  part  of  1851,  or  early  in  1852,  he 
entered  the  Theological  Seminary  of  the  Reformed 
Church  at  Mercersburg,  attracted  from  law  to  the 
study  of  theology  m.ainly  by  the  writings  of  Dr.  John 
W.  Nevin.  Drs.  Nevin  and  Schaff  were  his  teach- 
ers. Of  his  course  here  we  will  not  take  time  to 
speak,  save  to  note  the  interesting  fact  that  he  spent 
considerable  time  in  preparing  for  publication  an 
edition  of  Pindar  in  the  original.  The  plan  of  the 
work  had  been  carefully  mapped  out,  in  consultation 
with  Prof.  Pease  of  the  University  of  Vermont,  who 
advised  him  "to  put  the  Greek  on  one  page  and  an 
English ,  metrical  translation  on  the  other,  with  ex- 
planatory notes  at  the  foot  of  the  page  and  critical 
notes  at  the  end."  His  earlier  admiration  for  Dr. 
Nevin  grew  into  the  profoundest  veneration  by  per- 
sonal association  and  fuller  acquaintance.  Indeed, 
he  regarded  Dr.  Nevin,  in  certain  lines  of  thought, 
the  ablest  man  in  America,  and  with  but  one  man 
his  equal  in  Germany.  We  remember  well  when  he 
put  into  our  hands,  for  the  editorial  columns  of  The  ■ 
Pennsylvania  School  Journal,  this  tribute  to  his 
venerated  teacher : 

In  the  recent  death  of  Dr.  J.  W.  Nevin,  at  his  home  at 
Caernarvon  Place,  near  Lancaster,  at  the  advanced  age  of 
eighty  years,  the  world  of  scholarship  and  ripe  Christian 
thought  has  lost  a  noble  citizen.  Though  not  the  best  known 
to  its  educators,  he  was  the  greatest  teacher  of  his  time  in 
Pennsylvania.  He  was  unequaled  in  his  power  over  the  minds 
of  his  pupils,  inspiring  in  them  such  a  reverence  for  truth,  and 
such  an  humble  attitude  to  receive  it,  as  to  free  many  from  all 
self-conceit,  and  put  them  on  the  way  of  earnest  search  and 
prayer.  While  gifted  himself  with  intellectual  powers  only 
granted  to  a  chosen  few,  yet  in  his  humility  he  urged  his  pupils 
to  yield  their  minds  to  truth  as  Something  broader  and  more 
glorious  than  aught  that  he  or  the  most  learned  had  attained; 
and  guarded  them  most  zealously  from  the  abomination  of 
intellectual  slavery.  In  no  scholar  of  our  acquaintance  have 
we  seen  the  language  of  our  Saviour  more  fully  verified,  "Judge 
not  according  to  the  appearance,  but  judge  righteous  judg- 
ment." And  in  no  educator  of  the  present  age  have  vye  seen 
such  a-  reverent  acknowledgment  of  the  aim  of  all  thought-life, 
as  given  by  the  greatest  teacher  of  man,  "To  this  end  was  I 
born,  and  for  this  cause  came  I  into  the  world,  that  I  should 
bear  witness  unto  the  truth. " 

The  same  all-absorbing  love  of  the  truth  and 
comprehensive  grasp  of  its  wide-reaching  scope  was 
the  inspiration  of  Dr.  Higbee's  own  interior  thought- 
power,  and  his  own  words,  as  above  quoted,  might 
be  most  fittingly  applied  to  himself.  After  completing 



the  Seminary  course  he  accepted  the  professorship 
■of  mathematics  in  the  high  school  at  Lancaster,  Pa. 
There  he  remained  one  year,  making  life-long  friends 
■of  many  of  his  pupils.  The  last  eight  years 
•of  his  life  were  also  lived  in  Lancaster,  and  it  was 
there  that  he  died  in  1889,  at  the  home  of  his  son- 
in-law,  Prof.  George  F.  Mull,  of  Franklin  and  Mar- 
shall, College. 

■In  1854,  five  years  after  his  graduation  from  the 
university,  he  was  licensed  to  preach  the  gospel  by 
the  Maryland  Classis  of  the  Reformed  Church.  His 
first  field  of  ministerial  labor  was  in  the  Congrega- 
tional Church  of  Bethel,  Vt.  After  laboring  there  a 
few  years  he  returned  to  Emmitsburg  as  a  supply  to 
the  Reformed  Church,  but  soon  became  pastor  of  the 
First  Reformed  Church  of  Tiffin,  Ohio.  There  he 
was  elected  professor  of  Latin  and  Greek  in  Heidel- 
berg College.  It  was  at  Tiffin  that  Dr.  Higbee's 
father,  now  an  old  man  and  very  feeble,  first  heard 
liis  son  preach.  Upon  returning  to  the  house,  he 
•expressed  the  pleasure  he  had  had  by  exclaiming,  in 
•subdued  tones,  with  tears  coursing  their  way  down 
liis  cheeks,  "Well,  I  have  heard  Elnathan  preach, 
and  now  I  am  satisfied.    He  knows  how  to  do  it." 

Grace  Reformed  Church,  Pittsburg,  next  en- 
joyed his  ministrations  for  a  few  years,  whence  he 
was  called,  in  1864,  to  the  chair  of  Church  History 
and  New  Testament  Exegesis,  occupied  by  the 
eminent  theologian.  Dr.  Philip  Schaff,  in  the  Theo- 
logical Seminary  at  Mercersburg,  where  he  Had 
graduated.  '"Here,"  says  Prof.  Kerschner,  "eight 
■delightful  years  of  my  friend's  life  passed  away." 
When  in  1871  the  Seminary  was  removed  to  Lan- 
"Caster,  Dr.  Higbee  resigned  the  chair  he  had  so  ably 
and  acceptably  filled,  and  became  President  of  Mer- 
•cersburg  College,  holding  the  position  until  1880. 
His  pastoral  labors  covered  a  period  of  ten  years. 
The  sixteen  years  following,  of  educational  work  at 
Mercersburg,  spent  so  quietly  that  the  world  knew 
little  of  him  who  labored  there,  were,  like  those  of 
Moses  in  Horeb,  years  of  quiet  preparation  made 
unwittingly  for  a  wide  field  of  great  activity.  There, 
in  the  chair  of  Church  History  and  New  Testament 
Exegesis,  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  the  great 
theologians,  ecclesiastics,  and  statesmen  of  past 
ages,  for  to  him  these  men  lived  again ;  and  in  their 
companionship  his  wonderful  mind  found  congenial 
spirits  and  converse  upon  highest  themes  in  state- 
•craft  and  religion. 

As  President  of  Mercersburg  College  Dr.  Hig- 
hee  passed  from  the  contemplative  to  the  active 
sphere,  from  the  legislative  and  judicial  habit  to  the 
•executive.  Dr.  Kerschner  says  of  that  period -."His 
labors  were  vastly  increased ;  his  anxieties  were  end- 
less; his  remuneration  was  small;  the  discipline  of 
the  'college,  no  light  burden  when  faithfully  dis- 
charged, rested  mainly  upon  him ;  he  was  a  commit- 
tee of  ways  and  means  where  such  seemed  not  to 
€;  his' duties  were  often  harassing,  always  in- 
cessant." During  this  time  he  taught  classes  in 
Psychology,  Logic,  Esthetics,  Ethics  and  the  His- 

tory of  Philosophy,  and  gave  special  attention  to  the 
Philosophy  of  History  and  the  Theory  of  Educa- 
tion. "But  the  chapel  was  the  scene  of  Dr.  Higbee's 
severest  labors,  of  his  deafest  joys,  and  of  his  nob- 
lest spiritual  victories."  Thus  was  he  prepared  to 
cope  with  men  and  grasp  the  issues  presented  in  his 
brilliant  and  inspiring  eight  years'  administration 
of  the  Department  of  Public  Instructio'n,  which  he 
began  in  his  fifty-first  year. 

A  very  fair  estimate  of  his  labors  at  Mercers- 
burg, and  the  fruits  thereof,  may  be  had  from  dis- 
criminating and  appreciative  articles  in  the  Memorial 
number  of  The  Pennsylvania  School  Journal  (Feb- 
ruary and  March,  1890)  and  in  the  Dr.  Higbee 
Memorial  Volume,  an  extraordinary  collection  of 
tributes  unequaled  perhaps  in  the  history  of  educa- 
tion in  America — notably  those  of  Prof.  J.  B. 
Kerschner,  Supt.  E.  Mackey,  Rev.  E.  N.  Kremer, 
Dr.  N.  C.  Schaeffer,  Rev.  S.  L.  Whitmore,  and 
others.  The  whole  period  of  his  activity  from  this 
time  onward  is  well  covered  by  the  splendid  me- 
morial tributes  there  given.  State  Supt.  Schaefifer, 
who  was  one  of  his  students  at  Mercersburg,  says 
of  him :  "He  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  edu- 
cators of  modern  times,  greater  at  Mercersburg  than 
was  Dr.  Arnold  at  Rugby.  In  the  eyes  of  his  stu- 
dents he  was  a  linguist,  a  mathematician,  a  scientist, 
a  philosopher,  a  theologian,  a  historian;  an  orator,  a 
poet — all  combined  in  one.  Had  his  magnificent 
powers  been  concentrated  upon  a  single  specialty,  he 
might  have  rendered  services  therein  that  would 
have  been  acknowledged  in  every  clime  and  tongue." 

Dr.  Higbee  was  largely  instrumental  in  bring- 
ing about  the  foundation  of  Mercersburg  College  in 
the  fall  of  1865.  Laboring  there,  in  season  and  out 
of  season,  studying,  teaching,  preaching,  lecturing, 
writing  articles  for  the  Reformed  Quarterly  Review, 
and  the  Reformed  Messenger,  of  which  he  was  co- 
editor  for  a  time,  and  serving  upon  some  of  the  most 
important  committees  by  appointment  of  the  highest 
judicatory  of  the  church — maintaining  the  most  in- 
tense activity  whereby  his  physical  resoiirces  were 
drained  to  their  utmost  capacity — with  a  sublime 
disregard  of  personal  ease  and  comfort — his  intellec- 
ual  and  spiritual  resources  were  ever  multiplying 
themselves  l^y  use  and  development  into  the  splendid 
proportions  of  rare  excellence  attained  in  his  later 

Comparatively  unknown  to  the  State  at  large, 
he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  Henry  M.  Hoyt,  upon  the 
recommendation  of  Hon.  John  Stewart,  Hon.  John 
Cessna,  and  others,  to  take  charge  of  the  Department 
of  Public  Instruction  at  a  time  when  peculiar  talents 
were  needed,  Messrs.  Breck,  Burrowes,  Dieffenbach, 
Hickok  and  others  had  devised  the  system,  admir- 
able in  its  adaptatiorkji.:^-ie  diverse  conditions  of  the 
several  parts  of  the  State,  in  its  balance  of  central- 
ization with  local  control ;  and  Dr.  Wickersham  with 
singular  executive  ability  had  compacted  it.  What 
the  State  needed  was  to  be  aroused  to  employ  to 
better  purpose  the  means  at  hand.    As  Gov.  Hoyt 



expressed  it,  he  wanted  somebody  to  put  "spiritual 
content"  into  it.  To  this  task  Dr.  Higbee  applied 
himself.  He  personally  inspected  the  State  from 
end  to  end.  He  penetrated  the  remotest  corners, 
and  sometimes  spent  weeks  with  superintendents, 
holding  meetings  night  after  night  in  country  dis- 
tricts. By  his  scholarly  presence  and  wise  counsels, 
by  his  self-sacrificing  spirit  and  consuming  zeal, 
in  cities,  in  boroughs,  and  in  whole  counties,  he 
aroused  and  directed  the  energies  of  school  officers 
and  of  the  public.  He  was  not  a  worshipper  of  sys- 
tem. System  with  him  was  not  an  end  but  a  means. 
He  deeply  impressed  upon  his  hearers  that  the  chil- 
dren ^^•ere  not  for  the  schools,  but  the  schools  for  the 
children.  He  always  insisted  upon  regard  for  the 
individual  while  dealing  with  masses  of  children. 
He  demanded  for  each  child  the  buildings,  the 
grounds,  the  appliances,  and  the  teachers,  that  were 
needed  to  develop  the  physical,  intellectual,  moral, 
religious,  and  aesthetic  nature  of  the  child.  How 
well  he  did  this  work  let  the  result  show.  Never 
before  was  there  in  Pennsylvania  a  more  wide- 
spread, earnest,  substantial  support  of  public  in- 
struction. The  expenditures  upon  school  property 
were  one  million  dollars  in  1881,  and  in  1889  two 
millions,  an  increase  of  one  hundred  per  cent.  The 
amount  devoted  to  public  instruction  increased  from 
$7,300,000,  in'  1881,  to  $12,000,000,  in  1889,  an  in- 
crease of  over  sixty  per  cent.  The  aid  granted  by 
the  Legislature,  in  the  State  appropriation,  in- 
creased one  hundred  per  cent.  Teachers  were  en- 
couraged to  attend  the  County  Institute  by  receiving 
pay  for  their  time  spent  there ;  uniformity  in  the 
school  month  was  effected  throughout  the  State ;  and 
twenty  per  cent,  was  added  to  the  length  of  the 
school  year. 

Appointed  in  1881  by  Gov.  Hoyt,  Dr.  Higbee 
was  reappointed  by  Gov.  Pattison,  in  1885,  and  by 
Gov.  Beaver,  in  1889,  each  time  in  response  to  the 
almost  universal  desire  of  the  leaders  of  educational 
work  in  all  parts  of  Pennsylvania.  He  was  busy 
with  his  institute  work  until  within  two  or  three 
days  of  his  death.  He  was  stricken  at  Mifflintown 
at  the  depot  while  waiting  for  the  train,  after  having 
addressed  the  teachers  eloquently  at  both  morning 
and  afternoon  sessions  of  the  County  Institute.  A 
few  days  before  he  had  been  at  Huntingdon.  Dr.  M. 
G.  Brumbaugh  writes  of  his  work  there: 

He  attended  the  entire  sessions  on  Thursday,  remarking  to 
me  once  during  the  day  that  he  could  not  this  season  do  his 
work  with  his  accustomed  vigor.  I  am  said  he,  half  jocosely, 
"only  fifty-nine,  but  I  look  like  a  man  of  eighty,  and  feel  like  a 
man  of  ninety. "  He  made  the  closing  address  of  the  afternoon 
session.  His  theme  was  the  Identity  of  Home  and  School 
Training.  In  this  address  for  forty  minutes  he  held  the  rapt 
attention  of  fully  1,300  people.  In  it  he  spoke  with  all  his 
usual  earnestness,  and  that  prs^^U^^^  depth  of  thought  and 
feeling  which  so  often  characterizea  nis  platform  utterances. 
He  reached  beyond  the  ordinary  ken,  and  saw  and  described 
visions  not  revealed  in  like  fullness  to  other  men.  His  extra- 
ordinary grasp  of  our  educational  environment,  his  deep  and 
exhaustive  analysis  of  character  as  a  factor  in  education,  his 
earnest   and   Christian   charity  for   the   honest   work   of    the 

teacher,  his  intense  and  righteous  resentment  of  all  sophistries 
in  education,  and  his  marvelous  and  rythmic  diction,  com- 
bined to  make  his  address  a  memorable  one.  It  was  probably 
the  last,  rich,  full  outpouring  of  the  treasures  of  his  wonderful 

Medical  attendance  was  promptly  summoned, 
but  nothing  could  be  done  save  to  render  his  condi- 
tion as  comfortable  as  possible  for  the  journey  home, 
which  was  at  once  undertaken.  There  was  no  return 
to  consciousness.  Early  on  Friday  morning,  Dec. 
13,  1889,  the  spirit  took  its  flight,  and  Dr.  Higbee 
was  at  rest.  In  accordance  with  his  own  frequently 
expressed  wish  he  was  buried  at  Emmitsburg,  Md., 
a  few  miles  south  of  Gettysburg — ^  place  hallowed 
by  the  sweetest  and  saddest  memories  of  his  earthly 

The  funeral  services  were  held  Monday,  Dec. 
16th,  in  the  First  Reformed  Church  at  Lancaster, 
where  he  had  preached  his  first  sermon,  on  the  last 
Sunday  in  Advent,  1854,  when  employed  there  in  the 
mathematical  department  of  the  Boys'  High  School. 
Among  those  who  came  to  pay  their  last  tribute  of 
respect  to  the  distinguished  dead  were  Gov.  Beaver, 
Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  Stone,  Lieut.  Gov. 
Davies,  Adjt.  Gen.  Hastings,  the  Lancaster  school 
board  in  a  body,  the  faculty  and  students  of  Frank- 
lin and  Marshall  College  and  of  the  Theological 
Seminary,  professors  of  the  State  Normal  School  at 
Millersville,  officials  of  the  Department  of  Public  In- 
striiction,  clerks  of  the  Soldiers'  Orphan  Depart- 
ment, and  others  among  the  leading  educators  of  the 
State,  including  county,  city  and  borough  superin- 
tendents, principals  of  normal  schools,  teachers  and 
clergymen  of  Lancaster  and  neighboring  towns  and 

Addresses  were  made  by  his  old  friends  and  co- 
workers. Dr.  Thomas  G.  Appel,  E.  V.  Gerhart  and 
Benjamin  Bausman.  "Call  it  coincidence  or  pre- 
sentiment or  what  we  may,"  said  Dr.  Appel,  "there 
is  a  melancholy  satisfaction  and  comfort  in  recalling 
the  last  few  days  of  his  life  on  earth.  For  some 
time — some  days,  I  mean — previous  to  his  death  he 
seemed  to  be  going  about  taking  leave  of  his  friends. 
He  spent  the  morning  of  his  last  Sabbath  on  earth 
with  us  in  the  Chapel  communion  service.  He  was 
smitten  down  at  the  post  of  duty  with  his  harness 
on.  His  work  on  earth  was  done,  and  well  done. 
He  had  expended  his  energy  and  strength  upon  it, 
and  at  the  end  of  his  journey  he  laid  aside  his  pil- 
grim staff  and  sandal  shoon  and  entered  into  his 

And  Dr.  Bausman :  "I  always  felt  when  I  heard 
Dr.  Higbee  preach  that  back  of  all  there  was  some- 
thing, one-tenth  of  which  he  had  not  told  us.  So 
strong,  yet  so  humble ;  such  a  fine  classical  scholar, 
yet  never  telling  anybody  about  it.  If  you  started 
him  quoting  poetry,  or  discussing  ancient  or  mod- 
ern literature,  what  a  grand  fund  he  had !  What 
masterly  readiness  to  dip  out  of  any  part  of  history 
or  literature  just  such  things  as  were  needed!  His 
knowledge  of  the  Scriptures,  his  study  of  literature 



— all  these  mental  acquirements— do  they  He  dead 
and  buried  under  that  coffin-lid  ?  I  bless  God  for  the 
life  of  such  an  earnest  Christian  worker;  I  thank 
God  for  what  he  was  to  me— that  I  have  known  Dr. 

In  the  memorial  session  of  the  Pennsylvania 
State  Teachers'  Association,  held  at  Mauch  Chunk 
in  1890,  Dr.  Edward  Brooks  paid  this  tribute,  in 
part,  to  the  man  and  his  work :  "Dr.  Higbee  was  a 
surprise  to  Pennsylvania  when  appointed.  Wick- 
«rsham  had  devoted  so  many  years,  such  wisdom 
and  energy,  and  with  such  success,  to  the  work,  that 
it  seemed  strange  he  should  not  be  his  own  successor ; 
more  strange,  that  his  successor  should  be  one  un- 
known to  the  common  school  men ;  and,  still  more 
strange,  that  he  should  be  a  man  whose  associations 
had  kept  him  out  of  touch  with  us — if  not  antago- 
nistic, certainly  not  in  sympathy.  But  the  wonder 
was  greater  when  we  came  to  know  him,  and  see  him 
discharging  his  duties.  'None  named  him  but  to 
praise.'  He  touched  the  heart  of  the  educational 
tody,  and  the  pulse  of  the  educational  sentiment,  as 
no  man  has  done  before.  He  did  more  to  uplift  the 
profession  of  teaching  than  any  of  his  predecessors. 
His  work  was  the  complement  of  theirs.  Burrowes 
"had  given  shape  to  legislation — Wickersham  had 
consolidated  the  system  with  an  executive  ability  that 
no  other  could  have  supplied — it  was  left  for  Higbee 
to  touch  the  heart,  with  a  personal  power  and  in- 
spiration that  no  one  else  possessed.  Each  of  these 
men  came  to  the  front  when  needed — all  did  their 
work  nobly.  Educational  movements  are  rhythmi- 
cal— now  science,  now  theology,  is  on  the  topmost 
wave ;  the  tendency  of  to-day  is  toward  materialism, 
•especially  among  the  great  thinkers  of  the  German 
tmiversities.  Dr.  Higbee  set  his  face  against  the 
error  of  carrying  all  education  down  to  the  level  of 
sense-perception,  and  taught  that  we  must  unsense 
the  mind.  Then  as  a  Christian  man  he  threw  into 
Tils  work  an  immense  uplifting  influence  from  the 
spiritual  side." 

Dr.  Nathan  C.  Schaefifer,  State  Superintendent 
of  Public  Instruction,  speaks  of  him  in  a  memorial 
address  before  the  National  Educational  Association 
at  St.  Paul,  as  "one  of  the  most  remarkable  edu- 
cators of  modern  times,"  and  says :  "It  was  at  Mer- 
cersburg  that  I  first  learned  to  know  him.  He 
astonished  the  students  in  various  ways.  While 
sufifering  from  hay-fever  he  frequently  occupied 
himself  in  tracing  mathematical  curves  of  the  higher 
•orders,  or  in  talking  of  the  beauties  of  the  Greek 
verb.  His  lectures  were  a  well-spring  of  inspira- 
tion for  his  auditors.  They  abounded  not  only  in  all 
kinds  of  learning  but  also  in  seed  thoughts  that 
afterward  sprouted  and  grew  into  sermons.  Daily 
the  students  came  away  from  him  with  new  impulses 
to  study  and  investigation.  His  influence  widened 
their  reading,  deepened  their  thinking,  increased 
their  zeal  in  studving  the  Scriptures,  and  stimulated 
their  desire  to  preach  Christ  and  Him  crucified. 
Subsequent  studv  abroad  convinced  me  that  the  uni- 

versities of  Berlin,  Leipsic  and  Tubingen,  whilst 
they  could  boast  of  more  thorough  specialists-,  did 
not  possess  his  superior  as  a  lecturer  and  inspirer  of 
young  men." 

Plon.  John  Stewart,  who  knew  Dr.  Higbee  long 
and  very  intimately,  says  that  from  him  he  received 
"more  valuable  information  on  all  the  great  subjects 
of  human  thought  and  speculation  than  from  any 
other  man"  he  has  ever  known.  "No  better  man,'" 
he  adds,  "has  ever  occupied  the  position  of  Super- 
intendent of  Public  Instruction  in  this  or  any  other 
State,  and  the  common  school  system  throughout 
the  land  will,  in  all  time,  reap  great  benefit  from  the 
labors  of  Dr.  Higbee.  Yet  after  all  it  was  as  a 
preacher  of  the  gospel  that  he  found  his  highest  call- 
ing and  was  most  successful."  He  regarded  him 
the  most  interesting  preacher  he  had  ever  heard, 
and  he  knew  no  other  man  his  equal  in  scholastic  at- 
tainments. Gov.  Hovt,  whose  acquaintance  in  Penn- 
sylvania was  very  wide,  and  who  was  himself  a  man 
of  fine  scholarship,  says  of  him :  "Dr.  Higbee  was, 
in  mv  opinion,  the  very  best  all-round  scholar  in  the 

John  W.  Appel,  Esq.,  a  well-known  member  of 
the  Lancaster  Bar,  and  a  gentleman  who  greatly  en- 
joyed acquaintance  with  Dr.  Higbee,  says :  "He 
sometimes  taught  us  Homer  and  history.  The 
whole  scene  before  Troy  seemed  to  be  enacted  there 
before  us  in  the  recitation  room.  There  were 
Achilles,  Agamemnon  and  Nestor  right  before  us. 
He  seemed  to  know  the  whole  story  by  heart.  On 
one  occasion,  when  the  student  reciting  was  stum- 
bling through  one  of  Nestor's  fine  speeches,  bungling 
the  scanning.  Dr.  Higbee,  becoming  impatient,  sud- 
denly jumped  to  his  feet,  and,  looking  at  the  class, 
said,  'Hear !'  and  commenced  and  ran  through  the 
entire  speech  in  Greek  from  memory,  and  without 
the  aid  of  the  book.  'Oh,  how  grand !  how  beau- 
tiful !'  he  said  as  he  finished  it.  The  dramatic  man- 
ner in  which  it  was  done  astonished  us  as  much  as 
if  Nestor  himself  had  appeared  bodily  before  us. 
No  language,  as  he  taught  it,  was  ever  dead.  His 
magic  touch  made  the  -dead  speak  and  the  dumb 
oracles  break  their  silence." 

Dr.  Higbee  was  a  gentleman  of  fine  taste  in  art 
and  music,  so  cultivated  as  to  make  him  a  judicious 
critic  in  those  directions.  He  was  the  author  of  sev- 
eral hymns  that  have  found  their  way  into  the  books. 
He  was  familiar  also  with  the  best  works  of  the 
leading  novelists,  with  hearty  admiration  of  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  whose  masterpiece,  "Ivanhoe,"  in  par- 
ticular, he  had  read  an  almost  incredible  number  of 
times,  until  it  might  almost  be  said  that  he  "knew 
it  by  heart."  He  has  been  called  a  poet,  and  that  he 
was.  It  was  his  habit  during  a  part  of  his  life  to 
write  short  original  poems  in  his  letters  to  certain 
of  his  nearest  friends.  They  seemed  to  be  the  off- 
spring of  the  moment.  These  letters,  in  his  beautiful 
handwriting,  would  often  be  illustrated  with  pen- 
and-ink  or  sepia  drawings,  as  delicately  done  as 
those  of  Thackeray,  presenting  points  in  the  land- 



scape  about  him,  or  some  fanciful  sketch  of  rocks 
and  streams,  bushes  and  trees,  sky  and  birds — per- 
haps the  hunter  and  his  dogs,  all  exquisitely  touched 
in  and  occupying  but  little  space.  What  he  did 
•seems  but  a  hint  of  what  he  might  have  done  with 
leisure  to  devote  himself  to  work  of  this  kind. 

But  in  the  field  of  instruction  his  rank  was  simply 
extraordinary.  Men  skilled  in  specialties  said  of 
him,  "Dr.  Higbee  should  teach  nothing  but  Greek," 
— "iDr.  Higbee  should  never  teach  anything  but 
Latin" — "nothing  but  Philosophy  of  History" — 
"nothing  but  English  Literature" — "nothing  but 
Shakspeare  and  the  great  dramatists" — "nothing  but 
Church  History  and  Exegesis" — "nothing  but 
Mathematics" — in  fact,  nothing  but  the  specialty  in 
which  he  happened,  for  any  length  of  time,  to  be 
giving  instruction,  because  in  it  he  had  become  so 
able  a  master.  So  thorough  was  his  acquaintance 
with  these  varied  lines  of  study  and  research  that  he 
turned,  at  times,  for  relaxation  and  pleasure,  to  the 
calculus  in  mathematics,  or  to  the  Greek  comedy  in 
the  original  for  the  enjoyment  it  afforded  him. 

Many  of  his  pupils  speak  of  him  as  a  man  with 
the  gift  or  power  of  inspiring  in  them  a  new  and 
nobler  enthusiasm,  such  as  no  other  man  could 
arouse.  We  have  heard  our  most  earnest  superin- 
tendents and  principals  of  Normal  schools,  as  well 
as  teachers,  say  this  of  him  in  the  work  he  endeav- 
ored to  do  in  the  State.  Built  firmly  into  the  de- 
velopment of  the  mind,  his  work  told  mightily  in  the 
life  of  the  soul.  The  secret  of  his  power  lay  in  the 
fact  that  he  lived  constantly  in  two  worlds — the 
spiritual,  invisible  to  the  eye  of  sense,  being  ever  the 
substantial :  and  the  material,  upon  which  we  tread 
and  with  which  we  are  in  contact  on  every  side,  ever 
the  fleeting.  For  him  the  past  and  the  future  were 
always  the  present. 

The  name  and  fame  of  Dr.  Higbee  will  become 
a  tradition  in  the  records  of  the  school  department 
and  the  school  history  of  Pennsylvania.  One  of  the 
best  things  this  man  did  was  to  introduce  the  ob- 
servance of  Arbor  Day  into  the  great  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania— with  its  cumulative  benefits  through  the 
years,  and  we  trust,  through  the  centuries.  Other 
men  gave  him  their  generous  aid  in  this  great  work, 
but  the  enduring  honor  of  being  our  Arbor  Day 
State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  belongs 
to  him  alone,  and  as  such  he  will  continue  to  be 
gratefully  recognized  in  the  years  to  come. 

Vermont  has  given  to  Pennsylvania  two  great 
men  in  Hon.  Thaddeus  Stevens  and  Dr.  E.  E.  Hig- 
bee, and  Pennsylvania  is  heavily  her  debtor.  The 
former  filled  a  very  large  space  in  the  political  his- 
tory of  the  State  and  the  Nation.  In  the  eye  of  the 
world  also  he  filled  a  much  larger  space  than  the 
latter;  but,  grand  as  his  record  has' been,  it  may  be 
that,  when  the  angel  accountants  come  to  reckon  up 
the  sum  total  of  benefits  conferred  upon  their  kind 
by  each  of  these  great  men,  they  will  stand  more 
nearly  together  than  even  ourselves  might  suppose. 

Dr.  Higbee  was  grandly  beloved    and    trusted, 

largely — let  this  be  the  great  lesson  of  his  life — be- 
cause, in  addition  to  all  his  other  royal  gifts  and  at- 
tainments, he  had  that  which  so  many  rhen  lack — a 
mighty,  an  all-mighty,  moral 'purpose;  too  rare,  in- 
deed, but  which,  when  possessed,  is  the  very  crown 
of  the  highest  manhood,  the  noblest  womanhood. 
He  believed  in  God  with  child-like  faith  in' the  wis- 
dom of  the  divine  guidance.  "God's  providences,"' 
he  said,  "are  mysterious,  and  not  one  of  us  knows 
what  calling  of  life  is  Jsest  for  us,  temporally  or 
spiritually.  What  a  varying  life  I  have  had,  and  how 
little  after  my  choice  or  election !  When  I  look  back 
upon  it,  I  can  see  that  I  had  no  controlling  power 
over  it.  But  God  has  been  merciful  and  kind,  and  I 
ought  to  be  filled  with  unfeigned  gr'atitude^and 
I  am." 

The  memorial  to  Dr.  Higbee  from  the  teachers 
and  superintendents  of  Pennsylvania  was  perhaps 
the  most  unique  in  kind,  and  the  most  effective  in 
result,  in  the  history  of  education  in  America.  Its 
purpose  was  not  only  to  honor  the  memory  of  a 
great  man  beyond  other  men  revered  and  beloved 
throughout  the  commonwealth,  but  also  to  widen  and 
deepen  the  blessed  influence  of  his  noble  life.  This- 
memorial  includes : 

1.  A  Monument  of  Quincy  granite,  suitably  in- 
scribed, a  single  block  weighing  over  eleven  tons, 
the  design  on  one  side  being  a  massive  Roman  Cross; 
of  polished  stone,  apparently  cast  upon  the  native 
rock,  and  on  the  other  the  simple  inscription  with  a 
single  pregnant  line  of  epitaph  that  Kings  might 
envy,  "O  Man  Greatly  Beloved  (Daniel  xiig)" — 
for  he  is  believed  to  have  been,  at  the  time  of  his 
death,  the  one  man  best  beloved  in  all  the  State. 

2.  A  Bust  in  Bronze  of  heroic  size  with  suitable 
pedestal,  placed  in  the  Department  of  Public  In- 
struction at  Harrisburg. 

3.  A  lifesize  portrait  of  Dr.  Higbee,  suitably 
framed,  placed  in  the  Department  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion; in  the  State  Library  at  Harrisburg;  in  eacK 
of  the  thirteen  State  Normal  Schools ;  in  each  of  the 
institutions  of  learning  with  which  he  was  at  any 
time  connected,  as  student,  professor  or  president ; 
and  in  the  offices  of  all  the  city,  county,  borough  and 
township  school  superintendents  of  Pennsylvania. 
Copies  of  the  picture  were  also  sent  to  each  school 
district,  county  institute,  or  school  making  contri- 
butions to  the  memorial  fimd,  the  number  sent  being 
determined  by  the  amount  contributed.  Some  twelve 
thousand  of  these  fine  portraits  were  thus  distributed 
to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  Dr.  Higbee  in  every 
part  of  Pennsylvania. 

4.  A  large  Memorial  Volume  containing  many 
remarkable  tributes  of  loving  memory,  together  with 
selections  from  the  writings,  addresses,  poems,  etc., 
of  Dr.  Higbee,  to  accompany,  so  far  as  possible,  each 
portrait  sent  out  by  the  Memorial  committee,  to  the 
limit  of  ten  thousand  copies.  "It  is  the  design  of 
the  Committee  that  this  volume  shall  be  the  persona! 
property  of  the  teacher,  both  for  the  thoughts  it  may 
suggest  and  the  inspiration  it  may  afford.     Indeed, 



in  a  certain  sense  the  Committee  regard  this  as 
probably  the  most  extraordinary  book  of  its  kind, 
and  one  of  the  best  professional  works  on  teaching 
--showing  the  matter,  life,  and  abiding  results  of  a 
great  teacher's  work — yet  issued  from  the  American 
press.  The  picture  and  book  complement  each  other 
admirably,  but  the  volume,  at  the  same  time  that  it 
costs  most  money,  is  the  most  valuable  feature  of  the 
Dr.  Higbee  Memorial,  for  in  it  are  to  be  found  the 
very  life  and  moving  spirit  of  the  man."  The  book 
contains  as  much  matter  as  an  ordinary  volume  of 
five  or  six  hundred  pages.  In  printing  it  more  than 
three  tons  of  paper  were  used. 

The  Dr.  Higbee  Memorial  has  gone  upon  the 
educational  records  of  the  State,  and  will  be  spoken 
of  in  years  to  come  as  the  first  grand  effort  made  in 
Pennsylvania,  by  the  schools  at  large,  to  show  en- 
during respect  to  the  memory  of  a  man  whom  the 
State  "delights  to  honor"  because  of  his  great  ser- 
vice in  the  work  of  general  education. 

The  Memorial  Committee  appointed  by  the  Penn- 
sylvania State  Teachers'  Association  for  this  duty 
were  Dr.  J.  P.  McCaskey,  chairman;  Supt.  M.  J. 
Brecht,  secretary;  Dr.  M.  G.  Brumbaugh,  Dr. 
George  M.  Philips  and  Prof.  H.  W.  Fisher. 

We  have  seen  a  remarkable  letter,  bearing  date 
"Feb.  8,  1881,"  which  was  found  among  Dr.  Hig- 
bee's  papers  shortly  after  his  death.  It  is  from  a 
man  of  eminent  ability  and  fine  scholarship,  who 
knew  Dr.  Higbee  well,  and  was  written  shortly  be- 
fore his  appointment  to  the  superintendency.  He 
says  :  "How  I  would  love  to  see  you  and  such  as  you 
in  like  positions !  I  have  been  thinking  of  Horace 
Mann — his  statute  in  Boston,  and  the  reverence  with 
which  he  is  regarded  everywhere.  If  you  have  this 
place  assigned  to  you,  there  will  be  in  our  State 
House  at  Harrisburg  some  day  a  statue  of  Parian 
marble  to  mark  the  figure  and  countenance  of  E.  E. 
Higbee."  In  this  splendid  memorial  the  prediction 
is  more  than  realized,  and  in  a  form  far  beyond  the 
choicest  marble  of  old  Greece,  in  the  noblest  setting 
that  could  be  chosen  for  it  in  the  State  Capitol 
grounds  at  Harrisburg. 

REV.  ELIAS  GROFF.  One  of  the  large  land- 
owners and  successful  retired  agriculturists,  as  well 
as  one  of  the  most  earnest  and  devout  ministers  of 
the  old  Mennonite  Church,  in  Lancaster  county,  is 
Rev.  Elias  GrofiE,  of  Strasburg  township.  A  true 
son  of  that  locality,  he  was  born  there  Jan.  i,  1838, 
a  son  of  Emanuel  and  Mary  (Landis)  Groff,  both 
members  of  families  of  more  than  usual  prominence 
in  the  county. 

John  Grofif,  the  grandfather  of  Elias,  married 
Susan  Rife,  and  became  one  of  the  largest  corn 
farmers  in  this  locality,  his  success  in  the  growing 
of  that  cereal  being  noted  by  his  neighbors,  who,  in 
friendly  spirit,  called  him  "Corn  Johnnie  Groff." 
His  landed  possessions  grew  with  his  years,  and 
at  the  time  of  his  death,  Jan.  13,  1864,  he  owned 
four    farms   in    Strasburg   township,   one   in   West 

Lampeter  township,  and  one  in  Providence  town- 
ship. His  neighbors  spoke  of  him  as  a  most  worthy 
member  of  the  Old  Mennonite  Church,  in  which 
he  reared  his  large  family,  almost  all  of  them  still 
clinging  to  that  religious  belief.  His  wife  was  born 
Aug.  13,  1780,  three  years  later  than  her  husband, 
and  survived  him  two  years.  Their  children  were; 
David,  deceased,  was  a  farmer  of  Lancaster  county ; 
Martin,  a  physician,  practiced  his  profession  many 
years  in  Philadelphia;  Emanuel  was  the  father  of 
Elias  Groff;  Abraham,  deceased,  was  an  extensive 
farmer;  Polly  married  Isaac  Weaver,  of  Strasburg  \ 
township ;.  Fannie  married  Peter  Weaver,  of  West 

Lampeter  township ;  Annie  married  Henry  Neff^ , 

of  East  Lampeter  township,  later  of'Strasburg ;  BgP 
sey,  after  the  death  of  her  sister,  became  the  second 
wife  of  Henry  Neff ;  Susan  married  Henry  K.  Den- 
linger,  of  Gordonville;  and  Barbara,  the  youngest 
and  only  surviving  member  of  this  large  family, 
married  Benjamin  Barr,  and  moved  to  Missouri^ 
where  he  died. 

Emanuel  Grofif  was  born  in  1813,  and  lived 
through  almost  a  century,  his  death  occurring  in 
1889.  He  was  reared  on  the  farm,  and  educated 
in  the  schools  of  the  times,  also  acquiring  a  general 
knowledge  of  several  trades,  as  was  the  custom  of 
the  time,  when  an  extensive  farm  also  contained 
its  own  shops,  so  that  when  a  young  man  had 
reached  his  maturity,  he  was  often  able  to  go  out 
into  the  wilderness  and  be  his  own  carpenter,  shoe- 
maker and  blacksmith.  In  the  case  of  Emanuel 
Groff  he  was  one  of  the  best  farmers  of  Lancaster 
county,  and  at  the  age  of  fifty  retired  from  the 
duties  of  active  life.  A  man  of  influence  in  the 
Old  Mennonite  Church,  he  was  long  one  of  the 
trustees,  and  was  ever  one  whose  judgment  and 
piety  gained  him  the  esteem  of  the  community. 
Emanuel  Groff  married  Mary  Landis,  a  memberi 
of  one  of  the  most  prominent  families  of  Lancaster 
.county,  a  daughter  of  John  and  Mary  Landis,  of 
East  Lampeter  township,  who  was  born  about  i8jS, 
and  died  in  May,  1890 ;  they  had  six  children.  Elias, 
the  subject  of  this  biography,  was  the  eldest;  Susan 
married  Levi  Herr,  of  Strasburg  township ;  Harry 
L.  is  a  farmer  of  -Strasburg ;  John  L.  is  a  retired 
farmer  of  Strasburg  township ;  Barbara  Ann  mar- 
ried Amos  Ranck,  of  Paradise  township  ;  and  Emma, 
married  Henry  Leaman,  of  Paradise  township. 

Elias  Groff  was  also  a  farmer  boy,  and  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools.  He  received  in  the 
family  circle  the  teaching  which  perhaps  had  much 
to  do  with  his  successful  ministry  in  later  years. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-two  he  took  charge  of  one  o^ 
his  father's  farms  and  began  operations  for  himself, 
later  purchasing  this  property,  which  contains 
eighty-two  acres.  Here  Mr.  Groff  has  made  his 
home  and  has  improved  the  property  until  it  is 
one  of  the  most  desirable  farms  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, all  of  the  surroundings  denoting  thrift  and 
prosperity.  This  excellent  and  most  valuable  land 
does  not  comprise  all  of  the  land  owned  by  Elias 



Grpff,  as,  soon  after  purchasing  his  farm  of  his 
father,,  he  added  thirty-four  acres,  so  that  this  one 
farm  contains  117  acres,  and  since  that  time  he  has 
continued  to  buy  occasionally  a  desirable  piece  of 
property  until  he  now  has  three  farms  in  Strasburg 
township,  one  in  Paradise  township,  one  in  Dru- 
more  township,  and  also  an  unimproved  tract  in 
Providence  township. 

Since  1901  Mr.  Groff  has  lived  retired  from 
active  farm  life,  but  is  by  no  means  an  idle  man, 
for  brain  and  body  are  busy  laboring  for  the  good 
of  the  Church  to  which  he  is  devoted.  Since  1864, 
he  has  been  a  consistent  member  of  the  Old  Men- 
nonite  Church,  and  since  1872  has  been  dedicated  to 
ministerial  labor.  On  Sept.  15th,  of  that  year,  he 
was  ordained  a  minister  of  the  Church,  by  the  pious 
Bishop  Benjamin  Herr,  who  assigned  him  to  the 
Strasburg  district,  where  he  has  since  labored  with 
a  devotion  and  allegiance  to  duty  which  have  gained 
him  the  confidence  and  affection  of  the  numerous 
congregations  he  visits. 

Rev.  Elias  Groff  was  married  in  i860,  to  Mary 
Ann  Herr,  daughter  of  Elias  and  Elizabeth  (Her- 
shey)  Herr,  who  was  born  in  West  Lampeter  town- 
ship, Oct.  31,  1838,' and  they  have  become  the  par-« 
ents  of  eight  children:  Lizzie,  born  June  25,  1862, 
married  John  Hess,  a  farmer  of  Strasburg;  Enos 
H.,  born  in  August,  1864,  is  a  farmer  in  Strasburg 
township,  and  he  married  Martha  Brubaker ;  Eman- 
uel H.,  born  in  October,  1866,  married  Susan  Herr, 
and  is  a  farmer  in  Pequea;  Emma  Sue,  born  in 
January,  1869,  is  at  home;  Elias  B.,  Jr.,  born  in 
November,  1870,  married  Fannie  B.  Herr,  and  is 
a  farmer  in  Strasburg  township;  Harry  M.,  born 
in  April,  1873,  married  Ella  Shaub,  and  is  a  farmer 
in  Strasburg  township ;  Ada  E.,  born  in  February, 
1875,  married  Henry  R.  Herr,  a  farmer  of  Pequea 
township ;  and  John  Elmer,  born  in  December,  1879, 
is  a  college  student  in  Lancaster  city. 

This  family  through  its  branches  and  inter-mar- 
riages is  connected  with  many  of  the  old  and  promi- 
nent ones  of  the  county,  and  no  one  is  more  highly 
esteemed  than  the  beloved  pastor,  who  has  faith- 
fully served  so  many  years.  Rev.  Elias  Groff. 

Few  men  in  Pennsylvania  were  more  widely  known, 
and  more  universally  respected  for  ability  and  attain- 
ments, and  certainly  no  man  for  enthusiastic  devo- 
tion to  the  cause  of  the  public  schools  or  extraor- 
dinary service  in  their  behalf,  than  Dr.  Burrowes,  the 
great  organizer  of  the  public  school  system  of  Penn- 
sylvania. Like  Lindley  Murray,  "he  never  taught 
a  school,"  but  yet  has  aided  the  work  of  general  edu- 
cation as  few  men  have  done  who  have  spent  their 
lives  in  the  school  room  or  in  the  work  of  school 
supervision.  The  man  who  has  been  only  a  success- 
ful business  man  or  politician,  however  brilliant  his 
talents  and  important  his  work,  may  soon  be  forgot- 
ten :  but  insensibly,  and  to  an  extent  far  greater  than 
might  be  supposed,  has  a  feeling  of  personal  grati- 

tude toward  Dr.  Burrowes  spread  and  become 
intensified  among  those  hundreds  of  thousands  in 
our  State  to  whom  the  common  school  has  been  a 
boon  of  priceless  value.  Here  at  least  his  fame  is 
assured ;  and  nobler  fame  than  that  which  springs 
from  enduring  benefaction  conferred  upon  his  kind 
let  no  man  toil  for. 

He  was  born  Nov.  16,  1805,.  in  Strasburg,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.  His  father,  Thomas  Burrowes,  was 
a  native  of  County  Cavan,  Ireland,  and  was  educated 
as  a  clergyman  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  but  did  not 
enter  the  ministry.  He  came  to  Delaware  in  1784, 
and  thence  to  Pennsylvania  in  1787,  settling  at  Stras- 
burg, and  devoting  himself  closely  to  mechanical  pur- 
suits. His  mother  was  born  in  County  Monaghan, 
Ireland.  She  was  the  mother  of  thirteen  children,  of 
whom  seven  reached  maturity,  and  was  as  remark- 
able for  decision  of  character  as  for  kindness  of  heart, 
maternal  traits  which  were  conspicuous  in  the  char- 
acter of  her  distinguished  son.  The  same  traits  of 
character  were  no  less  marked  in  his  brother  Francis, 
the  eminent  physician  who  died  in  Lancaster  in  1852, 
and  who  is  also  buried  in  St.  James  churchyard. 

On  the  death  of  the  elder  brother  of  the  father 
the  family  went  to  Ireland,  in  1 810,  to  take  possession 
of  certain  family  property.  After  seven  years  spent 
there,  they,  in  1817,  removed  to  Quebec,  in  Lower 
Canada,  remaining  there  till  1822.-  They  returned  to 
Ireland,  and  having  disposed  of  the  property  in  1825, 
finally  returned  to  this  country.  During  all  this  time 
the  education  of  the  growing  youth  was  not  ne- 
glected. He  was  all  the  while  in  touch  with  thought 
and  books  and  the  stirring  life  of  the  world.  A  part 
of  his  stay  in  Ireland  was  spent  at  Trinity  College, 
Dublin.  Later  he  was  fortunate  in  being  a  law  stu- 
dent in  the  office  of  Amos  Ellmaker,  Esq.,  in  Lan- 
caster. He  took  the  law  course  at  Yale  College,  and 
in  1829  was  aximitted  to  the  Bar  in  his  native  county. 
Preferring  the  more  active  life  of  politics  to  the  law, 
he  served  for  a  time  in  the  State  Legislature.  In 
1835,  before  he  was  thirty  years  of  age,  he  was  ap- 
pointed Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  under  Gov. 
Joseph  Ritner.  This  led  to  his  remarkable  career  in . 
connection  with  the  work  of  education  in  Pennsyl- 
vania. It  is  not  our  purpose  in  this  connection  to 
present  a  personal  sketch  of  the  man — ^that  may  be 
found  elsewhere — but  rather  to  show  his  vital  re- 
lation to  the  progress  of  the  State  in  her  educational 

In  the  work  which  he  did  during  his  life,  and  in 
the  growing  power  and  widening  influence  of  that 
work  since  his  death,  broadening  and  deepening  as 
time  goes  on,  and  that  for  generations,  Thomas  Henry 
Burrowes  is  the  m3,ster-builder  in  the  educational 
system  of  Pennsylvania.  Here  so  far  beyond  all  other 
men  does  he  stand  that  there  is  no  second.  It  is  the 
same  relation  as  that  of  his  old  friend,  Thaddeus 
Stevens,  to  his  associates  in  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives during  the  Civil  war.  Five  things  he  did,  any 
one  of  which  should  mean  enduring  fame  for  bene- 
faction conferred  upon  his  kind  and  so  upon  the  State. 


The  Dr.  Burrowes  Memorial  Tomb  stands  in  St.  James'  Churchyard,  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  in  a  sunny  area  of 
greensward  sloping  gently  to  the  pavement.  It  is  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  on  the  opposite  side  of  North  Duke  Street 
from  the  United  States  Government  building.  It  is  a  Roman  tomb  of  beautiful  model,  fine  proportions  and  exquisite 
workmanship;  made  of  four  blocks  of  sohd  Quincy  granite,  and  weighs  nearly  twenty  thousand  pounds.  Each  of  the  four 
panels  has  its  inscription,  the  western  panel  facing  the  street.    The  eastern  and  western  panels  are  inscribed  as  follows: 

The  western  panel  shows  the  inscription  : 

Of  the  immortal  dead  who  live  again  in  minds  made 
better  by  their  j^resence. 


In  Grateful  Memory  of 

Thomas  Henry  Burrowes 

i6  Nov.  1805  :    25  Feb.  1871. 


He  organized  the  Common  School  System  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  eastern  panel  shows  the  inscription  : 

He  also  Organized  the  Soldiers'  Orphan  Schools,  and  wrote, 
the  Normal  School  Law  of  Pennsylyania, 

And  wisest  they  in  this  whole  wide  land 
Of  hoarding  till  bent  and  gray  ! 

For  all  you  can  hold  in  your  cold  dead  hand 
Is  what  you  have  given  away. 

He  gave  his  best ;  his  giving  was  princely ;  his  work  has  been 

grandly  cumulative,  and  will  be  so  through  the  ages. 

To  no  man  now  living  does  Pennsylvania 

owe  so  great  a  debt  of  gratitude. 

These  panels  are  54x26  inches  in  size,  the  north  and  south  panels  being  26x21  inches.  On  the  south  panel 
appears  the  symbol  of  the  Cross  and  Crown,  with  the  word  "  Resurgam,"  /"  s/ia^/  rise  again  I  while  the  north  has 
these  words  of  honorable  mention  for  the  living  and  the  dead  : 

Erected  by 

Many  Thoicsands  of 

thai  vast  number  whose  lives 

have  been  better 

for  this  man's  life  and  work. 


' '  Of  those  immortal  dead  who  live  again  in  minds  made  better  by  their  presence. ' ' 

In  Grateful  Memory  of 

Thomas  Henry  Burrowes. 

16  Nov.  1805 :  25  Feb.  1871. 

A  man  of  immense  faith,  un.selfish  enthusiasm,  wise  counsel,  broad  learning,  high  courage,  resolute 
purpose,  -rare  foresight,  and  great  executive  ability,  whose  privilege  it  was  to  confer  upon  his  kind  such 
wide  and  ever-growing  benefaction,  through  his  service  to  the  State,  as  has  not  been  surpassed  since  the 
time  of  William  Penn.  At  Thirty  years  of  age  he  was  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  under  Governor 
Joseph  Ritner  from  1835  to  1838.  He  then  put  into  successful  operation  the  Common  School  System  of 
Pennsylvania,  thus  hnking  his  memory  with  the  cause  of  General  Education  inseparably,  and  with  the  im- 
perishable lustre  of  a  noble  fame.  For  more  than  Thirty  years  he  was  the  one  man  in  his  native  State  con- 
spicuous above  all  others  in  her  Educational  councils.  He  was  twice  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  ; 
he  organized  the  system  of  Soldier's  Orphan  Schools  ;  he  wrote  the  Normal  School  Law ;  he  founded  the 
Pennsylvania  School  Journal ;  and,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  he  was  President  of  the  Pennsylvania  State 
Agricultural  College.  To  no  man  now  living  does  Pennsylvania  owe  so  great  a  debt  of  gratitude.  For  Ten 
years  he  was  a  Vestryman  of  this  Church,  and  his  mortal  remains  lie  buried  in  the  adjoining  Churchyard. 

''  For  I  know  that  my  Redeemer  liveth/' 

This  Memorial  Tablet  is  within  St.  James'  Church,  upon  the  middle  section  of  the  north  wall,  with  a  fine  tablet,  of  nearly  equa 
size,  to  the  memory  of  Bishop  Bowman,  in  the  next  space  to  the  east.  Between  them  stands  a  window  of  striking:  design  and  warmjl-ich 
color  effects  in  heavy  glass,  to  the  memory  of  Miss  Margaret  Markee,  a  lady  who  gave  her  intense  life  to  the  work  of  the  school-room. 
The  legend  beneath,  traced  on  opal  glass  framed  in  by  sapphires,  "  Suffer  Little  Children,"  was  the  animating  spirit  of  her  useful  life.  It 
is  a  rare  group  of  memorials  to  three  remarkable  people,  commending  their  example  and  perpetuating  their  memory. 



First. — He  was  the  great  organizer  of  the  public 
school  system  of  Pennsylvania.  When  the  party  to 
which  he  belonged  elected  Joseph  Ritner  to  the  office 
■of  governor,  in  1835,  Mr.  Burrowes,  in  recognition 
■of  his  great  political  services,  was  honored  with  the 
^appointment  of  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth,  the 
chief  office  in  the  gift  of  the  executive.  He  was  then 
in  his  thirtieth  year,  and  entered  upon  the  discharge 
■of  the  duties  of  the  position  in  December,  1835,  the 
youngest  man  in  the  history  of  the  State  who  has  ever 
held  this  high  office.  At  this  point  began  his  first 
connection  with  the  educational  interests  of  the  State, 
■and,  as  he  often  frankly  admitted,  his  first  knowledge 
•of  the  subject.  At  that  time  the  governor  appointed 
all  the  executive  officers  of  the  State,  except  county 
sheriffs,  coroners,  commissioners,  auditors,  township 
-constables,  supervisors  and  assessors.  All  the  rest — ■ 
from  a  judge  of  the  Supreme  court  to  a  justice  of  the 
■peace,  from  secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  to  clerk 
■of  the  lowest  county  court — were  at  his  disposal.  He 
had  also  control  of  the  immense  system  of  public 
works  in  which  the  State  was  engaged. 

As  confidential  friend  and  official  adviser  of  the 
Governor,  much  of  the  burden  of  this  vast  power  and 
patronage  devolved,  of  course,  upon  the  Secretary. 
He  has  often  said  that  in  the  confidence  of  youth  and 
the  ardor  of  an  active  politician,  he  felt  little  hesita- 
tion as  to  his  ability  to  acquit  himself  creditably  of 
this  duty :  but  that  when,  for  the  first  time,  he  realized 
the  vast  importance  of  the  educational  portion  of  his 
responsibility,  he  was  almost  deterred  from  assuming 
it.  Sustained,  however,  as  he  was,  by  the  noble  deter- 
mination of  Gov.  Ritner  to  uphold  the  newly-created 
system  of  common  schools  at  every  risk,  he  deter- 
mined to  remain  at  his  post  as  one  of  duty;  and  to 
prepare  himself  to  the  utmost  for  its  proper  admin- 

The  opportunity  of  a  lifetime  was  now  before  him, 
and  grandly  did  he  improve  it.  The  school  law  which 
liad  been  enacted  iii  1834,  mainly  through  the  agency 
of  Hon.  John  Breck,  who  had  come  to  the  Legislature 
from  Philadelphia  for  the  sole  purpose  of  securing 
its  passage ;  and  which  was  saved  from  repeal  by  the 
magnetic  eloquence  of  Thaddeus  Stevens  in  1835,  he 
soon  found  practically  inoperative,  and  at  once  set 
himself  at  work  upon  the  system.  The  ordinary  du- 
ties of  the  Secretary's  office  occupying  his  time  dur- 
ing the  dav — correspondence  and  other  vsrriting  con- 
nected with  educational  afifairs  received  attention  at 
night,  and  usually  late  at  night.  The  result  of  his  in- 
vestigations was  given  to  the  Legislature  in  a  report 
dated  Feb.  19,  1836,  at  which  time  the  revised  school 
law  of  1836,  which  continued  to  be  the  school  law  of 
the  State  until  1849,  was  passed  as  drafted  largely  by 
himself.  ■  After  two  years'  additional  experience  in, 
and  study  of,  educational  work  entrusted  to  his 
charge,  it  had  so  grown  upon  his  hands  as  to 
require,  as  he  has  toM  us,  "half  his  time  and  nearly 
allhis  thoughts."  As  he  grew  older,  and  saw  the 
development  of  the  public  school  system,  he  enjoyed 
recalling  "the  day  of  small  things,"  and  one  evening 

he  gave  an  editorial  article  for  insertion  in  The  Penn- 
sylvania School  Journal,  from  which  this  paragraph 
is  taken : 

"It  was  on  political  grounds  alone  that  the  writer 
was  appointed  to  the  office  of  Secretary  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, and  so  little  reference  was  there  to  the 
educational  department  of  his  duties,  that  he  scarcely 
knew,  and  certainly  did  not  think  properly,  of  his 
responsibility  in  that  respect  when  he  entered  the 
office.  It  was,  therefore,  with  some  surprise  and  no 
little  alarm  that  he  beheld  the  accumulated  letters  on 
common  school  affairs,  from  every  quarter  of  the 
State,  brought  in  a  bushel  basket  about  two  weeks 
after  the  day  he  assum.ed  the  duties  of  the  office — 
the  mass  having  been  kept  back  to  that  time,  owing  to 
the  pressure  of  more  urgent  business.  He  can  never 
forget  the  headache — aye,  and  the  heartache — pro- 
duced by  their  perusal  and  the  attempt  to  systematize 
and  understand  the  vast  subject  thus  presented. 
There  were  questions  of  every  school  hue,  kind  and 
shape — involving  difficulty  as  to  location  of  school 
houses,  the  assessment  and  collection  of  tax,  the  quali- 
fications of  teachers,  the  selection  of  branches  of  study 
and  school  books,  the  use  of  the  Scriptures,  instruc- 
tions in  catechism,  modes  of  government,  kinds  of 
punishment,  opposition  to  the  system,  etc.,  etc.  And 
these,  too,  addressed  to  one  who  knew  about  as  much 
of  the  details  of  school  affairs  as  he  did  of  the  local 
geography  of  the  moon  I  *  *  *  A  great  Com  - 
morwealth,  with  vast  and  growing  resources — agri- 
cultural, mineral,  manufacturing  and  commercial — 
yet  with  a  population  of  a  distracting  variety  of  na- 
tional origin,  involving  much  variety  in  language,  re- 
ligion and  customs,  and  with  no  very  kindly  feelings 
the  one  to  the  other,  and,  worse  than  all,  with  bitter 
hostility  in  the  large  majority  to  the  system  itself — 
was  beheld  and  had  to  be  taken  as  the  field  of  opera- 
tion. On  this  field  it  is  now  evident,  as  it  was  then 
soon  suspected,  that  little  light  from  abroad,  in  the 
arrangement  of  details  at  least,  could  be  obtained. 
Thus  it  was  that  with  little  borrowed  assistance,  and 
founding  it  on  the  actual  wants  of  the  State  and  the 
few  grand  leading  principles  in  the  otherwise  crude 
laws  of  1S34  and  1835,  the  Pennsylvania  System  was 
built  up  b-y  herself  and  for  herself.'" 

"The  needed  schooling  for  the  duties  of  the  place," 
says  Dr.  Wickersham,  "came  mostly  in  the  shape  of 
the  voluminous  correspondence  that  required  atten- 
tion. The  system  was  new  and  badly  understood, 
and  there  were  not  then  as  now  local  officers  compe- 
tent to  enlighten  the  school  boards  and  the  people  in 
regard  to  the  proper  construction  of  the  law  or  the 
practical  details  of  its  application.  In  consequence, 
every  mail  brought  to  Harrisburg,  from  all  parts  of 
the  State,  a  multitude  of  letters.  The  copied  answers 
remaining  in  the  department  show  that,  although  the 
correspondence  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Common- 
wealth was  then  much  greater  than  now,  as  all  the 
county  officers,  judges,  and  other  magistrates  were 
appointed  by  the  governor,  and  a  vast  system  of  pub- 
lic improvements  was  in  progress,  he  scarcely  wrote 



one-third  the  number  of  letters  written  by  him  as  the 
Superintendent  of  Common  Schools.  .  Information 
was  constantly  asked  concerning  every  detail  of  the 
system,  election  and  organization  of  school  boards, 
the  location  of  school  houses,  the  assessment  and 
collection  of  school  taxes,  the  distribution  of  the  State 
appropriation,  the  examination  and  qualification  of 
teachers,  the  selection  of  branches  of  study  and  text- 
books, the  use  of  the  Scriptures  and  the  Catechism  in 
school,  school  government  in  all  its  branches,  the  resi- 
dence of  pupils,  the  opposition  to  free  schools,  etc., 
etc.  To  attend  promptly  to  the  immense  correspond- 
ence taxed  to  the  utmost  the  powers  of  the  Superin- 
tendent; but  it  was  just  the  discipline  he  needed  to 
make  him  what  he  became,  the  Great  Organizer  of 
the  System.  His  letters  as  a  whole  are  a  marvel  of 
perspicuity,  and  furnish  striking  evidence  of  the  study 
given  the  subject  in  all  its  bearings  and  the  care  taken 
in  their  preparation.  When  the  writing  of  letters  be- 
came over-burdensome  resort  was  had  to  printed  gen- 
eral notices  and  circulars,  of  which  a  number  was 
issued.  Some  two  or  three  months  after  its  passage 
Superintendent  Burrowes  published,  in  pamphlet 
.form,  and  forwarded  to  every  school  director  in  the 
State,  the  A.ct  of  1836,  'with  explanatory  instructions 
and  forms  for  carrying  it  into  operation,'  together 
with  forms  for  all  the  official  acts  of  school  directors. 
This  was  the  first  publication  of  the  kind  issued  by 
the  School  Department,  and  doubtless  furnished  the 
model  of  all  documents  of  a  similar  character  pub- 
lished since  that  time. 

"Nor  did  he  remain  in  his  office  simply  perform- 
ing the  work  that  came  to  his  hand.  In  the  summer 
and  fall  of  1837,  and  again  at  the  same  season  in  1838, 
he  spent  some  months  in  visiting  the  different  coun- 
ties, where  he  addressed  public  meetings,  counselled 
with  directors  and  teachers,  gathered  stores  of  in- 
formation for  himself,  and  infused  life  into  the  work- 
ing of  the  system.  In  this  way  all  the  counties  were 
visited  except  eight,  personal  interviews  were  had 
with  thousands  of  directors  and  large  numbers  of 
teachers  and  citizens  interested  in  education  and 
schools  and  some  academies  were  inspected.  In  view 
of  these  useful  services,  the  Legislature  voted  him  an 
increase  of  salary.  No  document  that  ever  emanated 
from  the  Department  of  Public  Instruction  is  more 
worthy  of  study  than  Dr.  Burrowes'  third  report, 
made  in  February,  1838.  It  is  a  masterly  presentation 
of  its  author's  views,  matured  by  the  experience  of 
three  years  in  the  office  of  Superintendent,  on  the  sub- 
ject of  public  education  in  the  State,  present  and  pros- 

Second. — He  wrote  the  Normal  School  Law  of 
Pennsylvania,  under  which  our  thirteen  State  Normal 
Schools  have  been  organized,  and  which  is  said  to 
be  the  best  law  of  its  kind  in  the  United  States.  In 
his  annual  report  of  1838  he  recognizes  this  as  an  es- 
sential feature  of  the  system,  and  speaks  of  it  at 
length,  but  under  another  name.  His  discussion  of 
this  question  under  the  head  of  "Improvment  of 
Teachers"  shows  his  mastery  of  the  subject  at  that 

early  day,  when  he  was  but  thirty-two  years  old.  His 
convictions  were  sure,  his  faith  firm,  an.d  the  subject 
of  the  training  of  teachers  for  the  schools  was  ever 
after  a  leading  subject  of  thought  with  him.  Since 
the  organization  of  these  schools  they  have  given  in- 
struction to  150,000  students,  frorn  12,000  to  15,000 
of  whom  have  received  diplomas  as  graduates.  There 
are  at  present  probably  6,000  students  in  attendance^ 
not  including  the  Model  Schools,  under  350  instruc- 
tors, and  the  schools  are  yearly  growing  in  numbers 
and  influence.  To  have  had  a  strong  hand  in  build- 
ing foundations  and  rearing  upon  them  such  super- 
structures as  this  is  to  have  done  grand  work  for  hu- 
manity, whose  influence  must  be  cumulative  through 
the  ages. 

After  the  passage  of  the  law  of  1S54  providing 
for  the  County  Superintendency,  a  measure  which  he 
had  strongly  favored,  he  seized  upon  it  as  the  oppor- 
tunity for  a  grand  stride  forward.  He  had  the  salary 
of  the  office  in  Lancaster  county  made  $1,500  per  year 
— one-third  larger  than  that  paid  by  any  other  county 
in  the  State — so  that  he  might  secure  the  services  of 
Prof.  J.  P.  Wickersham  in  this  office.  The  school  at 
Millersville  soon  followed.  The  man  and  the  oppor- 
timity  were  now  both  at  hand  to  aid  in  working  out 
his  grand  theory,  and  he  brought  all  his  hopeful  en- 
ergy and  strong  personal  influence  to  bear  in  further- 
ance of  the  experiment  upon  the  broad  plan  which  he 
had  so  long  contemplated.  With  the  organization  of 
the  school  at  Millersville,  in  which  he  was  very  deeply 
interested,  his  encouragement  and  advice,  above  all 
his  abounding  faith,  had  much  to  do.  The  growth 
and  development  of  this  school  he  studied  with  keen- 
est interest;  it  was  to  him  an  object  lesson  of  great 
practical  value  ;  and  when  the  hour  struck  for  him  to 
write  the  Normal  School  Law  for  Pennsylvania,  it 
was  done  almost  within  a  day.  But  for  twenty  years 
he  had  been  unconsciously  preparing  for  this  great 
service  to  the  State.  Hon.  H.  C.  Hickok,  then  Deputy 
Superintendent  of  Common  Schools,  knowing  his 
unusual  skill  in  drafting  bills  for  legislative  enact- 
ment, and  his  thorough  familiarity  with  the  Normal 
School  question,  wrote  him  on  Friday  requesting 
draft  of  a  bill  for  the  organization  of  State  Normal 
Schools.  He  received  it  on  the  following  Monday, 
and  it  was  enacted  into  law — mainly  through  the  in- 
fluence of  Hon.  Andrew  G.  Curtin  and  Hon.  H.  C. 
Hickok — with  a  few  verbal  changes  and  the  addition 
of  a  single  section  relating  to  the  endowment  of  these 

His  ability  to  work  so  rapidly  toward  a  definite 
result  he  once  explained  to  the  writer  by  saying  that 
when  he  had  thought  a  thing  out  carefully  the  whole 
matter  assumed  some  orderly  arrangement  in  his 
mind,  everything  being  "on  its  own  hook,"  so  that, 
when  he  came  to  write,  it  often  seemed  as  if  all  he  had 
to  do  was  to  take  each  item  down  in  order  from  its 
proper  hook  and  put  it  on  paper.  The  Normal  School 
question  he  had  mastered,  so  far  as  that  was  possible 
to  him.  After  twenty  years  of  thought  upon  it,  and 
much    careful    observation,    everything,    no    doubt. 



seemed  to  be  "on  its  own  hook"  when  the  request 
came  from  the  State  authorities  to  write  the  law.  He 
had  done  much  work  of  this  kind  that  had  not  be- 
come law,  and  the  Normal  School  sections  of  the 
proposed  bills  of  1853  and  1854  were  the  basis  of  the 
present  act,  but  the  sections  were  much  changed  to 
conform  to  the  new  views  which  he  had  come  to 
entertain  upon  the  subject. 

It  was  not  known  that  he  was  its  author  until  some 
months  after  its  passage,  when,  at  a  "Harvest  Home" 
at  Millersville,  at  which  Gov.  Pollock  and  State  Supt. 
Hickok  were  present,  and  which  was  held  to  raise 
funds  from  the  salepf  stock  looking  toward  the  erec- 
tion of  the  Lancaster  County  Normal  School  into  the 
Millersville  State  Normal  School,  Mr.  Hickok,  dur- 
ing an  eloquent  address  in  behalf  of  the  school,  stated 
the  fact  of  its  authorship  as  follows : 

"There  is  another  reason  why  Lancaster  county 
should  stand  by  this  work — I  am  going  to  say  this  in 
confidence  and  wish  it  kept  a  secret.  This  Normal 
School  bill  had  a  Lancaster  county  origin.  The  great 
outlines  of  the  bill  were  the  work  of  the  president  of 
this  meeting,  Hon.  Thomas  H.  Burrowes,  a  circum- 
stance which  has  given  the  State  a  mortgage  on  Lan- 
caster county,  which  she  is  bound  in  honor  to  redeem, 
by  establishing  the  first  State  Normal  School  under 
the  provisions  of  the  law.  And  the  provisions  of  this 
excellent  law  are  an  evidence  that  when  the  friends 
of  common  school  education  want  a  good  thing  done 
they  should  go  to  the  same  source  for  it." 

Third. — His  third  gr%at  work  was  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  Soldiers'  Orphans'  Schools  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. Those  who  know  little  of  Dr.  Burrowes  can 
have  no  knowledge  of  the  immense  faith  that  was  evi- 
dent in  all  he  did.  We  have  recently  been  struck  with 
a  statement  by  Dr.  Wickersham,  in  his  "History  of 
Education  in  Pennsylvania,"  which  throws  this  qual- 
ity of  the  man  into  strong  relief,  and  they  who  knew 
him  read  between  the  lines  the  secret  of  his  undying 
success.    The  extract  is  as  follows : 

"The  task  of  finding  suitable  institutions  willing 
to  receive  on  the  required  conditions  orphan  children 
above  the  age  of  ten  years  was  one  of  extreme  diffi- 
culty, and  a  man  less  hopeful  and  less  persistent  than 
Dr.  Burrowes  would  not  have  succeeded  in  accom- 
plishing it.  He  had  but  fifty  thousand  dollars  at  his 
command,  the  Legislature  had  in  no  wise  committed 
itself  in  favor  of  the  system  or  placed  itself  under  ob- 
ligation to  appropriate  an  additional  sum,  the  Nor- 
mal Schools  declined  the  venture  of  erecting  build- 
ings for  the  orphans  as  an  attachment  to  their  model 
■schools,  few  boarding  schools  cared  to  be  troubled  at 
the  rates  offered  with  a  class  of  children  for  whom 
thev  had  no  special  accommodations,  and,  more  dis- 
couraging than  all  else,  there  was  a  general  want  of 
confidence  in  the  permanency  of  the  enterprise  that 
chilled  every  effort.  Still,  full  of  faith  and  zeal. 
Superintendent  Burrowes  labored  on  in  his  good 
work,  and  at  last  the  obstacles  that  had  stood  in  his 
wav  were  one  by  one  overcome,  and  the  system  was 
placed  on  a  comparatively  firm  basis." 

It  cost  him  all  he  had ;  for  when  the  meager  and 
inadequate  appropriations  were  exhausted  his  sym- 
pathy with  these  orphans  caused  him  to  admit  too 
many  of  them  into  the  schools  and  to  make  himself 
responsible  for  outlay  for  which  he  was  never  after- 
ward reimbursed  by  the  State.  John  W.  Jackson,  late 
of  Lancaster,  a  careful  financier  and  a  man  of  strict 
integrity,  who  had  intimate  knowledge  of  the  facts 
of  which  he  spoke,  told  the  writer  that  he  knew  Dr. 
Burrowes  to  be  worth  sixteen  thousand  dollars  when 
he  went  into  the  work  of  organizing  the  Soldiers*^ 
Orphans'  Schools.  So  interested  was  he  in  the  suc- 
cess of  these  new  Pennsylvania  schools  that  when  the 
appropriations  were  exhausted — which  were  then 
much  too  small  for  the  number  of  pupils  that  pre- 
sented themselves  and  the  work  to  be  done  by  the 
Superintendent — or  when  they  were  not  immediately 
available,  he  was  in  the  habit  of  making  himself  per- 
sonally responsible  for  supplies,  and  of  drawing 
largely  upon  his  private  funds.  The  result  was  fi- 
nancial distress  and  disaster,  from  which,  in  his- 
later  years,  he  never  recovered.  He  paid  the  price 
of  a  heroic  and  generous  sympathy  that  was  without 
calculation.  But  if  the  loss  was  his  so  also  should  be 
the  glory,  for  it  is  none  too  much  to  say  that,  if  he 
had  not  taken  hold  of  this  work,  the  honorable  record 
of  Pennsylvania  in  connection  with  its  Soldiers'  Or- 
phans would  never  have  been  made.  No  other  State 
has  such  a  record,  but  no  other  State  seems  to  have 
had  a  Gov.  Curtin  to  make  the  suggestion  and  a  Dr. 
Burrowes  to  embody  it  in  a  patriotic  system  of 
schools  now  in  the  thirty-eighth  year  of  their  honored 
life — a  proud  fact  in  the  history  of  a  great  Common- 

Fourth.- — Hon.  John  Hamilton,  Secretary  of 
Agriculture  of  Pennsylvania  from  1899  to  1903,  who- 
has  for  an  ordinary  lifetime  been  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  Pennsylvania  State  College  as  pro- 
fessor, treasurer  and  member  of  the  board  of  trustees, 
having  his  home  at  the  college  all  the  while,  and 
knowing  thoroughly  whereof  he  speaks,  says  of  Dr.. 
Burrowes : 

"No  other  man  .in  Pennsylvania  has  had  so  much 
to  do  with  the  development  of  her  system  of  public 
instruction  as  Dr.  Burrowes.  From  the  time  of  its 
organization  until  the  time  of  his  death  he  took  a  deep 
and  intelligent  interest  in  everything  that  tended  to 
promote  its  advancement  and  perfect  the  system.  In 
the  fall  of  1869  he  was  elected  to  the  presidency  of 
the  Pennsylvania  State  College,  a  position  in  which 
he  continued  until  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1871. 

"He  came  to  this  college  in  the  darkest  period  of 
its  history.  The  number  of  students  had  dwindled  to 
a  handful.  Public  confidence  had  been  withdrawn. 
The  institution  had  become  involved  in  debt,  and  the 
trustees,  just  before  his  election  to  the  position  of 
president,  had  seriously  considered  the  propriety  of 
surrendering  their  trust  to  the  authorities  of  the  Com- 
monwealth, and  of  confessing  that  the  scheme  which 
they  had  undertaken  for  providing  practical  instruc- 
tion for  the  youth  of  the  Commonwealth  had  failed. 



President  Piurrowes  brought  with  him  the  trust  of 
the  public,  because  his  had  been  an  educational  career 
that  was  widely  known  in  Pennsylvania,  both  in  it- 
self and  for  the  success  that  had  attended  it.  And, 
although  he  now  was  in  the  sixty-fifth  year  of  his  age, 
his  enthusiasm  and  natural  vigor  seemed  just  as  great 
as  it  had  been  years  before.  His  presence  re-estab- 
lished public  confidence,  the  number  of  students  at- 
tracted by  his  reputation  very  greatly  increased,  the 
course  of  study  was  reformed,  and  the  institution  was 
put  into  practicable  working  condition.  During  his 
administration,  the  experimental  farm  at  the  State 
College  was  founded  and  put  into  operation.  Presi- 
dent Burrowes  took  as  his  title  that  of  president  of  the 
Pennsylvania  State  College  and  professor  of  agri- 
ctilture — having  been  a  farmer,  the  life  was  not  new 
to  him — and  during  the  term  in  which  he  was  its 
president  he  gave  personal  attention  to  the  interests 
of  agriculture,  and  also  had  direction,  .in  connection 
with  the  Hon.  H.  N.  McAllister,  of  Bellefonte,  of 
the  three  experimental  farms  belonging  to  the  college. 

"There  can  be  no  doubt  of  our  indebtedness  to  Dr. 
Burrowes  for  most  of  this  that  we  enjoy  today,  for 
if  he  had  not  assumed  control  at  the  period  at  which 
he  did,  in  all  probability  the  college  would  have  ceased 
to  exist,  and  the  experiment  of  industrial  education, 
in  so  far  as  it  was  undertaken  under  the  management 
of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  would  have  been  a  failure. 

"There  is  not  time  to  speak  of  the  personal  quali- 
ties of  President  Burrowes,  nor  to  go  into  details  with 
regard  to  his  ability  as  an  instructor,  and  his  qualities 
as  a  man ;  but  if  I  were  asked  to  sum  up  his  char- 
acter and  life  in  a  single  sentence,  I  would  give  him 
the  same  title  that  was  accorded  to  "his  illustrious  fel- 
low townsman,  Thaddeus  Stevens,  that  of  the  Great 
Commoner.  Thaddeus  Stevens  earned  this  title  in 
his  dealings  with  the  political  affairs  of  the  Common- 
wealth and  the  country,  and  Dr.  Burrowes  earned  it 
through  a  life  devoted  to  the  interests  of  education 
for  the  common  people  of  this  State.  He,  more  than 
any  other  man,  could  be  truly  entitled  the  Great  Com- 
moner in  education  in  Pennsylvania." 

Fifth. — He  founded  The  Pennsylvania  School 
Journal,  now  in  its  fifty-first  volume,  and  published 
it,  mainly  as  a  labor  of  love,  for  eighteen  years.  It 
was  never  a  source  of  financial  profit  to  him.  But  it 
has  been  a  potent  agency  in  securing  every  important 
measure  of  school  reform  since  January,  1852.  At  a 
meeting  of  the  Lancaster  Educational  Association 
Jan.  3,  of  that  year,  John  C.  Martin  presented  a  series 
of  resolutions  urging  the  .  establishment  of  such  a 
periodical  and  requesting  Dr.  Burrowes  to  edit  and 
publish  the  same.  He  accepted  it  as  "a  call  to  duty ;" 
and,  with  the  extraordinary  faith  that  always  char- 
acterized the  man,  he  issued  the  first  number  before 
he  had  a  hundred  subscribers.  With  the  single  ex- 
ception of  the  Ohio  Educational  Monthly,  whose  first 
issue  also  bears  date  January,  1852,  it  is  the  oldest 
educational  magazine  in  the  United  States.  From 
the  first  it  was  the  organ  of  the  State  Teachers'  Asso- 
ciation.   In  iSq";  it  was  made  the  official  organ  of  the 

Department  of  Public  Instruction,  and  has  so  con- 
tinued since  that  time  with  an  ever-widening  field  of 
usefulness.  The  year  1852  was  about  the  beginning 
of  the  great  educational  reform  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
the  Journal  appeared  just  in  time  to  aid  in  shaping 
the  movement,  and  gave  to  Dr.  Burrowes  just,  such 
a  periodical  as  was  needed  for  the  work  which  he, 
of  all  men  in  the  State,  was  best  fitted  to  do.  He 
transferred  it  in  1870  to  Dr.  J.  P.  Wickersham  and 
Dr.  J.  P.  McCaskey.  Since  1880  it  has  been  pub- 
lished by  Dr.  McCaskey,  who  went  upon  it  in  1866, 
as  assistant  to  Dr.  Burrowes. 

This  journal  has  been  conducted  for  the  past  fifty 
years  upon  the  plan  adopted  by  Dr.  Burrowes,  and  its 
influence  as  the  organ  of  the  school  officers  and  teach- 
ers of  the  State,  and  the  medium  through  which  the 
proceedings  of  their  annual  meetings  have  been  made 
known  to  the  public,  can  hardly  be  overestimated. 
The  educational  records  of  the  State  are  found  no- 
where else  outside  of  its  fifty  volumes.  The  only 
complete  set  of  the  annual  reports  of  the  State  Super- 
intendents of  Public  Instruction ;  the  only  continuous 
record  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Pennsylvania  State 
Teachers' Association,  of  the  Superintendents'  annual 
meetings,  of  the  Pennsylvania  State  Directors'  Asso- 
ciation, the  only  continuous  history  of  the  work  of  the 
Department  of  Public  Instruction  since  1854 — all  the 
archives  of  this  department  of  the  State  government, 
which  had  been  carefully  preserved  for  so  many 
years,  having  been  lost  in  the  late  fire  that  destroyed 
the  Capitol  building  at  Harrisburg — all  this  matter 
of  greater  or  less  importance  is  found  from  year  to 
year  in  The  Pennsylvania  School  Journal,  and  no- 
where else.  This  monthly  periodical — in  addition  to 
an  immense  amount  of  valuable  matter  upon  a  very 
wide  range  of  subjects  of  educational  interest — has 
thus  kept  the  record  intact  and  beyond  the  reach  of 
destruction  from  any  cause  whatsoever.  Dr.  Win- 
ship,  of  the  New  England  Journal  of  Education,  says 
of  it :  "The  Pennsylvania  School  Journal  has  been  in 
a  class  by  itself.  No  other  State  educational  journal 
has  approached  this  in  scope  or  in  power.  It  is  the 
best  history  of  education  of  a  State  that  is  to  be  found 
in  all  the  land." 

Dr.  Burrowes  died  in  187 1.  It  was  thought  fitting 
that  some  worthy  memorial  should  bear  witness  to  the 
gratitude  of  Pennsylvania  towards  this  man  who  had 
so  long  been  recognized  as  the  Nestor  of  her  educa- 
tional councils.  A  large  committee  was  appointed, 
but  nothing  was  done.  Sixteen  years  later  the  long- 
delayed  efl:ort  was  renewed  with  vigor,  and  the  onyx 
tablet  and  noble  granite  tomb  in  St.  James'  (Episco- 
pal) Church  and  churchyard  in  Lancaster,  and  thou- 
sands upon  thousands  of  life-like  portraits  in  schools 
all  over  the  State,  have  recalled  and  will  keep  alive 
his  memory.  Upon  the  north  end  of  the  tomb  are  the 
words :  "Erected  b}'  many  thousands  of  that  vast 
number  whose  lives  have  been  better  for  this  man's 
life  and  work."  On  the  east  side,  below  other  in- 
scriptions: "He  gave  his  best;  his  giving  was 
princely;   his   work  has   been  grandly  cumulative, 



and  will  be  so  through  the  ages."  Within  the  church, 
upon  the  north  wall,  is  a  fine  tablet  of  black  onyx, 
showing'this  inscription  in  gold : 

"A  man  of  immense  faith,  unselfish  enthusiasm, 
wise  counsel,  broad  learning,  high  courage,  resolute 
purpose,  rare  foresight,  and  great  executive  ability, 
whose  privilege  it  was  to  confer  upon  his  kind  such 
wide  and  ever-growing  benefaction,  through  his  ser- 
vice to  the  State,  as  has  not  been  surpassed  since  the 
time  of  William  Penn.  At  thirty  years  of  age  he  was 
Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  under  Governor 
Joseph  Ritner,  from  1835  to  1838.  He  then  put  into 
successful  operation  the  Common  School  System  of 
Pennsylvania,  thus  linking  his  memory  with  the 
cause  of  General  Education  inseparably,  and  with 
the  imperishable  lustre  of  a  noble  fame.  For  more 
than  thirty  years  he  was  the  one  man  in  his  native 
State  conspicuous  above  all  others  in  her  Education- 
al councils.  He  was  twice  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction ;  he  organized  the  system  of  Soldiers'  Or- 
phans' Schools ;  he  wrote  the  Normal  School  Law ; 
he  founded  the  Pennsylvania  School  Journal;  and, 
at  the  time  of  his  death,  he  was  President  of  the 
Pennsylvania  State  Agricultural  College.  To  no 
man  now  living  does  Pennsylvania  owe  so  great  a 
debt  of  gratitude.  For  ten  years  he  was  a  vestry- 
man of  this  Church,  and  his  mortal  remains  lie 
buried  in  the  adjoining  churchyard." 

A  statue  of  Thomas  Henry  Burrowes  of  heroic 
proportions  should  stand  in  the  new  Capitol  Build- 
ing at  Harrisburg,  to  emphasize,  in  her  foremost  man 
in  this  special  field,  the  over-shadowing  value  and 
importance  of  enduring  educational  service  to  the 
State.  For  he  has  been  and  can  never  cease  to  be  a 
vital  force  of  the  first  rank  and  of  the  highest  order 
in  Pennsylvania. 

SCHNEIDER  (or  SNADER).  Matheis 
Schneider,  Jacob  Schneider  with  his  wife  Mag- 
dalen, and  Christian  Schneider  with  his  wife  Sus- 
anna Margretha,  with  fifty-six  other  Palatinates  and 
their  families,  sailed  from  Cowes,  Isle  of  Wight,  on 
the  south  coast  of  England,  July  7,  1729,  for  Amer- 
ica, in  the  ship  "Allen,"  James  Craigie,  master. 
They  landed  at  Philadelphia,  and  took  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  King  George  II,  then  King  of  England, 
Sept.  15,  1729.  [Pennsylvania  Archives,  Vol.  II, 
Page  18.1  They  originally  came  from  northern 
Switzerland,  near  the  boundary  line  of  Baden  and 
Wurtemberg,  Germany.  Some  time  prior  to  their 
coming  to  America  they  had  found  their  way  to 
Holland,  from  which  country  they  were  sent  to 
England,  with  a  view  of  being  transported  to  Penn- 
sylvania. They  soon  found  their  way  to  Weber- 
Thai,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  where  their  friends,  George 
Weber,  Henry  Weber  and  Jacob  Weber,  Swiss  Men- 
nonites,  had  settled  a  few  years  earlier. 

Christian  Schneider  had  surveyed  for  him,  under 
a  warrant  from  the  proprietaries  of  Pennsylvania, 
dated  Jan.  10,  T733,  138  acres  of  land  on  the  north 
and  south  of  Conestoga  creek,  adjoining  said  George 

Weber's  land.  This  tract  of  land  was  afterwards 
conveyed  to  him  by  deed  for  the  consideration  of 
£20,  6s,  id,  by  Thomas  Penn  and  Richard  Penn. 
He  erected  a  cabin  on  this  tract,  on  the  south  bank 
of  Conestoga  creek,  at  a  spring  on  land  now  (1903) 
owned  by  John  Trego,  in  East  Earl  township,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  where  he  and  his  family  resided  up 
to  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1793.  His  wife  died  in 
January,  1767  [Zeltenreich  Church  Record].  The 
name  is  spelled  in  various  ways,  viz. :  In  his  will 
he  signed  it  "Sneder;"  in  a  deed  to  his  son  Christian 
he  wrote  it  "Schnyder ;"  in  the  patent  deed  to  him 
it  is  written  "Sneeder,"  alias  "Schneder;"  later  on 
we  find  it  written  "Schnader,"  "Sneider,"  "Snyder," 
"Sneder"  and  "Snader."  When  they  came  to  this 
country  they  invariably  wrote  it  "Schneider,"  which 
is  undoubtedly  the  proper  orthography. 

Jacob  Schneider  and  Matheis  Schneider  took  up 
by  patent  about  250  acres  of  land  some  distance 
northeast  of  Weber-Thai,  where  Center  (now  St. 
John's)  Reformed  and  Lutheran  Church  is  erected. 
Jacob  Schneider  also  purchased  considerable  land 
from  William  Morris,  who  had  previously  received 
a  patent  for  the  same.  The  writer  has  been  unable 
to  find  that  Matheis  left  any  descendants,  or  that  he 
ever  married.  The  descendants  of  Jacob  are  numer- 
.ous  and  widely  scattered;  among  them  may  be  men- 
tioned Rev.  Charles  Schneider,  pastor  of  the  Re- 
formed Church  at  Shamokin ;  Rev.  Davis  Schneider, 
Reformed  missionary  in  Japan ;  Edward  R.  Snader, 
professor  of  Physical  Diagnosis  at  Hahnemann 
Medical  College  and  Hospital,  Philadelphia,  Penn- 

They  were  all  followers  of  Zwingli,  and  in  this 
country  their  descendants  have  generalfy  united 
themselves  with  the  Reformed  Church.  Many  of 
them  are  buried  at  Center  (now  St.  John's)  Re- 
formed Church,  above  mentioned.  The  descendants 
of  Christian  Schneider  are  buried  in  New  Holland 
and  Zeltenreich's  Reformed  burying-grounds.  The 
children  of  Christian  and  Susanna  Margretha 
Schneider  were :  John  Jacob,  Christian,  Philip, 
Michael  (sometimes  called  John  Michael),  Mar- 
garet, Elizabeth. 

Michael  Schneider,  fourth  son  of  Christian,  on 
Nov.  25,  1766,  married  Elenora  Mueller,  a  daughter 
of  Lenhard  Mueller,  one  of  the  early  Huguenot  set- 
tlers of  Earl  township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.  He  re- 
ceived a  deed  from  the  Executive  Council  of  Penn- 
sylvania, dated  April  4,  1785,  for  100  acres  of  land 
surveyed  under  a  warrant  to  Andreas  Graefif.  This 
land  adjoined  his  father's  tract  on  the  west.  He  also 
purchased  forty-four  acres  and  146  perches  of  land 
from  Peter  and  Barbara  Worst,  immediately  north 
of  his  loo-acre  tract.  He  and  his  brother  Christian 
erected  a  barn  on  the  tract  of  laid  originally  taken 
up  by  his  father,  Christian  Schneider,  in  1781,  which 
is  still  standing  on  land  now  (1903)  owned  by  Ehas 
Martin.  He  died  Sept.  2,  183 1,  in  his  eighty-seventh 
year.  His  wife  died  Sept.  22,  1 821,  in  her  seventy- 
ninth  year.    Michael  and  Elenora  Schneider  left  five 



■children :  Christian,  Michael,  Lenora,  Sophia,  Sus- 

Christian  Schneder,  eldest  son  of  Michael,  lived 
on  part  of  the  original  tracts  of  land  granted  to  his 
father  and  grandfather,  of  which  he  became  pos- 
sessed by  devise  and  purchase  to  the  time  of  his 
death.  His  first  wife  was  Margreta  Diller,  a  daugh- 
ter of  John  Diller,  who  was  a  son  of  Hans  Martin 
Diller,  who  with  his  father,  Casper  Diller,  came  from 
Heidelberg,  Germany,  about  1733,  and  settled  at 
Millcreek,  Earl  township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.  His 
wife  died  Aug.  6,  1827,  in  her  forty-sixth  year.  He 
afterward  married  Susan  Schneder,  widow  of  Jonas 
Schneder,  but  had  no  children  by  that  union.  He 
died  Jan.  17,  1851,  in  his  eighty-third  year.  Chris- 
tian Schneder  by  his  first  wife,  Margreta  Diller,  had 
children  as  follows:  Catharine,  wife  of  Benjamin 
Witmer;  Magdaleria,  wife  of  John  Messner;  Mar- 
garet, wife  of  John  Plank;  Caroline,  wife  of  John 
Koser;  Isaac  Schnader,  who  married  Susanna 
Weaver;  Christian  Schnader,  who  married  Eliza- 
beth Yohn;  and  Michael  Schnader,  who  married 
Lydia  Schnader. 

Isaac  Schnader  purchased  about  eighty  acres  of 
land,  part  of  v/hich  belonged  to  the  old  homestead, 
and  lived  upon  it  until  his  death,  in  1881,  when  it 
was  sold,  and  the  last  of  the  land  originally  taken  up 
by  Christian  Schneider  in  1733  passed  out  of  the 
family  name. 

Susanna  Weaver,  the  wife  of  Isaac  Schnader, 
•was  descended  from  Jacob  Weber,  one  of  the  Swiss 
Merinonites  who  settled  in  Weber-Thai  about  the 
year  1723.  Jacob  Weber  settled  near  Blue  Ball,  and 
took  up  about  750  acres  of  land  in  that  neighbor- 
hood. He  died  in  1747.  His  children  were:  Jacob, 
Samuel,  George,  John  (known  as  Hans  Weber,  and 
so  named  in  deeds  and  papers),  Henry,  Barbara 
(who  married  Peter  Gander),  Elizabeth  (who  mar- 
ried Peter  Eaby),  Mary  (who  married  Abraham 
Kendrick)  and  Ann  (who  married  Christian  Root). 

John  Weber,  fourth  son  of  Jacob,  married  Bar- 
bara Buckwalter,  and  had  children:  Jacob,  John, 
George,  Abraham,  Joseph,  Anna  (wife  of  John 
Sherick),  Barbara  (wife  of  Peter  Worst)  and  Eliza- 
beth (wife  of  Ulrich  (Owen)  Bruner). 

Joseph  Weaver,  son  of  John,  married  Mary  Lan- 
■dis,  a  descendant  of  Rev.  Benjamin  Landis,  who 
with  his  son,  Benjamin  Landis,  settled  in  East  Lam- 
peter township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about  the  year 
1717.  The  children  of  Joseph  and  Mary  (Landis) 
Weaver  were:  Nancy,  who  married  Christian 
Kurtz ;  Barbara,  who  married  John  Geigley ;  Mary, 
who  died  unmarried;  Elizabeth,  who  married  John 
Pleam ;  Lydia,  who  married  Esaias  Schneder ;  Jo- 
seph, who  married  Nancy  Martin;  John,  who  mar- 
ried a  Kurtz ;  Solomon,  who  married  a  Ream ;  Henry, 
who  married  Barbara  Ranck;  Phoebe,  who  married 
Jacob  Overholtzer ;  and  Susanna,  who  married  Isaac 

We  have  the  following  record  of  the  children 
Isaac  and  Susanna  (Weaver)  Schnader  left : 

(i)  Solomon  Schnader  married  Elizabeth  Jane 
Crawford,  a  daughter  of  James  and  Mary  (Both- 
well)  Crawford,  who  came  to  this  country  from 
County  Tyrone,  Ireland,  about  the  year  1800,  and 
settled  in  what  is  now  Crawford  county,  Ohio. 
Their  children  are :  Edward  L.  Snader,  an  actor  of 
prominence  on  the  American  stage,  whose  wife  is 
Fanny  Mclntyre,  a  celebrated  singer  and  actress; 
and  Susie  Snader,  wife  of  William  Duncan,  of 
Bloomfield,  Ohio. 

(2)  Mary  Ann  Schnader  is  the  wife  of 'John 
Spatz,  a  manufacturer  of  Mohnsville,  Berks  Co.,  Pa. 
Their  children  are :  Emma,  wife  of  Jeremiah  Mohn, 
a  manufacturer  of  Reading,  Pa. ;  Isaac  S.,  a  manu- 
facturer of  Mohnsville,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  who  married 
Ellen  Gring;  Annie  S.,  wife  of  Aaron  Warner,  a 
farmer  of  Mohnsville,  Pa. ;  and  Sue,  wife  of  Monroe 
Killian,  of  Mohnsville,  Pennsylvania. 

(3)  Susanna  Schnader  became  the  wife  of  Hiram 
D.  Mohn,  of  Reading,  Pa.,  and  their  children  are: 
Frances,  wife  of  John  Robinson,  of  Reading,  Pa.; 
Emma,  unmarried,  of  Reading;  Harvey  D.,  who 
married  Clara  Hempfield,  and  resides  in  Reading; 
and  Martin,  Aaron  and  Elizabeth,  all  of  whom  are 
unmarried  and  live  in  Reading. 

(4)  William  D.  Snader  married  Emily  L.  Weiler, 
a  daughter  of  Levi  and  Mary  (Weaver)  Weiler, 
and  their  children  are :  Suetta  Snader,  wife  of  Dr. 
A.  V.  Walters,  of  Brownstown,  Pa. ;  and  William  D. 
Snader,  an  employe  at  the  County  Hospital,  Lan- 

(5)  Aaron  Weaver  Snader,  the  youngest  child 
of  Isaac  and  Susanna  (Weaver)  Schnader,  whose 
portrait  appears  herewith,  was  born  in  East  Earl 
township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  on  the  old  Schneider 
homestead,  Feb.  23,  1844.  He  spent  the  first  sev- 
enteen years  of  his  life  on  his  father's  farm,  during 
which  time  he  attended  the  public  school  of  the 
neighborhood  during  the  winter.  At  the  age  of  sev- 
enteen years  he  commenced  teaching  school,  which 
profession  he  followed  for  twelve  years.  When  not 
teaching,  during  the  summer  months,  he  worked  on 
his  father's  farm,  with  the  exception  of  two  short 
sessions  during  which  he  attended  a  select  private 
school  taught  by  Amos  liorst,  at  Hinkletown,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  and  one  session  at  the  Millersville 
State  Normal  School.  In  1870  he  was  registered  as 
a  law  student  with  Hon.  John  B.  Livingston,  at  Lan- 
caster, Pa.  He  still  continued  teaching,  pursuing 
his  legal  studies  during  such  leisure  time  as  he  could 
spare.  In  1871  his  preceptor  was  elected  Judge. 
Mr.  Snader  continued  his  legal  studies  with  Philip 
D.  Baker,  Esq.,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  May 
23,  1873.  After  remaining  in  the  office  of  his  pre- 
ceptor a  little  over  a  year  he  removed  to  New  Hol- 
land, Lancaster  county,  where  he  has  resided  up  to 
the  present  time  (1903),  and  where  he  still  continues 
the  practice  of  his  profession.  In  1876  he  was. elected 
justice  of  the  peace.  In  1877  he  was  elected  sur- 
veyor of  Lancaster  county.  In  1880  he  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Penn- 




sylvania,  and  was  re-elected  in  1882  and  1902.  In 
188 1  he  assisted  in  organizing  the  New  Holland  Na- 
tional Bank,  and  was  a  director  of  said  institution 
ior  seven  years.  In  1883  he  assisted  in  organizing 
the  Earl  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  and  has 
been  its  president  for  twenty  years.  In  1894  he  as- 
sisted in  the  organization  of 'the  New  Holland  Water 
Company,  and  has  served  as  president  of  said  com- 
pany to  the  present  time  (1903).  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Earl  township  school  board  one  year,  and  has 
served  as  treasurer  of  the  New  Holland  borough 
school  board  from  its  organization,  in  1895,  to  the 
present  time.  Mr.  Snader  is  a  member  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania German  Society.  In  1874  he  became  a 
member  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows, 
and  has  represented  his  lodge  (No.  413)  in  the 
■Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania  for  the  last  ten  years. 
He  is  a  confirmed  member  of  the  Refomied  Church, 
as  were  all  his  paternal  ancestors. 

In  1875  Mr.  Snader  was  married  to  Sarah  White 
Hufman,  a  daughter  of  Jonathan  and  Margaret 
(White)  Hufman.  Their  children  are:  Edward 
White  Snader,  at  home ;  Isaac  Hufman  Snader,  who 
is  a  salesman ;  and  Margaret,  at  home. 

The  Hufman  family,  to  which  Mrs.  A.  W.  Snader 
belongs,  was  founded  in  this  country  by  her  great- 
grandparents,  who  came  to  America  from  Wales, 
where  three  of  their  children  were  born.  Rev.  David 
Hufman,  one  of  their  children  born  in  America,  was 
a  farmer  by  occupation,  and  a  local  preacher  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  He  was  born  Jan.  7, 
1769,  and  died  May  26,  1855.  His  wife  was  Eliza- 
"beth  Williams,  a  daughter  of  Capt.  Williams,  of  the 
Revolution.  She  died  Aug.  9,  1843.  Both  are 
buried  in  the  M.  E.  churchyard  at  Geigertown, 
Berks  Co.,  Pa.  The  Williams  family  came  to  this 
country  from  England.  The  children  of  Rev.  David 
and  Elizabeth  (Williams)  Hufman  were:  John, 
who  married  Abigail  Cramp ;  William,  who  married 
Sarah  Cramp ;  Hannah,  wife  of  John  Geiger ;  Henry, 
who  married  Marv  Walters;  Catherine,  wife  of 
Michael  Hoffman;  Ann,  wife  of  Michael  Sands; 
Jonathan,  who  married  Margaret  White ;  Elizabeth, 
wife  of  George  Ireson ;  and  Matilda  R.,  wife  of  Peter 

Jonathan  Hufman,  seventh  child  of  Rev.  David 
and  Elizabeth  (Williams)  Hufman,  was  born  in 
Berks  county,  Pa.,  and  was  a  farmer  and  butcher  by 
■occupation.  He  received  the  average  schooling  af- 
forded boys  in  his  day.  He  married  Margaret 
White,  who  was  born  Oct.  5,  181 1,  daughter  of  John 
and  Sarah  (De  Haven)  White,  and  died  in  1882. 
They  had  a  family  of  ten  children :  George,  now  de- 
ceased ;  Elizabeth  Ann,  who  married  Peter  Hart,  of 
Reading,  Pa. ;  Henry,  deceased,  who  was  a  soldier 
in  the  Civil  war;  Harriet,  deceased;  Sarah  White, 
Mrs  Aaron  W.  Snader ;  John  E.,  a  farmer  of  Berks 
countv  Mary,  Mrs.  H.  Rhoads,  of  Reading ;  Emma, 
wife  of  Martin  Wickline,  of  Reading;  Hannah,  who 
died  when  young ;  and  William,  who  ,  died  when 
young.    The  father  of  this  family  died  in  1874. 

The  De  Haven  family,  from  which  Mrs.  Mar- 
garet (White)  Hufman  is  descended  on  her  mother's 
side,  was  founded  in  America  by  Herman  De  Haven, 
who  came  to  this  country  in  1706  from  France,  and 
settled  near  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  near  which  city  the 
De  Havens  came  to  own  large  tracts  of  land.  They 
were  Huguenots,  and  left  their  country  because  of 
religious  persecution.  Mrs.  Snader  traces  her  line 
from  Herman  De  Haven  through  his  son  Edward 
and  the  latter's  son  Herman,  who  was  her  great- 
grandfather. He  married  Susannah  Miller,  of 
Reading,  Pa.,  and  they  had  eight  children:  John's 
whereabouts  were  unknown;  James  married  Ann 
Ranck ;  Edward  married  Ann  Thompson ;  Abraham 
wedded  Agnes  Thompson,  sister  of  Ann ;  Isaac  mar- 
ried Hannah  Miller  (they  were  the  ancestors  of  the 
De  Havens  of  Pittsburg,  the  famous  iron  men)  ; 
Hannah  married  John  Keemer;  Alice  married 
Thomas  Lincoln;  Sarah  married  John  White,  and 
they  were  the  grandparents  of  Mrs.  Aaron  W.  Sna- 
der. John  and  Sarah  White  both  died  when  near 
middle  life.  They  were  the  parents  of  nine  children : 
Harmon,  of  whom  nothing  is  known ;  Susan,  who 
died  young ;  Edward  De  Haven,  who  married  Mar- 
garet Ammon;  Margaret,  who  married  Jonathan 
Hufman,  father  of  Mrs.  Aaron  W.  Snader;  Dr. 
John  De  Haven,  of  Philadelphia,  who  married  Mary 
Meredith ;  Elizabeth,  wife  of  William  Pierce ;  Will- 
iam, who  married  Margaret  Hough;  Harriet,  wife 
of  Robert  Baldwin,  of  Lancaster  county,  who  served 
in  both  houses  of  the  State  Legislature ;  and  Sarah 
Ann,  who  married  Peter  Fernbaugh,  of  Carlisle, 

JACOB  ESHLEMAN  came  to  America  and 
landed  at  Philadelphia  from  the  ship  "Morton- 
house,"  James  Coultas,  master,  Aug.  19,  1729.  He 
was  born  July  4,  1710,  and  was  twice  married,  his 
first  wife  having  been  Barbara  Barr,  and  his  second, 
Catharine  Eshleman.  He  had  issue  by  his  first  wife, 
one  son,  who  was  named  Jacob,  and  who  was  born 
Nov.  7,  1742,  and  who  died  June  13,  1813. 

Jacob,  the  son,  married  Barbara  Gfoff,  a  daugh- 
ter of  Jacob  Groff  and  his  wife,  Barbara,  who  had 
been  a  Brackbill.  He  had  children  as  follows: 
Jacob,  born  Feb.  20,  1768,  married  Mary  Brockbill; 
John,  born  May  17,  1770,  married  first,  Mary 
Weaver,  and  second,  Alice  Groff;  Susan,  born  April 
II,  1776,  married  Henry  Brackbill;  Fannie,  born 
June  26,  1778,  married  Joseph  Potts  ;  Benjamin,  born 
Oct.  5,  1782,  married  Fannie  Herr;  David,  born 
April  15.  1784,  married  Mary  Groff;  Barbara,  born 
Jan.  13,  1789,  married  Jacob  Bauchman;  and  Maria, 
iaorn  March  16,  1791,  married  David  Miller. 

GOV.  SIMON  SNYDER  was  born  at  Lan^ 
caster,  in  November,  1759.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  State  convention  which  framed  the  Constitution 
of  1790.  In  1797  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  was  reelected  so  often  that 
he  served  for  eleven  years.    In  1802  he  was  chosen 



speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives.  Most  of 
the  time  that  he  was  in  the  Legislature  Lancaster 
was  the  Capital  of  Pennsylvania.  In  1808  he  was 
elected  Governor  of  the  State,  and  was  reelected 
in  181 1,  and  again  in  1814,  so  that  he  was  Gov- 
ernor nine  years.  During  his  administration  the 
State  Capital  was  removed  from-  Lancaster  to  Har- 
risburg.    He  died  in  1820. 

the  inception  of  this  biographical  history  of  Lan- 
caster county  is  due,  was  born  July  17,  1827,  in 
Colerain  township,  Lancaster  county.  He  came  of 
Irish  ancestry.  In  his  sketch  of  the  Meginness  fam- 
ily, published  in  1891,  an  attempt  is  made  to  prove 
his  ancestors  were  descendants  from  one  of  the  early 
Irish  kings.  His  parents  were  Benjamin  and  Sarah 
Meginness.  His  boyhood  was  passed  upon  his  fa- 
ther's farm,  and  his  vigorous  frame  and  constitu- 
tion were  largely  the  result  of  the  hardy  out-of-door 
life  of  his  early  years.  His  opportunities  for  secur- 
ing an  education  were  confined  to  the  schools  of  the 
neighborhood,  and  of  these  he  availed  himself  to  the 
greatest  possible  extent,  a  love  of  learning  and  read- 
ing being  life  long  characteristics. 

In  May,  1843,  Mr.  Meginness  accompanied  his 
parents  to  Illinois,  whither  they  removed  with  their 
family.  But  he  found  the  new  Western  home  uncon- 
genial, and  five  months  later  turned  his  face  toward 
the  home  of  his  boyhood,  not,  however,  before  hav- 
ing gained  fresh  experiences  in  the  school  of  life 
while  making  sundry  boat  trips  between  St.  Louis 
and  New  Orleans.  Coming  eastward,  the  distance 
between  Chambersburg  and  Wheeling  was  traversed 
on  foot.  The  winter  of  1844  was  spent  in  the  old 
home,  among  relatives,  and  in  attending  school.  In 
the  spring  of  1845  he  was  working  in  the  Montour 
Iron  Works,  at  Danville,  Pa.,  from  which  place  he 
enlisted,  on  April  9,  1847,  in  the  5th  U.  S.  Infantry, 
for  service  in  the  war  with  Mexico.  The  captain  of 
the  company,  afterward  Gen.  Randolph  B.  Marcy, 
selected  him  as  clerk  in  his  office. 

Mr.  Megiiiness's  company  reached  Vera  Cruz 
July  20,  184.7,  ^nd  soon  took  up  the  line  of  march  to 
join  the  forces  under  Gen.  Scott.  He  participated  in 
the  engagements  that  preceded  the  capture  of  the 
City  of  Mexico,  which  place  he  entered  with  the 
American  army  Dec.  7,  1847.  He  always  took  pride 
in  having  made  the  march  from  Vera  Cruz  to  the 
City  of  Mexico,  and  back  again  to  Vera  Cruz,  carry- 
ing all  his  equipments,  without  ever  having  fallen 
out  of  line.  He  acted  as  clerk  of  his  company 
during  the  entire  period  of  his  service.  His  early 
fondness  for  literary  work  is  shown  in  the  fact  that 
he  kept  a  journal  of  all  those  early  experiences.  His 
term  of  service  having  expired  with  the  war,  he  was 
discharged  at  East  Pascagoula,  Miss.,  in  August, 

Mr.  Meginness  at  once  returned  to  Montour 
county,  Pa.,  and  a  little  later  went  to  Jersey  Shore, 
Lycoming  county,  where  he  successfully  conducted  a 

public  school  through  two  terms.  On  Oct.  25,  1849, 
he  was  married  to  Miss  Martha  Jane  King,  of  the 
same  county,  taking  up  his  residence  at  Jersey  Shore. 
Ten  children  were  born  of  this  union. 

Mr.  Meginness  began  his  journalistic  career  oa 
June  9,  1852,  by  becoming  the  editor  of  the  Jersey 
Shore  Republican,  a  weekly  newspaper,  which  he 
conducted  until  it  was  sold  by  its  owners  in  1854. 
In  June,  of  that  year,  he,  in  conjunction  with  S.  S. 
Seeley,  founded  The  News  Letter.  A  year  later  he- 
he  retired  from  the  paper.  But  the  literary  instinct 
was  strong  within  him,  and  he  at  once  set  to  work  on 
a  history  of  the  West  Branch  Valley  of  the  Susque- 
hanna, and  so  vigorously  did  he  apply  himself  to  the 
task  that  the  book  made  its  appearance  in  1858.  It 
was  the  pioneer  history  of  that  portion  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. A  revised  and  greatly  enlarged  edition  of 
the  work  appeared  in  1889.  The  editorship  of  The- 
Sentinel,  a  weekly  paper  published  at  Peru,  111.,  was- 
offered  to  him  in  1857.  He  accepted  the  position,, 
and  with  his  family  moved  to  that  place.  Two  years- 
later  the  office  was  burned  down,  and  he  was  again 
without  a  job.  Having  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Stephen  A.  Douglas,  the  young  editor  through  his 
influence  secured  a  position  on  the  Springfield  Daily- 
Register,  during  the  Lincoln-Douglas  campaign.  At 
its  close  he  was  oifered  the  editorship  of  the  Specta- 
tor, at  Carlinville,  111.,  accepted  it,  and  two  years 
later  became  the  sole  owner.  Then  came  the  war  of 
the  Rebellion.  All  things  came  to  a  standstill.  He 
sold  his  paper  at  a  sacrifice,  and  once  more  returned 
to  Pennsylvania. 

In  the  winter  of  1862  Mr.  Meginness  received' 
an  appointment  as  quartermaster's  clerk  at  Alexan- 
dria, Va.  He  was  later  made  chief  clerk  of  the  Bu- 
reau of  Transportation,  at  that  point,  a  very  re- 
sponsible position  which  he  resigned  to  accept  an 
appointment  in  the  Division  of  Referred  Claims,  in' 
the  Paymaster  General's  Office  at  Washington. 
Remaining  in  this  place  only  a  few  months,  he  was 
transferred  to  a  first-class  clerkship  in  the  third 
Auditor's  office,  of  the  Treasury  Department.  Later- 
he  was  transferred  to  the  Second  Comptroller's 
office,  Treasury  Department,  and  remained  in  that 
position  until  June  i,  1869,  when  he  finally  left  the 
Government,  after  several  years  of  faithful  service. 

Once  more  Mr.  Meginness  went  to  Williams- 
port,  Pa.,  where  he  became  managing  editor  of  the 
daily  Lycoming  Gazette,  in  1869.  Upon  the  con- 
solidation of  that  journal  with  the  Bulletin  he  was 
appointed  city  editor.  Changes  in  ownership  again 
made  Mr.  Meginness  editor-in-chief,  which  position 
he  held  from  1872  until  1889,  when,  worn  down  by 
hard  literary  labor,  he  resigned  for  a  rest.  In  ad- 
dition to  his  labors  on  the  paper  he  had  also,  in  1888, 
begun  a  monthly,  the  Historical  Journal,  devoted  to- 
local  history,  biography  and  necrology,  which  at- 
tained a  self-supporting  circulation.  But  his  pen 
was  never  idle.  After  his  retirement  from  the  field' 
of  journalism  he  undertook  an  extended  biography 
of  the  stolen  girl,  Frances  Slocum,  who  had  been? 

Aw    Uyvi^^>Cu     ('^KTc^i:^ 



carried  off  by  the  Indians.  This  required  much 
laborious  research,  including  two  journeys  to 
Indiana  for  conference  with  the  Indian  descendants 
of  the  lost  maiden.    The  book  was  a  successful  one. 

Mr.  Meginness  traveled  extensively,  visiting 
many  distant  parts  of  the  United  States,  also  the 
island  of  Cuba.  During  the  last  thirty  years  of  his 
life  many  letters  and  sketches  by  him  appeared  "in 
the  principal  journals  of  Philadelphia  and  New 
York.  His  published  writings  number  about  twenty 
volumes,  nearly  all  of  a  historical  and  biographical 
nature.  While  it  may  not  be  said  that  he  was  a 
great  historian,  it  is  nevertheless  a  fact  that  few 
men  have  done  more  for  the  early  history  of  Penn- 
sylvania. He  had  the  true  historic  instinct,  and  was 
indefatigable  in  his  search  for  new  materials.  It 
would  be  difficult  to  name  one  still  living  who  has 
done  so  much,  tie  early  adopted  the  pen  name 
"John  of  Lancaster,'"'  and  by  it  he  and  his  writings 
became  widely  known  throughout  the  State  of 

Socially  Mr.  Meginness  was  a  man  of  strong 
and  attractive  personality.  The  writer  of  this  sketch 
knew  him  long  and  well,  and  can  bear  testimony  to 
his  estimable  traits  of  mind  and  heart.  His  great 
stores  of  historical  information  were  always  at  the 
command  of  his  friends.  His  latest  literary  project 
was  the  preparation  of  this  Biographical  History  of 
Lancaster  county,  his  birthplace,  and  no  one  who 
knew  him  thought  that  he,  too,  would  form  the  sub- 
ject of  a  sketch  in  it.  Apparently  in  the  most  vigor- 
ous health,  he  was  stricken  without  a  moment's 
warning,  just  as  he  entered  his  own  home  from  a 
visit  to  Harrisburg,  on  the  night  of  Nov.  ii,  1899, 
and  while  showing  to  his  Avife  a  completed,  printed 
copy  of  his  own  creating,  recounting  the  incidents 
of  their  Golden  Wedding,  which  had  been  celebrated 
two  weeks  previous. —  [F.  R.  D. 

JAMES  MADISON  WALKER,  a  prominent 
member  of  the  Lancaster  Bar  with  office  in  the  Grant 
Law  Building,  North  Duke  street,  descends  from  an 
old  English  family,  the  head  of  which  was  Anthony 
Walker,  of  St.  Andrews  Wardrobbe,  London.  The 
origin  of  the  family  dates,  so  far  as  is  known,  back 
to  the  sixteenth  century  from  one  DeForrester,  a 
King's  forester.  A  descendant  adopted  the  name  of 
Anthony  Walker,  from  his  occupation,  a  walker  of 
the  royal  forests.  This  member  died  May  11,  1590, 
leaving  an  estate  to  be  divided  among  his  heirs,  one 
of  whom  was  Thomas  Walker,  Esq.,  of  Westmins- 
ter, who  held  various  positions  and  titles  of  honor, 
among  them  Usher  of  the  Court  of  Exchange, 
marked  Proclamator  and  Baron  of  the  Court  of 
Common  Pleas.  He  died  Oct.  12,  1613,  leaving  a 
son,  Clement  Walker,  Esq.,  of  Middle  Temple  Hy- 
don.  County  Somerset,  who  had  special  livery  of  his 
father's  lands;  he  died  in  1651. 

•  John  Walker,  his  son,  celebrated  as  the  one  to 
introduce  the  system  of  fallowing  land  and  of  revis- 
ing wheat  crops  more  thoroughly  than  formerly, 


was  a  man  of  great  intelligence  who  set  an  example 
of  superior  farm  culture  greatly  needed  at  that  per- 
iod. He  married  into  the  ancient  family  of  Heneage, 
descendants  of  Sir  Robert  Heneage,  mentioned  in 
history  as  living  during  the  reign  of  Henry  III,  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  The  Heneage  coat  of  arms  was 
conferred  upon  the  Walker  family  by  this  marriage. 
.  The  family  belonged  to  the  Established  Church. 
Lewis  Walker,  a  descendant,  became  a  follower  of 
George  Fox,  the  Quaker'  and  was  disowned  by  his 
relatives  and  deprived  of  government  honors ;  or  as 
said  by  some  one  at  the  time,  "he  laid  down  these 
honors  conferred  by  government." 

Lewis  Walker  left  England  about  1684,  and  com- 
ing to  Pennsylvania  settled  at,  or  near,  Valley  Forge, 
Chester  county,  on  one  thousand  acres  of  land  pur- 
chased from  his  friend  and  co-laborer  in  the  Quaker 
faith,  William  Penn. 

Asahel  Walker,  Esq.  (2),  son  of  Asahel  Walker 
(i),  was  born  Feb.  7,  1788,  in  Sadsbury  township, 
and  being  a  man  of  energy  and  ability  set  an  example 
of  thrift  derived  from  his  English  ancestors.  Asahel 
was  the  grand  uncle  of  James  M.  Walker.  He  held 
office  in  the  county,  and  married  Sarah  Coates, 
daughter  of  Samuel  Coates,  of  Chester  Valley,  near 
Coatesville,  the  family  being  of  English  origin.  Mrs, 
Coates  had  six  brothers :  Warrick,  Samuel,  Levi, 
Joseph,  George  and  Eichard.  Samuel  and  Levi  were 
ministers  of  the  Society  of  Friends;  Joseph  was  a 
doctor  and  practiced  at  Downingtown,  Chester  coun- 
ty. Asahel  Walker  (2)  died  Dec.  5,  1856 ;  and  his 
wife,  Sarah,  died  May  S,  1869,  in  her  seventy-eighth 
year.  They  had  children :  Anna,  married  to  William 
P.  Cooper,  1838 ;  Susanna,  married  to  Moses  Pow- 
nall,  1838 ;  Susanna,  widow,  married  to  Pusey  Bar- 
nard, i860;  Phebe,  married  to  William  P.  Cooper, 
1848 ;  Sarah,  married  to  D.  D.  Linville,  1849  J  Sam- 
uel, married  to  Sarah  L.  Harris,  1855;  Asahel  (3), 
not  married;  Joseph  C,  married  to  Lucy  H.  Ell- 
maker,  1856;  Mary  Alice,  married  to  Alfred  Ell- 
maker,  1856 ;  Margaretta,  married  to  Frank  J.  Pen- 
nock,  1859;  Asahel  Walker  (i),  Asahel  (2),  and 
Asahel  (3)  successively  owned  and  occupied  an  an- 
cient stone  mansion  house  historic  on  account  of  its 
associations  with  Revolutionary  times,  and  the  no- 
torious Doane  boys. 

Isaac  Walker,  a  son  of  Isaac  Walker  (brotlier 
of  Asahel  Walker  (2)  ),  was  born  in  Sadsbury  town- 
ship. Pa.,  Jan.  27,  1808.  He  was  the  son  of  Isaac 
and  Deborah  CDickinson)  Walker,  grandson  of 
Asahel  and  Anna  (Moore)  Walker,  the  great-grand- 
son of  Isaac  and  Sarah  (Jarman)  Walker,  and  the 
great-great-grandson  of  Lewis  and  Mary  (Morris) 
Walker.  The  English  genealogy  is  given  in  the  bio- 
graphical sketch,  of  the  Walker  family  in  the  Bio- 
graphical History  of  Lancaster  county. 

Lewis  Walker  came  originally  from  the  Scottish 
border,  but  directly  from  Wales.  He  first  settled 
in  Philadelphia,  but  soon  after  purchased  one  thou- 
sand acres  from  William  Penn  and  moved  to  Valley 
Forge.    He  built  the  first  stone  house  at  the  place. 



and  it  still  stands  though  in  altered  form.  He  do- 
nated ground  for  a  Quaker  meeting-house  and  ceme- 
tery. Washington  used  the  house  for  his  quarters, 
and  the  church  was  made  a  hospital.  The  land  is 
still  owned  by  Walker's  descendants,  all  of  whom 
have  been  Friends. 

Isaac  Walker  was  married  Nov  2,  1831,  to  Eliza 
Ann,  daughter  of  Abner  and  Mercy  Kinsey  Brooke, 
of  .Sadsbury.  She  came  of  highly  respected  people, 
early  settlers  of  Montgomery  and  Bucks  counties. 
Eleven  children  were  born  as  follows  :  Anna  Maria ; 
Mary  Louisa ;  Isaac  Buchanan ;  Eliza  Josephine ; 
Mercv  Brooke ;  James  Madison ;  Esther  Jane ;  Sarah 
Frances ;  Abner  Brooke  and  Deborah  Dickinson, 
twins ;  and  Isaac  Lewis. 

James  Madison  W'alker,  a  well  known  attorney 
descended  from  this  family,  was  educated  in  the 
public  schools  of  his  home,  and  later  at  the  State 
Normal  School  at  Millersville.  He  left  school  just 
before  graduation  to  get  married,  afterward  teaching 
in  Colerain,  Bart,  Eden,  and  Drumore  townships. 
While  also  serving  as  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  Col- 
erain he  read  law  with  Alexander  Harris,  Esq.,  and 
received  much  help  from  Hon.  Judge  Livingston, 
who  gave  him  access  to  his  library  and  directed  his 
studies.  Admitted  to  practice  in  1879,  he  was  later 
on  admitted  to  the  Supreme  and  Superior  courts. 
Returning  to  the  Gap  in  1886  he  has  since  resided 
there.  He  was  a  notary  public  for  six  years,  and 
postmaster  under  President  Cleveland's  second  term. 
He  held  the  full  term,  Congressman  Brosius,  a  per- 
sonal friend  from  normal  school  days,  preventing 
his  removal.  Mr.  Walker  was  associated  with  the 
District  Attorney  in  the  celebrated  Barney  Short 
murder  trial,  Mr.  Brosius  being  counsel  for  de- 

Mr.  Walker  married  Eliza  Fawkes,  daughter  of 
Samuel  and  Phoebe  (Hood)  Fawkes,  the  father 
being  a  well  known  farmer  of  Sadsbury  township, 
and  brother  of  Joseph,  inventor  of  the  steam  plow. 
The  following  children  have  been  born  to  this  union : 
Isaac  Hampton,  an  electrician  who  died  in  Phila- 
delphia in  iQOi,  in  his  thirtieth  year;  William  E., 
farming  his  father's  farm  in  Sadsbury  township, 
a  very  fertile  hundred  acre  tract,  part  of  the  thou- 
sand acre  "Penn  Tract ;"  James  Marshall,  electrician 
at  Gap  engaged  in  electric  and  telephone  supply 
business ;  and  Joseph  Louis,  engaged  with  Town- 
send  &  Co..  of  Smyrna,  having  also  served  four 
years  as  his  father's  assistant  as  postmaster. 

Mr.  Walker  lives  in  a  lovely  home  at  the  Gap, 
spending  one  or  two  days  a  week  in  Lancaster  at- 
tending to  his  large  law  practice.  His  residence 
commands  a  fine  view  of  the  magnificent  Gap 
scenery,  the  famed  Pequea  Valley,  etc.  He  is  also 
almost  within  view  of  the  country  seat  of  his  old 
friend  ex-Attorney  General  W.  U.  Hensel,  whos? 
sketch  will  be  found  elsewhere.  Mr.  Walker  is  a 
Democrat  and  as  such  has  served  his  party  in  numer- 
ous conventions,  etc.  He  is  a  Master  Mason,  being 
a  member  of  the  Christiana  Lodge,  No.  417,  F.  & 

A.  M.  Mr.  Walker  rather  inclines  in  his  religious 
views  toward  the  Friends,  but  is  not  a  member.  He 
is  highly  esteemed  by  all  who  know  him  for  his  in- 
tegrity, kindness  and  liberality. 

DANA  GRAHAM.  Prominent  in  the  business 
circles  of  Lancaster  for  a  period  of  years  prior 
to  1888,  was  Dana  Graham,  whose  widow,  Mrs. 
Lucy  M.  Graham,  together  with  her  family,  still 
survive  him,  highly  esteemed  members  of  the  society 
of  the  city. 

Dana  Graham  was  born  in  Townsend,  Mass., 
May  9,  1821,  and  cHed  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  April  14, 
1888.  He  was  the- son  of  Samuel  and  Asenath 
(Adams)  Graham  of  that  place,  and  where  the 
parents  continued  to  reside  until  their  death.  The 
father,  who  was  born  in  Townsend,  Dec.  20,  1795, 
was  a  cooper  by  trade ;  his  wife  was  born  on  July 
19.  1802.  They  reared  a  large  family  to  maturity, 
six  of  whom  are  now  living.  Dana,  the  gentleman 
whose  honored  name  heads  this  paragraph,  was  the 
eldest  of  the  family ;  then  followed  Asenth,  widow 
of  George  Gibson,  who  lives  in  New  York  State; 
Eldridge,  of  Persia,  Iowa;  Elima,  Cynthia,  Eliakim, 
W^arren  and  Samuel  W.,  who  are  deceased ;  Samuel 
A.,  who  lives  in  California ;  George,  a  Massachusetts 
farmer ;  Martha,  the  widow  of  George  Merriam, 
Newton,  Mass. ;  and  Emily  F.,  of  Springfield,  Ohio. 
The  mother  of  this  family  was  the  daughter  of  John 
and  Asenath  Adams,  the  former  born  April  7,  1777, 
the  latter  Dec.  27,  1779. 

Dana  Graham  was  born  as  stated  and  reared  in 
his  native  town,  receiving  a  fairly  good  education  in 
the  public  schools.  In  young  manhood  he  was  ap- 
prenticed to  the  comb-making  trade  in  the  town  of 
Leominster,  Mass.,  and  where  he  remained  until 
Oct.  25,  1850.  He  then  in  connection  with  a  gentle- 
man by  the  name  of  John  Shaffner,  engaged  in  busi- 
ness in  Lancaster  Pa.,  and  which  was  continued  un- 
til the  firm  was  broken  by  the  death  of  Mr.  Shaflfner. 
Mr.  Graham  then  reorganized  the  firm  with  his  old- 
est son  as  a  partner,  and  continued  the  business.  He 
was  a  gentleman  who  took  a  prominent  position  in  the 
community,  and  his  fine  ability  was  recogpiized  by  his 
fellow  citizens,  whom  he  served  on  the  board  of 
aldermen  for  five  years,  and  in  the  common  council 
two  terms.  He  was  active,  in  the  local  political  life 
of  his  city,  having  been  a  stanch  supporter  of  Re- 
publican principles.  In  fraternal  affiliation  he  was  an 
active  and  worthy  member  of  the  Independent  Or- 
der of  Odd  Fellows,  and  also  a  member  of  the 
Encampment,  was  a  high  degree  Mason  and  be- 
longed to  the  Junior  O.  U.  A.  M. 

On  Jan.  19,  1848,  in  Northfield,  Vt.,  Dana  Gra- 
ham was  happily  joined  in  marriage  to  Miss  Lucy 
M.  Grant,  who  was  born  in  Berlin,  Vt.,  a  daughter 
of  Azariah  and  Phoebe  (Vose)  Grant,  formerly  of 
Charlestown,  Mass.,  where  Mr.  Grant  was  a  school- 
teacher; both  the  parents  passed  away  in  Ber- 
lin, Vt.  To  the  marriage  of  Dana  Graham  were 
born  the  following  children :     Ella  V.  died  in  in- 



fancy ;  Ella  V.  (2)  died  at  the  age  of  twenty  years ; 
Lina  L.  married  Joseph  Herzog,  a  liveryman  at 
Lancaster,  Pa. ;  Emma  C,  a  trained  nurse,  resides 
at  home;  John  S.  is  a  hotel  proprietor,  Lancaster, 
Pa. ;  Dana  B.  died  at  the  age  of  three  years ;  Dana 
H.  is  a  comb  manufacturer  at  Lancaster,  Pa. ;  Har- 
riet E.  died  in  infancy ;  Grant  A.  lives  in  Lancaster, 
Pa. ;  and  Charles  died  in  infancy.    Mrs.  Graham  is 
•a  lady  of  fine  mold  of  character,  hospitable  and  genial 
in  her  home  life,  and  has  been  a  splendid  mother  to 
her  large  family  of  children,  who  are  much  devoted 
to  her.     In  maternal  lines  Mrs.  Graham  is  a  direct 
•descendant  of  Robert  Vose,  who  with  his  wife,  Anna, 
;settled  in  Maiden,  Mass.,  in   1650;  his  eldest  son 
Samuel   taught   school   in    Charteston,    S.    C,    and 
-served  imdcr  W'ashington  in  the  Revolutionary  war. 
Samuel's  son.  Rev.  Robert  Vose,  a  Methodist  min- 
ister, was  Mrs.  Graham's  grandfather.     Mrs.  Gra- 
liam  is  a  leading  member  of  the  St.  John's  Episcopal 
Church  of  Lancaster,  and  is  much  interested  in  the 
•charitable  and  religious  work  of  the  church.     Both 
she  a,nd  her  family  receive  the  good  offices  of  a 
large  circle  of  friends,  whom  they  delight  to  enter- 
tain in  their  pleasant  and  commodious  home. 

PETER  J.  ROEBUCK,  M.  D.,  of  Lititz,  one  of 
"the  most  successful  practitioners  of  medicine  in  Lan- 
caster county,  is  called  "Senator"  as  frequently  as  , 
""Doctor,"  for  he  was  State  Senator  from  the  North- 
■«rn  District  of  Lancaster  county ;  and  although  now 
•completely  and  absolutely  devoted  to  his  profession, 
and  not  a  political  aspirant  in  any  sense,  he  is  still 
among  the  foremost  Republicans  of  the  county. 

Dr.  Roebuck's  grandfather  was  of  German  par- 
ventage,  and  settling  in  Lebanon  county,  Pa.,  became 
a,  prominent  farmer.  His  wife  was  a  Miss  Sholly, 
•of  Lebanon  county,  and  to  their  union  were  born  six 
•children,  among  whom  was  Jacob  Roebuck. 

Jacob  Roebuck  was  born  Jan.  14,  1807,  and  spent 
"his  early  days  on  the  parental  estate.  In  early  man- 
liood  he  wa.s  married  to  Sarah,  daughter  of  Ludwig 
^''engst,  of  Lebanon,  and  they  had  a  family  of  eleven 
•children,  all  of  whom  are  yet  living.  The  father  of 
this  interesting  family  was  in  his  more  active  days 
an  ardent  Whig,  and  became  a  Republican  in  his 
later  years ;  in  religion  he  was  a  devout  member  of 
the  Reformed  Church.  He  remained  a  farmer  to 
the  day  of  his  death,  which  occurred  Sept.  5,  1877. 

Peter  J.  Roebuck,  son  of  Jacob,  was  born  in  Dau- 
-phin  county  Dec.  10,  1838,  and  remained  with  his 
parents  until  he  reached  the  age  of  ten  years,  when 
he  entered  the  home  of  an  uncle,  that  he  might  have 
"Jbetter  educational  opportunities  than  his  native  com- 
munity presented.  When  he  was  somewhat  older 
lie  spent  two  years  in  the  store  of  John  Bruner,  and 
•six  months  in  a  store  in  Dauphin,  after  which  he 
returned  to  the  farm  to  recuperate  his  failing  health. 
After  a  time  he  resumed  his  studies,  and  finally  be- 
-came  a  student  in  the  Annville  Academy,  taking  up 
teaching  after  leaving  that  school.  When  he  was 
aiineteen  vears  of  age  he  entered  the  office  of  Dr. 

J.  Seller,  of  Grantville,  Dauphin  county,  to  prepare 
for  the  profession  of  medicine.  After  spending 
three  years  with  him  Dr.  Roebuck  entered  the  Med- 
ical Department  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  in  i860.  That  year 
he  located  at  Derry  Church,  Dauphin  county,  where 
he  practiced  his  profession  until  1867,  in  which  year 
he  removed  to  Ohio,  where  he  spent  two  years. 
After  his  return  to  this  State  he  located  at  Lititz, 
and  there  he  has  resided  to  the  present  time,  in  the 
enjoyment  of  a  practice  hardly  second  to  that  01 
any  physician  of  Lancaster  county.  In  recent  years 
his  practice  has  become  so  heavy  that  he  has  felt 
the  need  of  an  associate,  taking  into  his  practice,  in 
that  capacity,  his  nephew,  Dr.  John  Paul  Roebuck, 
a  son  of  Dr.  John  Henry  Roebuck,  a  practicing  phy- 
sician of  Bethlehem.  This  young  man  graduated 
from  the  Medico-Chirnrgical  College,  Philadelphia, 
in  1899,  going  immediately  thereafter  to  Lititz,  to 
assist  his  uncle. 

Dr.  Peter  J.  Roebuck  is  justly  regarded  as  one  of 
the  most  skilled  physicians  and  surgeons  in  his  part 
of  the  county,  and  has  established  more  than  a  local 
reputation  as  an  oculist.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Lancaster  City  and  County  Medical  Society,  of  the 
State  Medical  Society,  and  of  the  American  Medical 
Association.  In  politics  he  is  an  ardent  Republican, 
and  began  to  take  an  active  interest  in  political  af- 
fairs as  early  as  1873,  when  the  adoption  of  the  new 
constitution  for  the  State  was  under  discussion.  This 
interest  culminated  in  his  election  as  State  senator, 
and  his  re-election  the  following  election.  So  ex- 
cellent was  his  record  that  he  was  strongly  urged 
for  Congressional  honors  in  1878. 

Dr.  Roebuck  was  married,  Sept.  3,  1864,  to  Miss 
Emma  J.,  daughter  of  Samuel  H.  Thome,  M.  D.,  of 
Palmyra,  Pa.,  whose  ancestors  belonged  to  the 
Scotch-Irish  settlers  of  Pennsylvania,  early  making 
their  home  in  Lancaster  county. 

Dr.  Roebuck  is  known  as  a  generous  and  public- 
spirited  citizen  of  Lititz,  and  his  presentation  of  a 
magnificent  drinking  fountain  to  the  borough  of 
Lititz  stamped  his  character  as  a  benefactor  of  the 
town.  The  formal  presentation  occurred  Oct.  3, 
1895,  the  presentation  speech  being  made  by  A.  F. 
Hostetter,  of  Lancaster,  and  the  speech  of  acceptance 
on  the  part  of  the  borough  being  made  by  Charles 
I.  Landes,  now  a  judge  of  the  county.  An  illustra- 
tion of  this  beautiful  fountain  was  published  in  the 
Lancaster  New  Era  at  the  time,  and  a  fine  souvenir 
leaflet,  containing  the  illustration,  and  the  speeches 
connected  with'  the  ceremony,  was  printed.  The 
plot  of  land  lying  between  the  "Springs  Hotel"  and 
the  Springs  grounds  belongs  to  the  borough,  and 
Was  a  part  of  the  original  farm  of  600  acres  on  which 
the  early  settlers  established  Lititz.  An  ordinance 
setting  apart  this  plot  of  ground  for  the  fountain, 
forever,  was  prepared  by  A.  F.  Hostetter,  and  passed 
by  the  town  council  Aug.  20,  1895.  The  fountain 
is  of  bronze  metal,  and  most  beautiful  in  design.  It 
is  surrounded  with  concrete  pavement  and  curbing. 



and  the  basin  is  also  of  concrete.  Triangular  plots 
of  grass,  enclosed  with  concrete  coping,  give  a 
charming  effect,  and  three  powerful  electric  lights 
make  it  a  veritable  "thing  of  beauty."  Two  of  the 
large  posts  have  spigots  from  which  the  water  is 
drawn,  and  in  front  of  the  fountain  is  a  drinking 
trough  for  beasts.  Hidden  within  the  concrete  pave- 
ment that  surrounds  the  fountain  is  a  receptacle 
for  ice,  a  place  where  a  huge  lump  of  ice  is  placed 
on  top  of  the  water  pipes,  which  are  here  laid  in 
coils,  thus  offering  to  all  in  the  heated  term  delicious 
spring  water,  cooled  by  the  ice,  and  yet  not  touched 
by  it — carrying  out  the  highest  hygienic  principle 
for  drinking  water. 

In  1901  the  Doctor  became  one  of  the  insti- 
gators and  founders  of  the  Farmers'  National  Bank 
of  Litit7,  becoming  its  first  president.  The  institu- 
tion stands  with  a  capital  of  $60,000.  They  have 
erected  a  fine  building  for  the  business,  and  it  is  safe 
to  say  that  their  counting  room  is  one  of  the  finest 
in  the  county. 

Possessing  personal  magnetism  in  a  marked  de- 
gree, endowed  with  rare  conversational  powers,  en- 
thusiastic in  all  that  he  does,  and  liberal,  though 
firm,  in  his  acts.  Dr.  Roebuck  has  been  a  power  for 
good  wherever  his  busy  life  has  passed,  and  especial- 
ly to  the  people  of  Lititz,  in  whose  welfare  he  has 
shown  enduring  interest. 

JOHN  McCASKEY.  There  are  branches  of  the 
McCaskey  family  in  different  parts  of  Pennsylvania 
and  the  Western  States,  some  who  came  very  early 
in  the  history  of  the  country,  and  all  doubtless  of 
Scotch  and  Scotch-Irish  origin.  It  is  not  unlikely  that 
they  came  originally  from  the  beautiful  region  of 
Caskieben,  in  the  County  of  Inverness,  bordering  on 
Moray  Firth,  Scotland,  the  home  of  the  clans  Mac- 
pherson,  FrazciT,  Grant,  MacKenzie,  MacDonald  and 
■others.  The  name  comes  down  like  many  another 
from  prehistoric  times.  "Mac"  is  the  old  Scotch  way 
of  saying  "son  of,"  so  that  "McCaskey"  means  simply 
"son  of  Caskey,"  and  the  name  appears  in  both  forms 
in  many  parts  of  the  country. 

John  McCaskey  came  to  Lancaster  county  from 
Castle  Blaney,  County  Monaghan,  Ireland,  about  the 
year  1795.  His  ancestors  emigrated  from  Scotland 
to  Ireland  probably  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  before 
that  time.  He  was  the  oldest  son  and  a  freeholder, 
inheriting  through  his  father,  William  McCaskey, 
who  had  been  a  soldier  in  the  British  service  in 
America  during  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  and  was  a 
man  of  means  and  energy.  At  his  death  John  was 
left  the  responsible  head  of  the  family.  After  his 
marriage  to  Margaret  Gorman  and  the  birth  of  his 
eldest  son  he  decided  to  emigrate  to  America.  The 
family  party  included  his  three  brothers,  William, 
James  and  Hugh,  all  of  them  men  of  character,  and 
John  Henry  and  Thomas  Gorman,  his  brothers-in- 
law.  His  brothers  and  Henry  Gorman  finally  set- 
tled in  Western  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio.  He  settled 
in  Leacock  township,  near  the  old  Leacock  meeting- 

house, north  of  Gordonville  and  west  of  Intercourse. 
He  had  been  brought  up  in  the  Presbyterian  Church, 
as  became  a  good  Scotch-Irishman,  and  was  one  of 
the  prominent  men  of  this  congregation,  his  large 
family  forming  for  many  years  no  inconsiderable 
part  of  its  membership.  In  this  graveyard  he  is  bur- 
ied. In  the  same  ship  with  him  came  a  number  of 
friends,  William  Spencer  and  others,  also  of  the  Pres- 
byterian faith,  who  settled  in  and  near  Strasburg, 
Lancaster  county.  He  became  one  of  the  best  known 
men  of  his  time  in  his  locality.  His  chief  business 
was  that  of  drover,  for  many  years  upon  a  very  large 
scale.  As  drover  and  farmer  he  accumulated  what 
in  his  day  was  regarded  a  handsome  fortune.  Though 
he  never  learned  to  read  or  write  he  carried  his  large 
business  in  his  accurate  memory,  and  had  the  repu- 
tation of  being  one  of  the  most  honest  men  in  his 
community,  respected  by  everybody  as  a  generous 
man  of  stanch  integrity,  undaunted  courage,  and 
marked  force  of  character.  He  owned  two  valuable 
farms  near  Leacock  meeting-house,  one  of  them  be- 
ing his  own  home,  the  other  that  of  his  son,  William. 
He  had  ten  children,  three  sons  and  seven  daughters. 
The  sons  were  James,  born  in  Ireland,  who  was  killed 
at  the  age  of  thirteen  by  the  kick  of  a  horse ;  John, 
who  died  when  about  thirty-five  years  of  age,  leav- 
ing a  son,  John,  also  dead;  and  William,  who  sur- 
vived him.  His  daughters  were  Jane,  who  married 
Thomas  Downey,  and  had  one  son  and  four  daugh- 
ters ;  Sarah  married  John  Galbraith,  and  died  early ; 
Agnes  married  Job  Barefoot,  and  had  four  sons  and 
four  daughters :  Margaret,  who  married  James  S. 
White,  and  had  two  sons  and  one  daughter,  is  now 
(1Q03)  in  her  ninety- fourth  year,  the  only  surviving 
member  of  the  family,  and  has  for  many  years  made 
her  home  with  her  nephew,  Dr.  J.  P.  McCaskey,  of 
Lancaster ;  Mary  married  James  Whiteside,  and  had 
two  sons  and  one  daughter;  Eliza  married  Andrew 
White,  and  had  one  son  and  three  daughters;  and 
Matilda,  who  married  James  Moore,  had'  one  son. 
William  McCaskey  married  Margaret  Piersol  in 
February,  1836.  Their  children  are  John  Piersol, 
publisher  of  the  Pennsylvania  School  Journal  and 
principal  of  the  Lancaster  High  School,  who  married 
Ellen  M.  Chase,  and  has  had  five  sons  and  two  daugh- 
ters :  Joseph  Barr,  dentist,  who  married  Fannie  Con- 
nell,  and  has  two  sons  and  one  daughter ;  William 
Spencer,  colonel  of  the  20th  U.  S.  Infantry,  who  mar- 
ried Eleanor  Garrison,  and  has  had  four  sons  and 
two  daughters ;  Cyrus  Davis,  who  married  Harriet 
Bricker,  and  has  one  son  and  three  daughters ;  James 
Newton,  dentist,  who  married  Mary  Hamaker; 
Catharine  Wilson,  wife  of  James  H.  Marshall,  who 
has  two  sons  and  four  daughters;  and  Margaret 
Salome,  who  married  Llewellyn  Spohn,  and  has  two 
daughters.  The  children  of  John,  the  oldest  son  of 
William,  are  five  sons  and  two  daughters :  Edward 
William,  a  graduate  of  West  Point  and  captain  in  the 
regular  service;  Richard  Douglas,  dentist,  of  Lan- 
caster :  Walter  Bogardus,  graduate  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania State  College  and  lieutenant  in  the  regular 

The  words  of  Hail  Columbia  were  written  by  Joseph 
Hopldnson  in  Philadelphia,  in  1798,  for  the  President's 
March,  then  a  very  popular  air.  The  Star  Spangled 
Banner  was  written  in  Baltimore  in  1814  by  Francis 
Scott  Key,  and  adapted  to  an  old  French  air  long  known 
in  England  as  "Anacreon  in  Heaven,"  and  later  in 
America  as  "Adams  and  Liberty."  My  Country,  tis  of 
Thee,  writfen  in  Boston  in  1832  by  Samuel  F.  Smith, 

was  set  by  Lowell  Mason  to  the  music  of  the  old  tune 
God  Save  the  Queen.  The  words  of  Flag  of  the  Free, 
here  gi'en,  go  well  to  the  Wedding  March  in  Loheii- 
grin.  there  is  always  room  for  a  new  song  that  has  in  it 
anything  to  suggest  the  thought  of  country,  to  stir  pride 
in  the  flag,  to  quicken  the  oatriotic  heart-beat.  This 
music  is  distinctive  in  character  and  known  throughout 
the  world,  and  the  sonjr  is  already  sung  very  widely. 


Steady  Time. 

J.  P.  McCaskey. 
March  from  Lohengrin. 


FJag   of  the  Free!    fair- est   to   see!    Borne  thro' the  strife  and  the  thunder  of  war,    Ban-ner  so 

2.  Flag   of  the  Free!    all   turn  lo   thee, — Golden   thy   stars  in   the  blue  of  their  sky!   Flag  of  the 

3.  Flag   of  the  brave,  long  may  it  wave !    Chosen  of  God  while  His  might  we  a  -  dore.   High  in  the 

>.  -^  J    -^.-g-  -g- ■       S-Stlt 

CAo. — Flag   of  the  Free,     all  hail  to   thee!    Floating  the  fair -est   on    o-cean  or  shore.  Loud  ring  the 



bright  with  star  -  ry  light, 
brave !  foes  let  them  rave,- 
van,  for  manhood  of  man. 



Float  ev  -  er  proudly  from  mountain  to  shore. 

■Crimson  thy  bars  floating   gai  -  ly    on  high ! 

Symbol  of  Right  thro'  the  years  passing  o'er; 

[Final  ending.  .  ] 







cry,      ne'er  let     it    die,     "  Un  -  ion  and  Lib  -  er  -  ty    [Omit. 

]  now,ev       er-more!" 



Em  -  pire  of  jus  -  tice,  em  -  pire  of  law ; 
Matchless  thy  beau  -  ty  on  land  or  wave. 
Flower  of  the    a       ges,    fade    nev  -  er  -  more ! 

Sa  ges  of  old  thy  com  -  ing  fore-saw, 
Splendid  thy  sto  ry,  might  -  y  to  save. 
Flower  of  the    a  -   ges,    promised   of  vore, 






_-pi-.^ff-  _-g: 








Flag  of  our  fa  -  thers !  round  all  the 
Heroes  have  borne  thee  aloft  in  the 
Emblem  of  Free  -  dom,  "  Ma      ny    in 


-B«— S-«- 

tt^!^-.  .,r^ 



world    Blest  of  the  millions  wher-ev  -  er    un  -  furled; 
fray,    Foemen  who  scorned  thee  have  all  passed  a  -  way ; 
One,"  O'er  thee  thine  ea  -  gle,        bird    of    the      sun ; 







D.C.for  Chorus. 


Ter  -  ror  to  ty  -  rants,  hope  to  the  slave 
Pride  of  our  coun-  try,  hailed  from  a  -  far. 
All  hail, "Old  Glory !" hearts  leap  to   see 


Spread  thy  fair  folds  to      shield  and 
Ban  -  ner  of  Prom       ise,  lose       not     a 
How  from  the  nations  the  world  looks   to 

to         save, 

a  star, 










army ;  Donald  Gilbert,  graduate  of  the  medical  de- 
partment of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania;  one 
daughter,  Elsa  Piersol,  at  home;  and  tw^o  children 
deceased.  There  weve  seven  grandsons  named  for 
him,  the  eldest  in  each  family.  He  was  a  great  favor- 
ite vi^ith  his  two  or  three  dozen  grandchildren,  whose 
parents  were  expected  to  bring  them  all,  or  as  many 
as  convenient,  on  festal  days  to  the  old  homestead. 
The  writer  tastes  yet,  after  sixty  years,  the  cuts  of 
choice  licorice  the  kind  old  man  was  in  the  habit  of 
sharing  out  to  the  little  folks  whenever  he  saw  any 
of  them.  He  always  kept  on  hand  a  stock  of  the  best 
quality,  but  cut  it  too  sparingly,  we  thought.  There 
was  both  delight  and  disappointment  in  it,  for  it  was 
very  good  and  we  never  got  enough  of  it,  nor  were 
we  ever  at  liberty  to  ask,  like  Oliver  Twist,  for 
"more."  He  sees,  and  feels  too,  the  big,  old-fashioned 
copper  cents  that  '"grandfather"  used  to  count  out 
to  him  for  reading  the  news  of  the  war  with  Mexico, 
the  Congressional  debates,  the  messages  of  the  Presi- 
dent and  much  besides,  as  given  in  the  weekly  issues 
■of  the  old  "Dollar  Newspaper."  In  person  he  was 
a  man  tall,  well-proportioned,  and  of  venerable  ap- 
pearance. He  was  blind  in  the  last  years  of  his  life, 
but  to  the  end  directed  his  business  much  as  usual, 
keenly  alive  at  the  age  of  seventy-six  to  matters  of 
private  and  public  interest. 

JOHN  PIERSOL  McCASKEY,  principal  of 
the  Boys'  High  School,  is  a  man  well  known  in 
Lancaster.  He  enjoys  all  sorts  of  good  things, 
music,  painting,  sculpture,  literature,  the  drama,  the 
wonder  and  beaut)''  of  nature,  the  society  of  friends — 
filling  the  breathing  spaces  in  a  busy  life  with  these 
things  to  a  degree  unusual  among  men.  He  has 
worked  hard  and  long,  but  enjoys  his  work,  and  has 
made  it  his  business  to  enjoy  and  get  good  out  of 
life  at  every  turn.  Not  many  men  have  seen  so 
much  that  is  worth  seeing,  heard  so  much  that  is 
•worth  hearing,  or  done  so  much  that  is  worth  doing. 
He  touches  literature,  music,  art  work,  business, 
teaching,  the  work  of  editor  and  publisher,  with 
■equal  confidence,  good  judgment  and  success.  With 
a  wide  range  of  talent,  he  has  lived  what  Roosevelt 
would  call  "the  strenuous  life,"  for  most  marked  of 
all  is  his  talent  for  work  and  his  unfailing  enjoy- 
ment of  it. 

For  forty-seven  years  Dr.  McCaskey  has  been 
teaching  in  the  high  school  of  Lancaster,  and  the 
Saturday  holiday  has  all  the  while  been  his  day  of 
largest  opportunity.  "All  days  are  good,"  but  this 
has  usually  been  a  day  for  something  new — very 
•often  in  Philadelphia,  and  not  to  be  missed — in  con- 
cert or  play,  at  opera,  lecture  or  art  exhibition,  at 
times  for  niany  Saturdays  in  succession.  The  cost 
lie  has  thought  of  little  account  as  weighed  against 
the  pleasure  of  the  trip  and  the  profit  of  such  in- 
spiration and  culture.  This  is  one  secret  of  his 
power  as  a  teacher — his  warm  and  eager  life  in  the 
large  world  of  art  and  literature  and  music,  the  Bible 
and    the    church.     From  this  rich  experience  has 

come  endless  suggestion  for  his  morning  readings 
and  morning  talks  to  the  boys  on  all  sorts  of  subjects, 
which  are  recalled  by  many  now  grown  to  manhood 
as  perhaps  the  very  best  feature  of  their  profitable 
life  in  the  high  school.  Dr.  Thomas  H.  Burrowes 
once  said  to  him :  "You  have  the  strong  beginnings 
of  all  that  is  worth  getting  or  worth  having  in  edu- 
cation or  life.  You  can  now  go  open-eyed  where 
you  will,  and  it  depends  upon  yourself  how  far  you 
will  go  and  in  what  direction."  He  has  never  lost 
the  impulse  given  by  these  hearty  words  of  cheer 
and  ■  encouragement. 

Dr.  McCaskey  began  teaching  in  the  Boys' 
High  School  in  1855,  and,  with  the  exception 
of  one  year,  1857-58— most  of  which  he  spent 
in  the  old  Evening  Express  printing  office,  learn- 
ing something  of  the  printer's  trade  that  was 
to  mean  so  much  to  him  afterward — ^he  has  been  in 
the  school  ever  since,  in  1865  becoming  its  principal. 
The  teachers  here,  Profs.  James  C.  Gable,  Carl 
Matz,  Carl  Thorbahn  and  Miss  Mary  Martin,  have 
been  associated  with  the  school  for  many  years. 
They  are  all  people  of  strong  individuality,  of  prac- 
tical business  sense,  with  interests  outside  of  the 
school  as  well  as  in  it,  people  of  character,  energy 
and  high  rectitude,  "good  to  live  with."  The  school 
is  recognized  as  of  unusual  power  in  its  teaching 
force  and  in  its  quickening  intellectual  and  moral 
atmosphere.  There  are  many  in  this  community  who 
would  be  glad  to  know  that  the  Doctor  had  rounded 
out  his  fifty  years  of  useful  life  here,  in  one  of  the 
best  lines  of  work  in  the  world,  and  one  for  which 
he  is  especially  fitted.  He  has  the  unique  record  of 
having  been  present  at  every  one  of  the  fifty  or  more 
sessions  of  the  Lancaster  County  Teachers'  Insti- 
tute since  its  organization,  in  January,  1853,  the  first 
three  sessions  as  a  pupil  in  the  Boys'  High  School 
and  since  as  a  member  of  the  Institute.  For  more 
than  thirty  years  he  was  its  treasurer,  until  the  or- 
ganization of  the  Lancaster  City  Institute.  For  ten 
or  twelve  years  he  published  its  proceedings  in  large 
pamphlet  form  with  extended  reports  of  lectures, 
addresses  and  papers  read,  and  full  statistics  as  to 
the  schools  and  teachers  in  the  various  districts.  He 
joined  the  Pennsylvania  State  Teachers'  Associa- 
tion in  1855,  at  Pittsburg,  attended  three  or  four 
sessions  in  those  early  years,  and  has  been  at  every 
annual  session  since  1865.  Since  1866,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  one  year,  he  has  been  secretary  of  that 
body.  The  Pennsylvania  School  Journal  being  its 
official  organ,  he  has  given  such  careful  attention  to 
its  annual  reports  of  proceedings  that,  in  fullness  and 
accuracy  for  so  many  consecutive  sessions,  they  are 
believed  to  surpass  those  of  any  other  like  associ- 
ation in  the  United  States.  During  the  past  three 
years,  as  secretary,  he  has  also  issued  a  large  volume 
of  proceedings  of  the  State  Educational  Association 
and  its  departments,  which  has  been  distributed  to 
the  members,  the  edition  for  the  current  year  being 
2,500  copies.  In  this  important  work  he  has,  for 
thirty  years,  been  ably  assisted  by  J.  D.  Pyott,  an 



expert  in  reporting.  He  has  for  some  time  been 
the  "patriarch"  of  each  of  these  leading  school  or- 
ganizations in  county  and  State,  no  other  man  hav- 
ing been  an  active  nnember  for  so  many  years. 

Dr.  McCaskey  belongs  to  St.  James'  Episcopal 
Church,  has  been  for  forty  years  or  more  in  regular 
attendance  at  the  morning  service,  has  been  a  mem- 
ber of  the  vestry  since  April,  1867,  and  has  added  to 
the  memorial  wealth  of  the  old  parish  a  window,  a 
tablet  in  black  onyx  and  gold,  a  noble  granite  tomb 
and  other  memorials  in  the  churchyard,  each  a  work 
of  art  of  enduring  value. 

Dr.  McCaskey  was  one  of  the  original  stock- 
holders of  the  Inquirer  Printing  Company,  now 
the  Wickersham  Company,  and  for  many  years 
its  secretary.  He  was  also  one  of  the  original  mem- 
bers of  the  Adams  and  Perry  Watch  Company,  and 
for  twenty  years  stood  by  that  hard-fought  enter- 
prise, through  its  various  changes  and  reorganiza- 
tions, with  all  the  money  he  could  put  into  it,  being 
secretary  of  the  several  companies  organized  after 
the  first  year  or  two  of  failure  and  disappointment. 
When  the  final  crash  came  he  was  the  third  largest 
stockholder  and  lost  very  heavily — what  would  seem 
a  handsome  fortune  to  most  men.  He  laughs  and 
says  he  has,  by  this  time,  with  increase  of  value  at 
ordinary  rate  of  interest,  at  least  $40,000  buried  in 
the  foundations  of  that  great  enterprise  that  pays  no 
dividend  beyond  the  gratification  of  seeing  it  a  suc- 
cessful local  industry.  He  is  now,  we  believe,  the 
only  stockholder  in  the  new  Hamilton  Watch  Com- 
pany who  came  through  the  heroic  struggle  of  the 
old  companies  that  sunk  nearly  half  a  million  dollars 
to  make  a  good  foundation  for  the  great  and  suc- 
cessful enterprise  that  has  succeeded  them. 

The  Doctor  had  much  much  to  do  with  the  in- 
troduction of  Arbor  Day  into  Pennsylvania,  which 
has  led  to  the  planting  of  millions  of  trees,  observ- 
ing the  day  in  his  own  school  before  that  time,  pub- 
lishing in  The  School  Journal  many  articles  upon 
the  subject,  and  being  closely  associated  with  Dr. 
E.  E.  Higbee,  its  editor-in-chief,  who,  as  State  super- 
intendent of  public  instruction,  introduced  the  ob- 
servance of  the  day,  and  made  it  semi-annual.  The 
Boys'  Pligh  School,  of  which  he  is  principal,  has  for 
each  of  our  thirty-seven  consecutive  Arbor  Days  had 
its  attractive  programme  of  music  and  literary  ex- 
ercises, adapted  to  the  occasion,  each  day  planting 
more  trees  than  it  has  had  pupils  enrolled  except 
once,  when  roses  were  planted  in  memory  of  Dr.  E. 
E.  Higbee.  It  has  thus  far  planted  more  than  6,000 
trees.  He  has  all  the  while  used  The  Pennsylvania 
School  Journal  as  an  influential  agency  in  encour- 
aging this  good  work.  This  periodical,  being  sent 
regularly  to  each  of  the  twenty-five  hundred  school 
districts  in  Pennsylvania  and  to  many  superintend- 
ents, school  directors,  teachers  and  others  who  are 
centres  of  suggestion  and  influence  in  their  locali- 
ties throughout  the  State,  has  been  for  many  years  a 
leading  factor  in  creating  public  opinion  favorable 
to  tree-planting  and  forestry.     We  do  not  know  of 

any  other  publication  that  has  been  doing  better 
work  in  this  vital  direction.  His  memorial  work  in 
honor  of  Dr.  Thomas  H.  Burrowes,  Dr.  E.  E.  Hig- 
bee, Hon.  Thaddeus  Stevens,  Hon.  Samuel  Breck 
(author  of  the  School  Law  of  Pennsylvania),  and 
other  school  men,  has  been  phenomenal.  It  includes 
a  noble  granite  tomb  to  Dr.  Burrowes  in  St.  James'' 
Episcopal  churchyard  in  Lancaster;  a  massive  me- 
morial cross  to  Dr.  Higbee,  made  by  the  late  Herman 
Strecker ;  a  bust  of  Dr.  Higbee  in  bronze,  of  heroic 
size ;  some  twenty-five  thousand  life-size  portraits  of 
Dr.  Burrowes,  Dr.  Higbee  and  Thaddeus  Stevens- 
distributed  to  schools  in  all  parts  of  the  State;  a 
memorial  volume  of  tributes  from  many  loving: 
friends  of  Dr.  Higbee,  together  with  much  char- 
acteristic of  the  man  that  he  had  said  and  written 
and  done— an  extraordinary  book,  of  which  10,000 
copies  were  printed;  and  pamphlet  sketches  of  Dr. 
Burrowes  and  others,  of  which  50,000  copies  have 
been  distributed.  As  one  result  of  this  great  work, 
in  which  he  was  the  moving  and  controlling  spirit, 
there  have  been  placed  in  the  state  department  of 
Public  Instruction,  at  Harrisburg,  under  his  direc- 
tion, life-size  portraits,  richly  framed  in  gold,  of  the 
men  who  had  most  to  do  with  the  founding  and  de- 
velopment of  our  common  school  system.  The  mem- 
ory of  what  some  of  these  men  did  for  the  cause  of 
general  education  had  almost  faded  from  the  public 
mind.  He  has  brought  them  back  to  the  grateful  re- 
gard of  the  State,  making  their  faces  and  their  work 
familiar  in  the  schools  and  to  school  men.  Whatever 
deficit  there  was  at  any  time  in  the  memorial  funds^ 
while  the  work  was  in  progress,  he  supplied  as  need- 
ed, that  everything  might  be  done  promptly  and  well,. 
Thus  his  contribution  to  these  funds  amounted  to  not 
less  than  $3,000,  or  more  than  one-fourth  of  the  fund 
needed — and  in  this  in  addition  to  the  time  and  labor 
required.  But  all  was  gladly  given.  In  the  Dr. 
Higbee  and  Dr.  Burrowes  memorial  work  he  had 
invaluable  assistance  from  Dr.  Nathan  C.  Schaeffer,. 
County  Superintendents  M.  J.  Brecht,  M.  G.  Brum- 
baugh and  nearly  all  the  county,  city  and  borough 
superintendents  of  Pennsylvania.  It  is  said  to  be  the 
noblest  work  of  its  kind  "that  has  ever  been  done  by 
public  school  men  in  honor  of  public  school  men. 

For  years  Dr.  McCaskey  has  been  much  inter- 
ested in  the  line  of  good  memory  work  in  literature^ 
which  he  regards  the  best  work  that  can  be  done  in 
any  ordinary  school  of  any  grade,  and  in  The  Penn- 
sylvania School  Journal  and  otherwise  has  published 
very  widely  the  selections  memorized  weekly  in  the 
high  school,  urging  the  importance  of  this  subject 
upon  teachers  and  superintendents.  He  thinks, 
"Teachers  cannot  be  too  rich  in  wealth  of  this  kind^ 
nor  toil  for  it  too  long  or  too  earnestly.  Fair  rank 
in  the  university  of  letters  is  here  within  reach  of 
all,  v/ith  or  without  diploma."  He  has  but  one  re- 
gret in  this  connection — that  he  has  not  been  doing, 
regularly  and  persistently,  this  best  of  all  school 
work  all  his  life,  both  as  pupil  and  teacher.  Not 
being  able  to  find  what  he  wanted  for  use  as  a  text 



book  in  this  direction,  some  years  ago  he  compiled 
the  "Lincohi  Literary  Collection"  for  his  own  school. 
It  contains  over  600  favorite  selections,  and  is  pub- 
lished by  the  American  Book  Company.  It  would 
be  a  good  thing  for  the  schools  if  this  book  were 
found  in  every  school  library,  for  confident  reference 
when  good  things  are  wanted  for  reading  or  reci- 

Of  late  years  he  has  been  giving  attention  to  the 
publication  of  fine  engravings,  his  "Lincoln  Art 
Series"  now  containing  twenty  of  the. best  and  most 
satisfactory  things  for  schools  and  homes  that  can 
be  found  anywhere.  His  own  school-room  is  very 
attractive  for  its  display  of  good  pictures,  fine  Eng- 
lish art  proofs  and  others.  We  doubt  whether  it 
can  be  surpassed  anywhere  in  Pennsylvania.  A 
number  of  the  pictures  here  are  printed  from  his 
own  plates.  Of  the  "Lincoln  Art  Series"  he  has 
distributed  many  thousand  copies  to  all  parts  of  the 
country.  The  "picture  on  the  wall"  is  an  educating 
influence,  silent  but  often  far-reaching  for  good  or 
ill.  If  well  chosen,  it  may  become  a  blessing  for  gen- 
erations. The  value  of  pictures  such  as  these  upon 
the  walls  of  schools  and  homes  it  is  impossible  to 
estimate.  He  has  undertaken  to  put  into  the  new 
building  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association 
of  Lancaster  a  finer  collection  of  engravings  and 
pictures  generally  than  is  to  be  found  in  any  other 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  building  in  the  United  States.  He  is 
placing  them  there  as  a  memorial  to  his  mother. 
They  supplement  admirably  the  splendid  Cross  and 
Crown  memorial  window  which  he  has  placed  in  the 
same  building  in  honor  and  in  grateful  memory  of 
Dr.  Burrowes  and  Dr.  Higbee,  on  the  first  landing  of 
the  main  stairway.  These  things  give  to  the  interior 
of  this  fine  building  an  air  of  artistic  elegance,  lift- 
ing it  quite  out  of  the  commonplace  of  ordinary  sur- 
roundings. Of  this  window.  Dr.  Winship,  seeing 
it  when  exhibited  in  Boston,  says,  in  the  N.  E.  Jour- 
nal of  Education:  "The  central  figure  shows  an 
ecclesiastical  crown  of  sparkling  gems  surmounted 
by  a  Maltese  cross  set  with  brilliant  jewels.  It  was 
made  by  Redding,  Baird  &  Co.,  of  Boston,  who  had 
it  on  exhibition  for  a  time,  and  thousands  visited 
their  establishment  to  enjoy  the  elegance  of  the  bril- 
Hant  setting.  It  contains  probably  a  thousand  jewels, 
and  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  windows  ever  made 
in  honor  of  educators."  This  superb  window,  cost- 
ing a  thousand  dollars,  is  of  great  size,  contains 
nearly  one  hundred  and  twenty  (120)  sqviare  feet 
of  glass  surface  and  weighs  nearly  half  a  ton. 

'Dr.  McCaskey  knows  well  the  value  of  surrotmd- 
ings,  the  silent  influence  of  appropriate  mottoes  and 
well-chosen  pictures  speaking  from  the  walls,  and 
one  of  his  earliest  ventures  was  the  Lancaster  School 
Mottoes,  a  dozen  heavy  cards  printed  on  both  sides, 
which  are  still  published,  and  of  which  thousands 
of  sets  have  been  sold.  This  was  followed  by  the 
Pennsylvania  Song  Collection,  which  was  afterwards 
broadened  out  into  the  first  number  of  the  Franklin 
Square  Song  Collection,  on  the  book  list  of  Harper 

&  Brothers,  New  York,  He  issued  eight  volumes  of 
this  popular  collection,  which  has  sold  more  than  a 
quarter  of  a  million  copies  in  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  and  is  known  in  many  other  parts  of  the 
English-speaking  world.  His  latest  collection, 
"Favorite  Songs  and  Hymns,"  containing  between 
four  and  five  hundred  of  the  best  songs  and  hymns 
in  the  world,  is  published  by  the  American  Book 
Company  of  New  York.  If  he  had  done  nothing  else 
in  music  but  compile  this  one  book,  it  would  have 
been  a  great  thing  to  do.  Many  pleasant  letters  come 
to  him  expressing  hearty  appreciation  of  this  work. 
Among  others.  Prof.  Edmund  D.  Murdagh,  presi- 
dent of  the  board  of  education  of  Oklahoma,  writes : 
"Though  an  absolute  stranger  to  you,  I  wish  to  ex- 
press my  sense  of  the  obligation  under  which  you 
have  placed  the  profession  through  your  recent  col- 
lection of  songs  and  hymns.  I  have  just  bought,  for 
our  Normal  School,  one  hundred  copies,  and  we  are 
delighted  with  the  book.  I  need  not  specify  points 
of  excellence.  Every  page  is  helpful  and  suggestive. 
You  have  clone  a  great  service  to  the  cause  of  edu- 
cation.   May  I  not  tender  the  thanks  of  our  school  ?" 

In  addition  to  many  smaller  annual  song  pamph- 
lets and  song  books,  for  institutes  and  schools,  two 
dozen  or  more,  which  have  been  scattered  by  hun- 
dreds of  thousands,  he  published,  some  years  ago, 
through  Harper  &  Brothers,  a  large  quarto  collec- 
tion of  readings  and  songs,  entitled,  "Christmas  in 
Song  and  Story,"  which  the  Episcopal  Recorder  pro- 
nounced "a  perfect  cyclopedia  of  Christmas  song." 
In  the  vaults  of  the  Wickersham  and  New  Era 
Printing  Companies  he  has  thousands  of  music 
plates,  that  have  cost  more  than  ten  thousand  dol- 
lars. He  has  also  written  songs  and  adapted  words 
to  well-known  or  attractive  airs  that  have  found 
their  way  to  permanent  favor,  and  he  celebrated  the 
six  hundredth  issue  (December,  1901)  of  The  Penn- 
sylvania School  Journal  by  the  publication  of  a  stir- 
ring patriotic  song,  entitled  the  "Flag  of  the  Free," 
adapted  to  the  familiar  air  of  the  wedding  march 
from  Lohengrin.  This  work  in  music  he  has  enjoyed 
perhaps  more  than  any  other,  and  he  regards  it  as 
extraordinary  good  fortune  that  he  has  been  able  all 
these  years  to  be  in  close  touch  with  a  master  of  har- 
monv  and  musician  of  high  rank  such  as  Prof.  Carl 
Matz,  without  whose  constant  practical  help  and  un- 
failing advice  in  all  matters  relating  to  music,  his 
work  could  not  have  gone  forward  with  the  ease  and 
freedom  that  have  made  it  so  enjoyable. 

But  Dr.  McCaskey 's  most  influential  and  far- 
reaching  work  has  been  in  connection  with  The 
Pennsylvania  School  Journal,  every  number  of 
which  he  has  put  through  press,  month  by  month,  for 
more  than  thirty-six  years.  He  went  upon  The  Jour- 
nal in  May,  1866,  and,  with  his  customary  staying 
power,  he  is  at  it  yet,  busy  upon  it  day  and  night  as 
leisure  is  afforded  from  the  pressure  of  other  duties. 
It  is  now  in  its  fifty-first  volume,  the  December  num- 
ber, 1901,  being  its  six  hundredth  issue.  The  in- 
fluence of  this  Journal,  as  the  organ  of  the  school 



officers  and  teachers  of  the  State,  and  the  medium 
through  which  the  proceedings  of  their  annual  meet- 
ings have  been  made  knoAvn  to  tlie  public,  can  liardly 
be  overestimated.  The  educational  records  of  the 
State  are  found  nowhere  else  outside  of  its  fifty  vol- 
umes. The  only  complete  set  of  the  annual  reports 
of  the  State  Superintendents  of  Public  Instruction; 
the  only  continuous  record  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
Pennsylvania  State  Teachers'  Association  through 
its  fifty  sessions;  the  only  complete  record  of  pro- 
ceedings of  the  annual  sessions  of  the  City  and  Bor- 
ough Superintendents'  Association;  the  only  com- 
plete record  of  the  annual  meetings  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania State  Directors'  Association;  the  only  con- 
tinuous history,  and  the  only  one  that  makes  any 
approach  to  completeness,  that  is  now  in  existence 
anywhere,  of  the  work  of  the  Department  of  Public 
Instruction  of  the  State  since  1854,  all  the  archives 
of  this  department  of  the  State  government,  which 
had  been  carefully  preserved  for  so  many  years,  hav- 
ing-been  lost  in  the  late  fire  that  destroyed  the  Cap- 
itol building  at  Harrisburg — all  this  matter  of  great- 
er or  less  importance  is  found  from  year  to  year  in 
The  Pennsylvania  School  Journal,  and  nowhere  else. 
This  monthly  periodical  has  kept  the  record  intact 
and  beyond  the  reach  of  destruction  from  any  cause 

Dr.  McCaskey's  connection  with  The  'Journal 
has  brought  him  into  close  personal  relations  with 
all  the  State  superintendents  who  have  held  office  at 
Harrisburg  since  1854  except  one,  Hon.  Charles  R. 
Coburn,  whom  he  knew  but  not  intimately — Thomas 
H.  Burrowes,  Plenrv  C.  Plickok,  J.  P.  Wickersham, 
E.  E.  Higbee,  D.  J.  Waller,  and  N.  C.  Schaeffer.  In 
an  article  upon  "No,  600,"  he  says :  "The  writer 
went  upon  The  School  Journal  as  associate  editor  in 
1866,  and  has  put  through  press  each  one  of  the 
428  monthly  issues  since  that  time.  Dr.  Burrowes 
wished  us  to  take  hold  of  this  work  in  1865,  but  made 
the  condition  that  we  should  give  it  all  our  time, 
leaving  the  Boys'  High  School.  We  could  not  do 
this.  A  year  later  he  said,  'Come  on  your  own  terms,' 
and  laughed,  as  he  added,  'but  I  don't  want  to  write 
your  obituary.'  We  have  been  at  it  ever  since,  glad 
and  grateful  for  the  noble  field  of  opportunity  it  has 
afforded  these  many  years.  These  fifty  volumes  now 
occupy  five  or  six  feet  of  space  upon  the  shelf,  and 
make  a  goodly  showing  for  Pennsylvania  edu- 
cational interests  as  well  as  for  her  school  history. 
It  does  not  pay  any  large  return  on  the  investment, 
but  enough,  with  two  or  three  other  sources  of  in- 
come, as  school  work,  music,  and  art  work,  to  make 
ends  meet.  It  has  been  a  blessed  privilege  to  be  as- 
sociated with  it  and  its  great  work,  and  the  men  who 
have  had  to  do  with  it,  during  the  past  third  of  a 
ccnturj-  and  longer.  For  what  time  we  have  yet  to 
live  we  ask  nothing  better."  The  Neiv  England  Jour- 
nal of  Education  says  of  it :  "The  Pennsylvania 
School  Journal  has  been  in  a  class  by  itself.  No  other 
State  educational  journal  has  approached  this  in 
scope  or  in  power.    It  is  the  best  history  of  educa-' 

tion  of  a  State  that  is  to  be  found  in  all  the  land.  It 
has  always  been  admirably  edited,  has  had  high  lit- 
erary flavor,  and  has  given  not  only  important  and 
interesting  facts  concerning  school  affairs  in  Penn- 
sylvania, but  the  most  important  facts  regarding 
education  in  general.  Dr.  J.  P.  McCaskey,  its  long- 
time editor,  has  been  privileged  to  be  a  mighty  edu- 
cational force,  largely  because  of  the  opportunity 
afforded  by  this  journal  to  his  devotion  to  the  cause 
of  education  in  the  Keystone  State." 

The  most  important  work  of  Dr.  McCaskey,  as 
we  have  said,  has  doubtless  been  that  upon  The 
School  Journal,  with  its  constant  suggestion  as  to 
school  work,  its  reports  and  records,  arbor  day, 
music,  star-study,  school  decoration,  ideal  memory 
work,  improved  condition  of  school  buildings,  out- 
houses and  grounds,  etc.,  in  all  of  which  his  influence 
has  been  felt  for  a  generation;  then  perhaps  the  two 
or  three  dozen  collections  of  music  of  various  kinds 
which  he  has  published,  some  of  them  known  and  en- 
joyed in  schools  and  homes  all  over  the  land;  and 
third  in  importance,  his  life  in  the  Boys'  High 
School  for  the  past  forty-five  years.  He  holds,  both 
m  practice  and  theory,  that  a  teacher  is  an  influence 
— the  great  end  of  the  school  being  thought  and  life, 
the  growing  life  toward  mature  manhood  and 
womanhood.  There  must  be  scholarship,  but  char- 
acter is  of  first  importance.  Ordinary  school  work 
must  have  careful  attention,  but  not  to  the  exclusion 
of  other  good  things  too  often  ignored.  Therefore, 
he  had  vocal  music  introduced  into  the  Boys'  High 
School  some  thirty  years  ago,  under  a  special  teach- 
er, this  finally  extending  to  all  the  schools  of  the 
city.  Prof.  Carl  Matz  has  been  in  charge  of  the  vocal 
music  in  the  high  schools  and  Prof.  John  B.  Kevin- 
ski  in  the  lower  grades,  for  twenty-five  years,  and 
longer.  In  the  same  way,  some  years  ago.  Dr.  Mc- 
Caskey had  instrumental  music — instruction  on 
orchestral  instruments,  as  violin,  flute,  cornet,  trom- 
bone, clarinet,  oboe,  etc. — introducted  into  the  school, 
which  was  soon  adopted  by  the  school  board  as  an 
optional  branch  and  extended  to  the  Girls'  High 
School.  This  instruction  is  given  before  and  after 
school  hours.  Hundreds  have  been  busy  at  work 
here  on  musical  instruments.  Not  less  than  a  hun- 
dred boys  and  girls  are  now  under  training  with 
Prof.  Carl  Thorbahn,  and  we  all  know  the  good  work 
done  by  the  high  school  orchestra  and  orchestra 
school  on  Commencement  Day  and  other  special  oc- 
casions during  the  year. 

Dr.  McCaskey  has  been  offered  place  in  the 
school  department  and  elsewhere,  and  has  been 
urged  repeatedly  to  be  a  candidate  for  the  city  and 
county  superintendency,  but  has  always  declined 
these  positions,  his  hands  being  full  of  work  such  as 
he  preferred  to  be  doing.  Besides,  he  could  not  turn 
to  the  smaller  field  when  already  busy  in  another  so 
large,  so  attractive,  affording  constant  opportunity 
these  many  years  for  the  gratification  of  his  varied 
tastes,  and  so  nuich  better  suited  to  his  peculiar  tal- 
ents.   He  has  resolutely  declined  all  calls  for  papers 



or  addresses  except  on  rare  occasions  before  the 
county  or  city  institute,  the  State  Association,  and 
■once,  a  few  years  ago,  before  the  American  Institute 
■of  Instruction  at  Montreal.  His  work  in  the  school 
room  and  at  the  printing  office  occupying  five  days 
in  the  week,  these  calls  would  require  too  much  time 
in  the  evenings  and  on  Saturday,  which  must  be  kept 
free  for  other  things.  He  would  enjoy  such  work, 
and  would  be  glad  to  do  it,  but  there  is  no  time  for 
it.  In  his  business  his  purpose  has  always  been  never 
to  make  a  dollar  that  could  in  any  way  represent  loss 
■or  hurt  to  any  human  being.  This  thought  he  has 
•constantly  urged  upon  his  pupils.  He  could  readily 
have  been  one  of  the  wealthy  men  of  Lancaster,  for 
he  has  made  what  most  persons  would  regard 
'"plenty  of  money,"  but  that  has  not  been  the  purpose 
•of  his  life.  To  have  plenty  of  work  worth  doing, 
and  time  and  strength  to  get  it  done,  are  the  great 
things.  He  seems  content  with  either  loss  or  profit, 
as  it,  so  that  the  loss  be  not  too  heavy,  and 
thinks  "Both  are  good;  which  is  better  who  can 

Dr.  McCaskey  was  born  on  a  farm  near  Gordon- 
ville,  Lancaster  county.  Pa.,  Oct.  9,  1837.  He  comes 
•of  a  strong  ancestry,  in  which  Scotch-Irish  pre- 
dominates, other  lines  being  Douglas  of  Scotland — 
his  great-great-grandfather  being  Archibald  Doug- 
las, Davis  and  Piersol  of  Wales,  Wilson  of  England 
•or  Scotland,  Eckert  and  others  of  Switzerland  and 
■Germany.  His  mother,  the  most  blessed  influence 
•of  his  life,  was  Margaret  Piersol,  third  daughter  of 
Capt.  John  and  Catharine  (Wilson)  Piersol.  His 
forbears  on  his  father's  side  came  to  America  about 
1793,  and  on  his  mother's  long  before  the  Revolu- 
tionary war,  in  which  a  number  of  them  bore  an  act- 
ive part.  His  great-grandfather,  William  Mc- 
Caskey, served  for  a  time  in  the  Briti-sh  army  during 
the  war  of  the  Revolution,  and  his  grandfather,  John 
McCaskey,  used  to  tell  of  his  pleasure,  as  a  little 
•child,  in  climbing  upon  his  father's  knee  on  his  re- 
turn from  the  war  in  America.  His  great-grand- 
fathers, Zaccheus  Piersol  and  Gabriel  Davis,  served 
in  the  American  army  during  the  same  war,  the  lat- 
ter as  captain  and  a  member  of  the  Committee  of 
Safety.  John  P.  McCaskey  is  the  eldest  of  a  fam- 
ily of  seven  children,  six  of  whom  are  still  living: 
John  Piersol,  the  subject  of  our  sketch ;  Joseph  Barr, 
dentist,  of  Lancaster;  William  Spencer,  colonel  of 
the  20th  Regiment,  LT.  S.  Infantry,  now  in  command 
of  Fort  Sheridan,  near  Chicago,  after  four' years' 
service  in  Cuba  and  the  Philippines;  Cyrus  Davis, 
-with  the  B.  &  O.  railroad,  Philadelphia ;  James  New- 
ton, dentist,  Harrisburg;  and  Catharine  Wilson,  wife 
■of  James  H.  Marshall,  assistant  postmaster  of  Lan- 
•caster.  His  name  has  in  full  that  of  both  his  grand- 
fathers, and  he-  is  the  youngest  of  seven  grandsons 
named  after  their  grandfather  John  McCaskey,  the 
oldest  son  in  each  of  the  seven  families  being  so 
nam.ed.  His  father,  William  McCaskey,  was  a  man 
of  iron  will,  resolute  and  fearless,. of  good  practical 
judgm.ent  and  unusual  executive  force  and  ability. 

His  father's  family  belonged  to  the  Presbyterian  and 
his  mother's  to  the  Episcopal  Church.  They  at- 
tended service  regularly  at  both  churches,  the  old 
Leacock  Church  west  of  Intercourse  and  All  Saints', 
at  Paradise,  which  he  speaks  of  as  a  fortunate  ex- 
perience. He  learned  to  read  at  an  early  age,  before 
going  to  the  old  Zook  school  house,  and  was  re- 
quired to  read  daily  and  much,  often  aloud,  in  the 
Bible — the'  great  book  of  the  household — so  that  by 
the  time  he  was  ten  or  eleven  years  old  and  left  home 
for  Oak  Hill  Academy,  and  later  to  attend  school  in 
Lancaster,  he  was  saturated  with  the  history  and 
literature  of  the  Book.  This  he  regards  as  the 
choicest  blessing,  after  the  influence  of  his  mother 
in  childhood,  that  has  ever  come  into  his  life — a  con- 
viction that  grows  stronger  and  deeper  with  the  pass-, 
ing  years.  , 

In  May,  1849,  Dr.  McCaskey  came  to  Lancaster, 
and  was  for  a  year  in  the  secondary  school  on  Duke 
street,  under  a  noted  teacher,  Howard  Worcester 
Gilbert.  He  entered  the  Boys'  High  .School  in  1850, 
and  has  been  there  ever  since,  -with  exception  of 
two  years,  one  as  pupil  and  the  other  as  teacher. 
Here  the  men  who  most  impressed  him  were  Rev. 
John  S.  Crumbaugh,  a  man  of  remarkable  presence 
and  power,  and  Dr.  E.  E.  Higbee,  with  whom  he  was 
afterward  to  be  associated  so  closely  and  so  happily 
for  eight  years  and  more  of  his  memorable  service 
as  State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction.  He 
regards  these  tv/o  men  as  great  teachers,  and  to  have 
been  under  their  inspiring  influence — two  of  them 
for  one  year  each  and  one  of  them  for  two  years — 
as  the  best  good  fortune  of  his  boyhood  life  in  the 
school  room. 

In  i860  Dr.  McCaskey  was  married  to  Ellen 
Margaret  Chase,  at  Bath,  N.  Y.  Of  their  seven  chil- 
dren five  are  .still  living,  four  sons  and  one  daughter. 
Two  of  the  sons,  Capt.  Edward  William  and  Lieut. 
Walter  Bogardus,  were  on  duty  for  the  past  three 
years  with  the  21st  U.  S.  Infantry  in  the  Philippine 
Islands,  the  former  as  quartermaster  of  his  regiment 
and  also  as  depot  quartermaster  in  Southern  Luzon, 
and  the  latter  for  a  time  as  depot  commissary  at 
Calamba,  on  the  Laguna,  and  afterward  upon  the 
staff  of  Gen.  Wheaton.  Richard  Douglas  is  a  dentist 
in  Lancaster.  Donald  Gilbert  is  a  student  in  the 
Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. Elsa  Piersol  is  at  home.  Edward  is  now 
sattioned  at  Fort  Snelling,  Minn.,  and  Walter  at 
Fort  Lincoln,  N.  Dak.  Dr.  McCaskey  talks  pleas- 
antly of  himself  as  being  one  of  the  richest  men  of 
the  community  in  boys,  having  six  sons,  one  of  them 
a  young  man  in  the  Beyond;  four  manly  fellows, 
brave,  true,  capable,  generous,  doing  good  work  in 
the  world ;  and  a  foster  son,  William  S.  Gordon, 
worthy  to  stand  with  the  rest,  who  came  from  Rus- 
sia at  sixteen  years  of  age  with  no  knowledge  of 
English,  but  who  has  done  extraordinary  work  in 
these  twelve  years,  and  is  now  a  rising  lawyer  in  the 
city  of  New  York.  Each  of  the  boys,  after  graduat- 
ing from  the  Lancaster  High  School,  took  a  course 



of  training  elsewhere:  Edward  graduating  from 
West  Point  Military  Academy  in  1886,  Richard 
from  the  Pennsylvania  Dental  College,  Walter  from 
Pennsylvania  State  College,  and  Mr.  Gordon  from 
Yale  University  and  the  New  York  Law  School. 
The _  boys  Walter  and  Donald  each  took  the  two 
years'  course  on  the  Pennsylvania  Nautical  School 
Ship  before  entering  upon  their  college  course. 

In  politics  Dr.  McCaskey  has  always  been  a  Re- 
publican, casting  his  first  vote  in  i860,  for  Andrew 
G.  Curtin  as  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Abra- 
ham Lincoln  as  President  of  the  United  States.  He 
was  honored  with  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  by 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  and  some  years 
afterward  with  that  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  by  the 
same  institution  of  liberal  learning.  Each  of  these 
honorary  degrees  came  to  him  as  a  surprise.  He 
had  never  thought  of  either,  and  says  that  while  he 
has  done  little  to  merit  them  he  is  grateful  for  the 
generous  courtesy  which  awarded  them,  and  appre- 
ciates the  personal  regard  which  prompted  the 
authorities  by  whom  they  were  conferred. 

now  in  command  of  the  20th  United  States  Infantry, 
with  headquarters  at  Fort  Sheridan,  twenty-five  miles 
north  of  Chicago,  111.,  was  born  near  Paradise,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  Oct.  2,  1843.  He  is  of  a  family 
well  known  in  Lancaster  city  and  county,  two  of  his 
brothers  being  Prof.  J.  P.  McCaskey,  the  well-known 
teacher  and  publisher,  and  Dr.  J.  B.  McCaskey, 
dentist,  on  East  King  street.  On  the  side  of  his  fa- 
ther, William  McCaskey,  who  was  a  man  of  iron  will 
and  fine  executive  ability,  he  is  of  strong  Scotch- 
Irish  stock,  his  grandfather  having  come  to  this  coun- 
try about  1795.  Among  his  mother's  ancestors  are 
Douglas  and  Wilson,  of  Scotland;  Davis  and  Pier- 
sol,  of  W^ales  ;  Eckert  and  others,  of  Switzerland  and 
Germany,  all  of  whom  came  to  Penns3dvania  long 
before  the  war  of  the  Revolution.  His  great-grand- 
father, William  McCaskey,  was  a  freeholder  in  Coun- 
ty Monaghan,  Ireland,  and  an  officer  in  the  British 
army  on  duty  in  America  during  the  Revolutionary 
war.  Two  of  his  maternal  grandfathers,  Gabriel 
Davis  and  Zaccheus  Piersol,  were  officers  in  the 
American  army. 

After  removing  to  Lancaster,  in  185.1^,  the  sub- 
ject of  our  sketch  attended  the  public  schools.  In 
1859  he  left  the  high  school  and  was  an  apprentice 
for  two  years  in  the  Examiner  printing  office,  in  Lan- 
caster, until  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  war.  While 
in  this  office  he  belonged  to  a  military  company  of 
young  fellows  who  were  drilled  regularly  by  the  late 
Dr.  E.  K.  Young.  Nearly  all  the  members  of  the 
company  of  boys  who  had  been  trained  by  this  ear- 
nest drill-master  afterward  became  officers  in  the 
army.  Perhaps  the  most  noted  of  them  all,  and  cer- 
tainly the  man  who  has  seen  most  service — having 
been  a  soldier  on  active  duty  for  more  than  forty 
years — is  Col.  McCaskey. 

When  Fort  Sumter  was  fired  upon,  April   13, 

1 86 1,  and  President  Lincoln  issued  his  call  for  sev- 
enty-five thousand  men  for  ninety  days,  two  com- 
panies from  I-ancaster  responded  promptly.  The 
Lancaster  Fencibles,  Capt.  Emlen  Franklin,  of 
which  he  was  one  of  the  youngest  members,  not  yet 
eighteen  years  old,  and  the  Jackson  Rifles,  Capt. 
Henry  A.  Hambright,  filled  up  their  ranks  at  once, 
and  left  for  Harrisburg  April  19th,  within  less  than 
a  week  from  the  fall  of  Sumter.  They  were  sworn 
into  the  United  States  service  April  20th,  and  be- 
came respectively  F  and  K  Cos.,  of  the  ist  Regiment 
Pennsylvania  Volunteers.  The  first  sergeant  of  the 
Fencibles  was  David  Miles,  afterwards  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  the  79th  Regiment.  On  the  21st  of  April,, 
the  regiment,  with  two  others,  under  command  of 
Gen.  Wynkoop,  was  sent  toward  Baltimore  to  rein- 
force the  6th  Massachusetts,  which  had  been  at- 
tacked in  that  city.  Fort  McHenry  was  not  then 
garrisoned,  and  the  object  of  the  movement  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Brigade  was  to  attract  the  attention  of 
the  Baltimoreans  in  the  direction  of  Cockeysville,  in 
order  that  Fort  McHenry,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
city,  might  be  occupied  with  troops,  from  Wash- 

During  the  months  of  May  and  June  the  regi- 
ment guarded  bridges  on  the  Northern  Central  Rail- 
road, north  of  Baltimore,  marched  through  Baltimore 
to  Cantons,  thence  to  Hagerstown,  Md.,  and  later 
was  stationed  in  Frederick  City  as  provost  guard; 
after  which  it  joined  Gen.  Patterson's  army,  at  Mar- 
tinsburg,  Va.,  and  took  part  in  the  pursuit  of  Gen. 
Joseph  E.  Johnston's  army  en  route  to  reinforce  Gen. 
Beauregard  at  Bull  Run.  Gen.  Patterson's  army 
halted  at  Charleston,  W.  Va.,  and  was  at  that  point 
during  the  battle  of  Manassas.  The  regiment,  while 
at  Charleston,  volunteered  to  remain  in  the  service 
beyond  its  term  if  it  should  be  needed.  The  Fenci- 
bles and  Rifles,  who  had  all  the  while  been  conspicu- 
ous in  the  regim.ent  for  discipline,  drill  and  manly 
conduct  and  bearing,  returned  from  their  ninety-days 
enlistment  July  27th,  the  regiment  having  been  mus- 
tered out  at  Harrisburg,  and  were  welcomed  with  en- 
thusiasm by  the  people  of  Lancaster.  Nearly  all  of 
them  began  immediately  to  plan  for  re-enlistment  for 
three  years  or  the  war.  Of  the  7S,ooo  men  wha 
answered  the  first  call  for  volunteers,  but  twenty 
remain  on  the  active  list  of  the  army  (March,  1903) 
as  commissioned  officers,  and  the  name  of  Col.  Mc- 
Caskey is  the  tenth  upon  this  list  of  honor. 

Capt.  Henry  A.  Hambrisfht,  of  Co.  K  (Lancas- 
ter Rifles),  was  appointed  to  a  caotaincy  in  the  regu- 
lar army,  but  was  detached  for  the  purpose  of  raising 
a  regiment  of  riflemen  to  be  accepted  for  three  years 
or  the  war.  The  regiment  was  mustered  into  the 
service  at  Camp  Negley,  Pittsburg;,  Sept.  5,  1861,  as 
the  79th  Pa.  Vols.  Nine  of  the  ten  companies  were 
recruited  in  Lancaster  county.  One  of  these,  Co. 
B,  was  raised  by  Capt.  David  Miles,  Lieut.  Drucken- 
miller  and  Sergt.  McCaskey,  who  was  promoted  to 
second  lieutenant  Oct.  9,  1862,  the  day  following- 
the  battle  of  Perryville,  having  served  one  year  as 


Ciii.oNEi,  Twentieth  U.  S.  Infantry. 



The  Senate  passed  the  following  preamble  and  resolutions,  April  6,  1903,  which 
were  presented  by  Hon.  Milton  Heidelbaugh,  recommending  Colonel  William  S. 
McCaskey,  of  Lancaster,  for  promotion  to  the  rank  of  Brigadier  General  on  the  active 
list  of  the  Regular  Army  of  the  United  States.  They  were  approved  on  the 
following  day  by  the  House  of  Representatives : 

Whereas,  Colonel  William  S.  McCaskey,  a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  viho  is  now  in  command  of 
the  Twentieth  Infantry,  Regular  Army  of  the  United  States,  at  Fort  Sheridan,  Illinois,  enlisted  from 
Lancaster  county  in  the  war  of  the  rebellion,  as  a  soldier  in  the  First  Pennsylvania  regiment  in  1 861, 
when  seventeen  years  of  age,  and  at  the  close  of  the  three  months'  campaign  re-enlisted  in  the  Seventy- 
ninth  Pennsylvania  regiment,  serving  gallantly  in  twenty-eight  engagements  in  which  that  regiment  took 
part  from  1861  to  1865,  never  absent  from  his  company  or  regiment  at  any  time  from  any  cause,  and 
rising  from  the  ranks  to  a  Captaincy  before  he  was  twenty  years  of  age  ;  entered  the  Regular  Army 
shortly  after  the  close  of  the  war  and  rendered  important  and  valuable  service,  always  in  connection 
with  troops,  west  of  the  Mississippi  for  more  than  thirty  years ;  commanded  the  Twentieth  regiment 
with  distinction  during  the  Spanish-American  campaign  ;  reorganized  it  for  the  war  in  the  Philippines  ; 
was  appointed  for  eminent  fitness  to  garrison  duty  in  Manila,  where  for  nearly  two  years  the  regiment 
under  his  command  rendered  servige  which  General  MacArthur  pronounces  ' '  not  showy  but  of  incal- 
culable value"  ;  afterwards  under  General  Bell  in  Southern  Luzon,  where  he  contributed  largely  to  the 
success  of  that  final  vigorous  campaign,  and 

Whereas,  By  gallantry  in  action,  continuous  and  vigilant  service  for  more  than  forty  years,  great 
administrative  ability,  energy,  intelligence  and  high  personal  merit.  Colonel  McCaskey  has  honored  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania  ;  and 

Whereas,  Should  his  term  of  service  end  with  the  age  limit  of  retirement,  he  will  be  the  last 
man  on  the  active  list  of  the  Regular  Army  from  Pennsylvania  and  probably  the  last  from  the  United 
States,  who  carried  a  rifle  or  bore  a  commission  during  the  entire  period  of  the  Civil  War ;  and 

Whereas,  There  is  a  strong  desire  on  the  part  of  those  who  are  acquainted  with  his  military 
record  that  his  signal  service,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  should  be  fitly  recognized ;  therefore, 

Resolved  (If  the  House  of  Representatives  concur)  that  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  recom- 
mend to  His  Excellency,  Theodore  Roosevelt,  President  of  the  United  States,  that  Colonel  William  S. 
McCaskey,  in  recognition  of  his  services,  at  the  earliest  day  practicable,  be  promoted  to  be  a  Brigadier 
General  on  the  active  list  in  the  Regular  Army  of  the  United  States. 

Resolved,  That  a  certified  copy  of  the  foregoing  preambles  and  resolutions  be  forwarded  to  His 
Excellency,  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

— Pennsylvania  Legislative  Record. 



first  sergeant.  He  was  made  first  lieutenant  April 
lo,  1863 ;  captain  July  i,  1863,  and  was  mustered  out 
with  his  company  July  12,  1865. 

With  the  77th  and  78th  Regiments  and  a  light 
battery,  the  79th  Regiment  formed  what  was  known 
as  Negley's  Brigade  of  Pennsylvania  Volunteers. 
The  brigade  embarked  at  Pittsburg  and  was  sent  to 
Louisville  in  October,  1861,  where  it  was  reported 
to  General  William  T.  Sherman.  It  formed  part 
of  the  advance  to  Green  River,  Ky.,  and  during  the 
spring  of  1862  was  detached  and  started  to  the  relief 
of  Gen.  Grant  at  Fort  Donelson,  Tenn.  Its  services 
not  being  needed,  it  returned  to  the  Army  of  the 
Ohio.  During  the  advance  on  Nashville,  and  toward 
Shiloh,  it  was  detached  and  stationed  at  Columbia, 
Tenn.,  forming  part  of  Mitchell's  flying  division.  In 
June,  1862,  they  made  a  movement,  over  two  ranges 
of  mountains,  and  in  concert  with  troops  from  Hunts- 
ville,  Ala.,  feigned  an  attack  on  Chattanooga,  thereby 
causing  the  evacuation  on  Cumberland  Gap  by  the 
Confederates,  and  permitting  its  occupancy  by  Fed- 
eral troops.  This  was  the  first  movement  toward 
East  Tennessee.  In  September  the  brigade  retired 
to  Nashville,  with  Gen.  Buell's  armv.  and  was  known 
thereafter  as  Starkweather's  Brigade. 

After  a  year  of  hard  service,  in  which  these  mfen 
of  the  Keystone  saw  much  of  Kentucky  on  long  and 
hurried  marches,  and  were  drilled  into  a  magnifi- 
cent fighting  organization,  the  79th  had  its  awful 
baptism  of  fire  at  Perryville,  or  Chaplin  Hills,  Ky. 
In  this  bloody  engagement,  which  was  a  close  stand- 
up  fight,  without  cover,  the  regiment  lost  one-third 
of  its  strength  in  killed  and  wounded. 

Starkweather's  Brigade,  of  Rousseau's  Division, 
to  which  this  regiment  belonged,  stood  like  a  rock 
in  the  way  of  the  Rebel  advance,  and  saved  the  day 
when  the  enemy  came,  driving  everything  before 
them,  confident  of  victory.  Five  men  were  shot  by 
the  side  of  First  Sergt.  McCaskey,  but  the  shorten- 
ing line  closed  up  and  thev  held  their  ground,  bitins? 
cartridges  until  tongues  and  throats  were  so  black 
and  dry  they  could  hardly  speak.  More  than  50,000 
troops  were  engaged  in  this  desperately  contested 
battle,  the  importance  of  which  has  not  been  general- 
ly recognized.  Gen.  Bragg,  with  the  memories  of 
Shiloh  fresh  in  his  mind,  wrote :  "For  the  time  en- 
gaged, it  was  the  severest  and  most  desperately  con- 
tested engagement  .within  mv  knowledge."  Gen. 
McCook  declared  it  to  be  "The  bloodiest  battle  of 
modern  times  for  the  numbers  engaged  on  our  side.' 
Of  less  than  13.000  troops  of  the  1st  Corps  engaged, 
2,299 — more  than  one-fourth — were  killed,  wounded 
and  missing.  The  brigade  took  part  in  the  pursuit 
of  Bragg's  army,  having  the  usual  rearguard  fight- 
ing. ,  .  ,  . 

This  was  followed  bv  incessant  marchmg,  skir- 
mishing, fighting  —  Murfreesboro,  Chattanooga, 
Chickamauga.  On  Dec.  31,  1862.  and  Jan.  i,  2,  3, 
1863,  the  battle  of  Stone  River,  or  Murfreesboro,  was 
fought,  and  the  regiment  did  its  full  share  of  duty, 
whatever  was  required  of  it.     It  formed  part  of 

Rousseau's  ist  Division,  14th  Army  Corps,  under 
Gen.  Thomas.  It  participated  in  the  Tullahoma  cam- 
paign, having  several  engagements.  It  was  also> 
in  the  Chickamauga  campaign  and  was  engaged 
in  that  battle  for  two  days,  suffering  heavily. 
It  was  identified  with  Gen.  Baird's  division,  stilt 
the  1st  of  the  14th  Corps.  The  division  held, 
the  key  point  of  the  line  on  Sunday,  Sept.  21,  1863^ 
and  remained  in  line  until  ordered  to  retire. 
The  14th  Army  Corps,  under  Gen.  Thomas,  ever 
afterward  known  as  "the  Rock  of  Chicka- 
mauga," saved  the  army  from  rout  in  that  great  bat- 
tle. The  79th  also  passed  through  the  siege  and 
starvation  experience  of  Chattanooga,  from  Septem- 
ber to  November,  1863. 

The  79th  went  into  the  battle  of  Chickamauga 
with  seventeen  officers  and  350  men,  of  whom  six- 
teen were  killed,  sixty-six  wounded  and  forty- 
seven  missing,  an  aggregate  of  129.  An  inci- 
dent occurred  here  which  we  have  heard  repeatedly- 
spoken  of,  showing  the  coolness  of  Capt.  McCaskey 
in  the  midst  of  the  greatest  danger.  As  they  lay 
on  the  firing  line,  protected  by  almost  nothing  in. 
the  way  of  earthworks,  the  line  of  the  enemy  just 
beyond,  and  each  firing  to  kill  any  who  might  be 
exposed,  he  saw  that  two  of  his  men  had  been  wound- 
ed by  the  tin  cases  from  a  gun  in  the  rear  firing  grape 
and  canister  at  point  blank  range.  He  got  up, 
walked  back  to  the  commanding  officer,  then  to  the 
gun,  had  its  position  changed,  then  to  his  place  in 
the  line  and  lay  down  unharmed,  all  the  while  a  con- 
spicuous mark,  the  bullets  raining  about  him,  and' 
many  of  them  no  doubt  aimed  directly  at  him.  He 
seemed  to  bear  a  charmed  life,  for,  though  present  in 
each  of  the  twenty-eight  battles  in  which  the  regi- 
ment was  engaged  (never  absent  from  the  regiment 
at  anv  time  for  any  cause) ,  and  constantly  on  active 
duty,  he  was  never  wounded.  Bullets  cut  his  cloth- 
ing, spent  balls  hit  him,  and  he  was  knocked  dowrt 
by  the  impact  of  a  cannon  ball  striking  the  timbers- 
near  his  head,  but  he  was  never  hurt. 

In  March,  1864,  the  regiment  re-enlisted,  and 
came  home  to  Lancaster  for  a  furlough  of  thirty 
days.  Returning  to  Chattanooga,  they  joined  Gen, 
Sherman's  army  May  7th,  and  within  an  hour  par- 
ticipated in  the  first  charge  made  upon  the  enemy's, 
works  on  Rocky  Ridge,  Ga.  During  the  next  four 
months  the  regiment  took  part  in  all  the  movements- 
and  battles  of  the  14th  Army  Corps,  including  Buz- 
zard's Roost,  Resaca,  New  Hope  Church,  Kene- 
saw  Mountain,  Chattahoochie,  Peach  Tree  Creek,. 
Atlanta,  July  22d  and  28th,  and  closing  with  the  bat- 
tle of  Jonesboro,  Ga.,  Aug.  31,  1864.  During  these 
four  months  there  was  hardly  a  day  that  the  regi- 
ment was  not  under  fire. 

On  July  2ist,  1864,  Capt.  McCaskey  performed 
exactly  the  same  service  on  a  different  part  of  the 
Peach  Tree  Creek  battlefield  for  which  the  late  Gen. 
Lawton  and  the  present  Gen.  Baldwin  were 
granted  medals  of  honor.  He  led  the  charge 
of  the  regiment,  though  there  were  many  senior,  offi- 



cers  present,  and  they  were  successful  in  capturing 
the  enemy's  works.  The  79th  Pennsylvania  and  the 
2 1  St  Ohio  were  ordered  to  charge  the  works.  Capt. 
McBride,  then  in  temporary  command  of  the  79th 
Regiment,  asked  Capt.  McCaskey  to  lead  the  charge 
with  his  company,  saying  it  was  also  the  wish  of  the 
older  captains  that  he  should  do  this.  He  knew  the 
risk,  but  accepted  it  promptly,  and  led  right  over  the 
entrenchments,  several  paces  in  advance  of  old  Co. 
B,  which  followed  him  with  cheers,  the  whole  line 
rushing  forward,  as  Co.  B  set  the  pace.  They  suc- 
ceeded in  driving  out  the  enemy.  Nearly  all  the 
medals  of  honor  mentioned  in  the  army  register  are" 
for  similar  or  less  dangerous  acts  of  distinguished 
gallantry.  One  of  the  several  brevets  for  which  he 
was  recommended  was  for  this  charge  at  Peach 
Tree  Creek. 

The  79th  formed  part  of  the  ist  Division,  14th 
Army  Corps,  on  Sherman's  famous  March  to  the 
Sea,  engaged  in  the  siege  of  Savannah,  Ga.,  and  ac- 
companied the  same  army  on  its  march  through  the 
Carolinas.  engaging  in  the  battles  of  Averysboro  and 
Bentonville,  N.  C,  in  the  last  of  which  the  regiment 
lost  heavily.  In  the  latter  part  of  this  engagement 
it  was  commanded  by  Capt.  McCaskey.  This  was 
the  last  engagement  of  any  importance  between  the 
armies  of  Gens.  Sherman  and  Johnson.  The  regi- 
ment proceeded  to  Richmond  and  thence  to  Wash- 
ington, where  it  participated  in  the  grand  review  in 
May,  1865,  and  was  then  mustered  out  of  the  ser- 
vice, July  12,  1865. 

From  the  19th  of  April,  1861,  until  July  26,  1865, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  weeks  in  1861,  he  was 
■continuously  in  the  service.  He  was  prornoted  from 
second  lieutenant  to  first  lieutenant  and  from  that 
to  a  captaincy  in  quick  succession,  the  latter  com- 
mission dating  July  i,  1863.  He  was  seventeen 
years  and  six  months  old  when  he  entered  the  ser- 
vice,' and  was  a  captain  before  he  was  twenty  years 
of  age.  He  was  never  absent  from  his  company  or 
regiment  when  it  was  engaged  in  battle  or  campaign- 
ing, and  has  lost  but  one  month  from  sickness  in 
more  than  forty  years.  This  was  during  the  late  ser-- 
vice  in  the  Philippines,  when  the  doctors  told  him 
he  must  quit  or  die. 

After  the  close  of  the  war,  like  many  another, 
Captain  McCaskey  looked  about  for  something  to 
do  in  civil  life.  One  day,  early  in  1866,  Thaddeus 
Stevens,  Jr.,  came  into  the  office  of  Dr.  McCaskey, 
to  say  that  his  uncle,  the  "Old  Commoner,"  had 
asked  him  whether  there  was  any  one  whom  he 
would  like  to  have  appointed  second  lieutenant  in 
the  regular  army;  that  he  had  an  appointment  to 
make,  and  would  name  any  friend  whom  he  would 
recommend.  "Young  Thad."  wished  Captain  Mc- 
Caskey appointed,  vnth  whom  he  had  served  as  a 
private  in  the  Fencibles,  and  whom  he  knew  as  a 
brave  and  skillful  officer.  It  was  some  days  before 
a  letter  was  sent  to  him  at  Poughkeepsie,  where  he 
was  then  at  Eastman's  Business  College,  and  before 
a  reply  was  received  Mr.  Stevens  called  again,  say- 

ing that  his  uncle  must  make  the  appointment  within 
two  or  three  days.  He  was  much  surprised  and 
gratified  at  the  offer  of  a  commission.  He  had  not 
thought  of  this,  but  it  seemed  the  thing  that  fit  his 
case  exactly,  and  it  had  come  to  him  as  a  gift  from  a 
friend.  He  received  his  commission  in  the  regular 
army  April  26,  1866,  and  has  passed  through  all  the 
grades  up  to  his  present  rank.  He  has  filled  with 
marked  efficiency  every  position  in  line  or  staff  that 
was  open  to  him.  From  April,  1866,  until  April, 
1898,  he  served  on  the  frontier  in  Dakota,  Montana, 
Minnesota,  Texas  and  Missouri.  He  has  been  as- 
sociated with  troops  continuously  during  his  forty 
and  more  years  of  service.  He  was  never  on  ordin- 
ary staff  duty,  and  has  commanded  troops  and  served 
with  them  a  longer  period  than  any  other  officer  now 
on  the  active  list.  He  was  selected  for  duty  on  the 
staff  of  the  governor  of  Illinois,  and  again  on  that 
of  the  governor  of  Wisconsin,  as  Instructor  and  In- 
spector, but  was  relieved  at  his  own  request,  for  the 
reason  that  he  could  not  afford  to  live  in  a  city  with 
his  large  family.  He  has  been  on  duty  at  many  forts 
and  distant  posts  in  the  Northwest,  some  of  which 
are  now  thriving  cities.  In  1876  he  succeeded  Gen. 
Custer  in  command  of  Fort  Abraham  Lincoln,  near 
Bismarck,  N.  D.,  when  that  dashing  cavalry  officer 
started  on  his  fatal  campaign  against  the  Indians  in 
the  Big  Horn  mountains.  We  have  heard  him  say 
that  the  hardest  thing  he  has  ever  had  to  do  was-  to 
tell  Mrs.  Custer  and  the  ladies  of  the  post  the  awful 
news  of  the  disaster,  that  came  during  the  night, 
brought  down  the  river  by  a  scout  to  him  as  the  of- 
ficer in  command  of  the  post. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  Spanish-American  war 
the  20th  Infantry  was  ordered  to  the  Gulf.  It  left 
Fort  Leavenworth  April  19,  1898,  and  went  into 
camp  at  Mobile.  Col.  Hawkins  and  Lieut.  Col. 
Wheaton,  of  the  regiment,  were  both  made  brigadier 
generals  of  volunteers,  and  the  command